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Full text of "The cook's oracle : containing receipts for plain cookery on the most economical plan for private families, also the art of composing the most simple, and most highly finished broths, gravies, soups, sauces, store sauces, and flavoring essences : the quantity of each article is accurately stated by weight and measure, the whole being the result of actual experiments instituted in the kitchen of a physician"

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^.y  i  THE 

COOK'S  ORACLE; 

CONTAINING 

RECEIPTS  FOR  PLAIN  COOKERY 

ON  THE 

MOST  ECONOMICAL  PLAN  FOR  PRIVATE  FAMILIES 

ALSO 

THE  ART  OF  COMPOSING  THE  MOST  SIMPLE,  AND 

MOST  HIGHLY  FINISHED 

iBrotfis,  CSftabies,  Soups,  gbaiues,  Sbtore  fauces, 

AND  FLAVOURING  ESSENCES: 
The  Quantity  of  each  Article  is 
ACCURATELY    STATED  BY  WEIGHT  AND  MEASURE; 
THE  WHOLE  BEING  THE  RESULT  OF 

virtual  €}:pmmmt^ 

INSTITUTED  IN 

THE  KITCHEN  OF  A  PHYSICIAN. 


Miscuit  Utile  dulci/' 


Sfie  iF^urtS  Litton, 

TO  WHICH   ARE  ADDED, 

ONE  HUNDRED  AND  THIRTY  NEW  RECEIPTS, 

FOR 

PASTRY,  PRESERVES,  PUDDINGS, 

AND 

An  Easy,  Certain,  and  Econotnical  Process  for  preparmg 

PICKLES, 

By  which  they  will  be  ready  in  a  Fortnight,  and  remain  good  for  Years. 


THE  WHOLE  REVISED   BY  THE  AUTHOR   OF 

THE  ART  OF  INVIGORATING  LIFE   BY  FOOD,  &c. 


LONDON : 
PRINTED  FOR  A.  CONSTABLE  &  Co.  EDINBURGH; 

AND  HURST,  ROBINSON,  &  Co.  CHEAPSIDE. 
And  sold  also  by  all  Booksellers  in  Town  and  Country, 

1822. 


THE  NEW 

YORK 

puBir-  M- 

RARY 

-  /7^^37 

-^ 

r    ■ 

AND 

T- 

.  .GNS. 

LONDON: 
PRINTED  BY  J.   MOYt>i,  CREVILLE  STREET. 


CONTENTS. 

Page 

Preface    •• * v 

Introduction «-...^  ....  ....-*. i 

Culinary  Curiosities  • •  33 

Invitations  to  Dinner 38 

Carving • • •  •  •  •  49 

Friendly  Advice  to  Cooks  •  •  - 54 

Table  of  Weights,  &c. •  - 83 

RUDIMENTS  OF  COOKERY. 

Chapter  1.  Boiling .-...•.  85 

Baking 92 

2.  Roasting 95 

3.  Frying  •  •  * 104 

4.  Broiling 107 

5.  Vegetables   •  109 

6.  Fish 113 

7.  Broths  and  Soup 117 

8.  Gravies  and  Sauces* 133 

9.  Made  Dishes   141 

Receipts 143 

Marketing  Tables • 463 

APPENDIX. 

Pastry,  Confectionary,  Preserves,  &c.' . .  --  * 469 

Bread,  &c. 508 

Observations  on  Puddings  and  Pies oil 

Pickles ►. . .  - 520 

Index 527 


THE  ART 

OF  INVIGORATING  AND  PROLONGING 

LIFE, 

BY 

FOOD,  CLOTHES,  AIR,  EXERCISE,  WINE,  SLEEP,  &t. 

AND 

PEPTIC   PRECEPTS, 

POINTING   OUT 

AGREEABLE  AND  EFFECTUAL  METHODS 

TO   PREVENT  AND  RELIEVE 

INDIGESTION, 

AND    TO 

REGULATE  AND  STRENGTHEN  THE  ACTION 

OP    THE 

STOMACH  AND  BOWELS. 

Suaviter  in  modo,  fortiter  in  re. 

TO    WHICH    IS    ADDED, 

THE  PLEASURE  OF  MAKING  A  WILL. 

Finis  coronat  opae. 


BY 

THE  AUTHOR  OF  ''  THE  COOK'S  ORACLE, 

4-C.     4;C.     4-C. 
THIRD  EDITION,  ENLARGED. 


LONDON : 

PRINTED  rOR  HURST,  ROBINSON,  AND  CO. 

AND  A.  CONSTABLE  AND  CO.  EDINBURGU. 

1822. 


PREFACE 


TO 


THE  THIRD  EDITION. 


Among  the  multitude  of  causes  which  concur  to 
impair  Health,  and  produce  Disease,  the  most 
general  is  the  improper  quality  of  our  Food : 
this,  most  frequently,  arises  from  the  injudicious 
manner  in  which  it  is  prepared; — yet,  strange, 
"  passing  strange,"  this,  is  the  only  one,  for  which 
a  remedy  has  not  been  sought; — and  few  persons 
bestow  half  so  much  attention  on  the  preservation 
of  their  own  Health,  —  as  they  daily  devote  to 
that  of  their  Dogs  and  Horses. 

The  observations  of  the  Guardians  of  Health 
respecting  Regimen,  &c.  have  formed  no  more 
than  a  Catalogue  of  those  articles  of  Food,  which 
they  have  considered  most  proper  for  particular 
Constitutions. 

Some  Medical  writers,  have  "  in  good  set  terms" 
warned  us  against  the  pernicious  effects  of  im- 
a3 


VI  PREFACE. 

proper  Diet;  but  —  not  One,  has  been  so  kind, 
as  to  take  the  trouble  to  direct  us  how  to  pre- 
pare Food  properly. 

The  Editor,  has  endeavoured  to  write  the  fol- 
lowing Receipts  so  plainly,  that  they  may  be  as 
easily  understood  in  the  Kitchen  as  He  trusts  they 
will  be  relished  in  the  Dining  Room  —  and  has 
been  more  ambitious  to  present  to  the  Public,  a 
Work  which  will  contribute  to  the  daily  Comfort 
of  All  —  than  to  seem  elaborately  Scientific. 

The  practical  part  of  the  philosophy  of  the 
Kitchen,  is  certainly  not  the  most  agreeable  ;  — 
Gastrology  has  to  contend  witli  its  full  share  of 
those  great  impediments  to  all  great  improve- 
ments in  scientific  pursuits,  —  the  prejudices  of 
the  Ignorant,  —  and  the  misrepresentations  of 
the  Envious 

The  Sagacity  to  comprehend  and  estimate  the 
importance  of  uncontemplated  improvement  —  is 
confined  to  the  very  few,  on  whom  Nature  has 
bestowed  a  sufficient  degree  of  perfection  of  the 
Sense  which  is  to  measure  it;  —  the  candour  to 
make  a  fair  report  of  it  is  still  more  uncommon, — 
and  the  kindness  to  encourage  it — cannot  often  be 
expected  from  those,  whose  most  vital  interest  it 
is,  to  prevent  the  developement  of  that,  by  which. 


PREFACE.  VU 


their  own  importance  —  perhaps  their  only  means 
of  Existence  —  maybe  forever  eclipsed  —  so  as 
Pope  says  — 

"  All  fear, — None  aid  you,— and  Few  understand." 

Improvements  in  Agriculture  and  the  Breed  of 
Cattle  have  been  encouraged  by  Premiums ;  — 
(see  Note  under  (No.  19.)  and  under  (No.  59.) 
Those  who  have  obtained  them,  have  been  hailed 
as  benefactors  to  Society, — but  the  Art  q/' making 
use  of  these  means  of  ameliorating  Life,  and 
supporting  a  healthy  Existence  —  Cookery,  has 
been  neglected. 

While  the  cultivators  of  the  raw  materials  are 
distinguished  and  rewarded,  —  the  attempt  to 
improve  the  processes,  without  which,  neither 
Vegetable  nor  Animal  substances  are  fit  for  the 
food  of  Man  (astonishing  to  say),  has  been 
ridiculed, — as  unworthy  the  attention  of  arational 
Being ! ! ! 

This  most  useful*  Art,  —  which  the  Editor  has 
chosen  to  endeavour  to  illustrate,  because  nobody 
else  has — and  because  he  knew  not  how  he  could 
employ    some   leisure    hours   more   beneficially 

*  "  The  only  test  of  the  utility  of  Knowledge,  is  its  promoting  the 
happiness  of  mankind." — Dr.  Stark  on  Diet,  p.  90. 


Vlll  PREFACE. 

for  Mankind, — than  to  teach  them  to  combine  the 
"  ntiW  with  the  *'  duke/'  and  to  increase  their 
pleasures,  without  impairing  their  Health  or  im- 
poverishing their  Fortune  —  has  been  for  many 
Years  his  favorite  employment,  and  *'  The  Art 

OF  INVIGORATING  AND  PROLONGING  LiFE*  BY 

DiET  AND  Regimen,"&c.  and  this  Work, — have 
insensibly  become  repositories,  for  whatever  Ob- 
servations he  has  made,  which  he  thought  would 
make  us  —  Live  happy,  and  Live  long. 

The  Editor  has  considered  the  Art  of 
Cookery,  not  merely  as  a  mechanical  operation, 
fit  only  for  working  Cooks — but  as  the  Analeptic 
part  of  the  Art  of  Phi/sic, 

"  How  best  the  fickle  fabric  to  support 
"  Of  mortal  man,  —  in  healthful  body  how 
*'  A  healthful  mind,  the  longest  to  maintain,'"" 

Armstrong. 

is  an  Occupation  —  neither  unbecoming  nor  un- 
worthy. Philosophers  of  the  highest  class  : — such 
only,  can  comprehend  its  Importance,  —  which 
amounts  to  no  less,  than  not  only  the  enjoyment 
of  the  present  moment,  but  the  more  precious 


*  A  new  Edition  of  this  Is  just  published,  by  Hurst,  Robinson, 
and  Co.  Cheapside,  and  A.  Constable  and  Co.  Edinburgh. 


PREFACE.  IX 

advantage,  of  improving  and  preserving  Health, 
and  prolonging  Life — which  depend  on  duly 
replenishing  the  daily  waste  of  the  human  frame 
with  materials  which  are  pregnant  with  Nutri- 
ment, and  easy  of  Digestion. 

If  Medicine  be  ranked  among  those  Arts  which 
dignify  their  Professors — Cookery  may  lay  claim 
to  an  equal,  if  not  a  superior  distinction  ;  —  to 
prevent  Diseases, — is  surely  a  more  advantageous 
Art  to  Mankind,  than  to  cure  them.  "  Physi- 
cians should  be  good  Cooks,  at  least  in  Theory." — 
Dr.  Mandeville  on  Hypochondriasis,  p.  316. 

The  learned  Dr.  Arbuthnot  observes  in  page  3 
of  the  preface  to  his  Essay  on  ylliment,  that  *'  the 
choice  and  measure  of  the  materials  of  which  our 
Body  is  composed,  and  what  we  take  daily  by 
Pounds,  is  at  least  of  as  much  importance,  as 
what  we  take  seldom,  and  only  by  grains  and 
spoonsful." 

Those  in  whom  the  Organ  of  Taste  is  obtuse, — 
or  who  have  been  brought  up  in  the  happy  habit 
of  being  content  with  humble  fare, — whose  Health 
is  so  firm,  that  it  needs  no  artificial  adjustment ; 
who  with  the  appetite  of  a  Cormorant,  have  the 
digestion  of  an  Ostrich,  —  and  eagerly  devour 
whatever  is  set  before  them,  without  asking  any 


X  PREFACE. 

questions  about  what  it  is,  or  how  it  has  been 
prepared — may  perhaps  imagine  that  the  Editor 
has  sometimes  been  rather  overmuch  refining  the 
business  of  the  Kitchen. 

"  Where  Ignorance  is  bliss, — 'tis  Folly  to  be  wise." 

But,  few  are  «o  fortunate,  as  to  be  trained  up  to 
understand  how  well  it  is  worth  their  while  to 
cultivate  sutli  habits  of  Spartan  forbearance, — we 
cannot  perform  our  duty  in  registering  wholesome 
precepts,  in  a  higher  degree — than  by  disarming 
Luxury  of  its  sting — and  making  the  refinements 
of  Modern  Cookery,  minister  not  merely  to  sen- 
sual gratification, — but  at  the  same  time  suppoit 
the  substantial  excitement  of  '*  mens  sana,  in 
corpore  sano." 

The  Delicate  and  the  Nervous,  who  have  un- 
fortunately a  sensitive  palate,  and  have  been 
accustomed  to  a  luxurious  variety  of  savoury 
Sauces,  and  highly  seasoned  Viands  —  Those 
who  from  the  infirmity  of  age  are  become  inca- 
pable of  correcting  habits,  created  by  absurd 
indulgence  in  Youth,  are  entitled  to  some  con- 
sideration —  and  for  their  sake,  —  the  Elements 
of  Opsology  are  explained  in  the  most  intelligible 
manner. 


PREFACE.  XI 

By  reducing  Culinary  operations  to  something 
like  a  certainty,  an  Invalid  will  be  less  indebted 
to  chance,  or  the  caprice  of  careless  attendants, 
&c.  whether  he  shall  recover  —  and  Live  long, 
and  comfortably  —  or  speedily — Die  of  Starva- 
tion in  the  midst  of  Plenty. 

These  Rules  and  orders  for  the  regulation  of  the 
business  of  the  Kitchen,  have  been  extremely  be- 
neficial to  the  Editor's  own  Health  and  Comfort. — 
He  hopes  they  will  be  equally  so  to  others, — 
they  will  help  those  who  enjoy  Health,  to  preserve 
it  —  teach  those  who  have  delicate  and  irritable 
Stomachs,  how  to  keep  them  in  good  temper  — 
and  with  a  little  discretion  enable  them  to  indulge 
occasionally,  not  only  with  impunity,  but  with 
advantage,  in  all  those  alimentary  pleasures  which 
a  rational  Epicure*  can  desire. 

There  is  no  Question  more  frequently  asked  — 
or  which  a  Medical  man  finds  more  difficulty  in 
answering  to  the  satisfaction  of  himself  and  his 
Patient,  than  —  If  hat  do  you  wish  me  to  eat  ? 

The  most  judicious  choice  of  Aliment  will  avail 
nothing,  unless  the  Culinary  preparation  of  it  be 


*  For  the  Editor's  definition  of  this  terra,  see  the  note  in  page  5 
of  the  following  Introduction. 


XU  PREFAdE. 

equally  judicious.  —  How  often  is  the  skill  of  a 
pains-taking  Physician  counteracted  by  want  of 
corresponding  attention  to  the  preparation  of 
Food  —  and  the  poor  Patient,  instead  of  deriving 
Nourishment — is  distressed  by  Indigestion. 

Parmentier,  in  his  Code  Pharmaceutique,  has 
given  a  chapter  on  the  preparation  of  Food  — 
some  of  the  following  Receipts,  are  offered  as  an 
humble  attempt  to  form  a  sort  of  Appendix 
TO  THE  Pharmacopceia  —  like  pharmaceutic 
pre.scriptions  they  are  precisely  adjusted  by  weight 
and  measure,  —  and  in  future,  by  ordering  such 
Receipts  of  the  Cook's  Oracle  as  appearadapted 
to  the  case  —  the  recovery  of  the  patient  and  the 
credit  of  the  Physician,  as  far  as  relates  to  the 
administration  of  Aliment,  —  need  no  longer  — 
depend  on  the  discretion  of  the  Cook.  —  For  in- 
stance :  Mutton  Broth,  (No.  490  or  564) ;  Toast  and 
Water,  (No.  463) ;  Water  Grml,  (No.  572) ;  Beef 
Tea,  (No.  563) ;  and  Portable  Soup,  (No.  252). 
This  concentrated  Essence  of  Meat — will  be  found 
a  great  acquisition  to  the  comfort  of  the  Army  — 
the  Navy  —  the  Traveller  —  and  the  Invalid  —  by 
dissolving  half  an  ounce  of  it  in  half  a  pint  of 
hot  water,  you  have  in  a  few  minutes,  half  a  Pint 
of  good  Broth  for  three  halfpence. 


PREFACE.  XIU 

He  has  also  circumstantially  detailed,  the 
easiest,  least  expensive,  and  most  salubrious 
methods  of  preparing  those  highly  finished  Soups 
—Sauces — Ragouts — and  piquante  relishes,  which 
the  most  ingenious  "  Officers  of  the  Mouth," 
have  invented  for  the  amusement  of  thorough 
bred  "  Grands  Gourmands'' 

It  has  been  his  Aim,  —  to  render  Food  accept- 
able to  the  Palate,  v^^ithout  being  expensive  to  the 
P.urse,  or. offensive  to  the  Stomach  —  nourishing 
without  being  inflammatory,  and  savoury  without 
being  surfeiting,  —  constantly  endeavouring  to 
hold  the  balance  even,  between  the  agreeable  and 
the  wholesome — the  Epicure  and  the  Economist. 

In  this  Third  Edition,  which  is  almost  entirely 
re-written, — He  has  not  printed  one  Receipt  —  that 
has  not  been  proved  in  His  own  Kitchen  —  which 
has  not  been  approved  by  several  of  the  most 
accomplished  Cooks  in  this  Kingdom  —  and  has 
moreover,  been  eaten  with  unanimous  applause 
by  a  Committee  of  Taste,  composed  of  some  of  the 
most  illustrious  Gastropholists  of  this  luxurious 
Metropolis. 

The  Editor  h^^  beeo  materially  assisted  ly 
Mr.  Henry  Osborj^e,  the  excellent  Cook  to 
the  late   Sir  Joseph   Banks:  — that  woithy 


XIV  PREFACE. 

President  of  the  Royal  Society,  was  so  sensible 
of  the  importance  of  the  subject  the  Editor  was 
investigating  —  that  He  sent  his  Cook  to  assist 
him  in  his  arduous  task  —  and  many  of  the 
Receipts  in  this  Third  Edition,  are  much  improved 
by  his  suggestions  and  corrections.  See  (No. 
560.) 

This  is  the  only  English  Cookery  Book  which 
has  been  written  from  the  Real  Experiments  of 
a  Housekeeper,  for  the  benefit  of  House- 
keepers,—  which  the  reader  will  soon  perceive, 
by  the  minute  attention  that  has  been  employed 
to  elucidate  and  improve  the  Art  of  Plain 
Cookery, — detailing  many  particulars  and  pre- 
cautions, which  may  at  first  appear  frivolous — 
but  which  experience  will  prove  to  be  essential — 
to  teach  a  common  Cook  how  to  provide,  and  to 
prepare  common  Food — so  frugally,  and  so  per- 
fectly, that  the  plain  Family  Fare  of  the  most 
Economical  Housekeeper,  may  with  scarcely 
any  additional  trouble  —  be  a  satisfactory  Enter- 
tainment for  an  Epicure  or  an  Invalid. 

To  facilitate  which.  He  has  at  the  end  of  his 
work  given  Marketing  Tables,  showing  the 
tine  of  the  year,  when  the  several  kinds  of  Fish 
' — Poultry  —  and  Vegetables  —  are  Cheapest. 


PREFACE.  XV 

By  an  attentive  consideration  of  "  the 
Rudiments  of  Cookery,"  and  the  respective 
Receipts — the  vaost  ignorant  Novice  in  the  business 
of  the  Kitchen  —  may  work  with  the  utmost 
facility  and  certainty  of  success,  —  and  soon 
become  a  Good  Cook. 

Will  all  the  other  Books  of  Cookery  that  ever 
were  printed  do  this  ?  —  To  give  his  readers  an 
opportunity  of  applying  the  test  of  comparison, 
he  has  given  a  list  of  upwards  of  Two  Hundred 
Cookery  Books,  (see  page  24)  —  which  he  pa- 
tiently pioneered  through,  before  he  set  about  re- 
cording these  results  of  his  own  Experiments  ! ! ! 

Store  Sauces  and  many  articles  of  Domestic 
Comfort,  which  are  extravagantly  expensive  to 
purchase,  and  can  very  seldom  be  procured 
genuine  —  He  has  given  plain  directions  how  to 
prepare  at  Home  —  of  infinitely  finer  flavour,  and 
considerably  cheaper  than  they  can  be  obtained 
ready-made  :  —  for  example. 

Mushroom  Catsup,  (No.  439.) 
Essence  of  Celery,  (No.  409.) 

Anchovy,  (No.  433.) 

■ Sweet  Herbs,  (No.  417.) 

-~ Lemon  Peel,  (No.  408.) 


XVI  PREFACE. 

Essence  of  Savoury  Spice,  (No.  421,  and  457, 
4:39,  460.) 

Ginger,  (No.  411.) 

Cayenne  Pepper,  (No.  404.) 
Curry  Powder,  (No.  456.) 
EsHALLOT  Wine,  (No.  402.) 
Portable  Soup,  (No.  252.) 
Pickles,  &c.,  &c.,  &c.,  and  see  page  119. 

Thus,  the  table  of  the  most  economical  Family 
may,  by  the  help  of  this  Book  —  be  served  with 
as  much  delicacy  and  salubrity,  as  that  of  a 
Sovereign  Prince. 


PREFACE 


TO 


THE  FOURTH  EDITION. 


lo  this  Fourth  Edition  are  added  One  Hun- 
dred and  Thirty  New  Receipts,  which  will  greatly 
improve  the  Comfort  and  Economy  of  all,  es- 
pecially of  Catholic  Families; — being  the 
best  methods  of  making: 

Omelettes, 

Puddings, 

Maigre  and  Savoury  Pasties, 

Maigre  and  Savoury  Patties, 

Preserves, 

Tarts, 

Cakes, 

and  the  general  business  of 

The  Pastry  Cook  and  the  Baker. 
Also  an  easy  and  economical  Process  for  preparing 

Pickles ; 
by  which  they  will  be  ready  in  a  fortnight,  and 
remain  good  for  Years. 


XVllI  PREFACE. 

The  Editor  hopes  that  in  these  New  Receipts, 
the  quantities  of  the  various  articles,  and  the 
processes  for  compounding  them,  are  described 
so  accurately  and  so  plainly,  —  that  the  most 
inexperienced  person  may  work  from  them  :  but 
he  does  not  vouch  for  all  those  new  Receipts,  — 
as  some  of  them  have  not  yet  been  proved  in  his 
own  kitchen. 


INTRODUCTION, 


The  following  Receipts  are  not  a  mere  marrowless 
collection  of  shreds,  and  patches,  and  cuttings,  and 
pastings  ;  — but  a  boftdfide  register  of  Practical  Facts, — 
accumulated  by  a  perseverance  not  to  be  subdued,  or 
evaporated,  by  the  igniferous  terrors  of  a  Roasting 
Fire  in  the  Dog-days, —  in  defiance  of  the  odoriferous 
and  califacient  repellents,  of  Roasting,  —  Boiling,  — 
Frying,  —  and  Broiling: — moreover,  the  author  has 
submitted  to  a  labour  no  preceding  Cookery-Book- 
maker,  perhaps,  ever  attempted  to  encounter  —  having 
eaten  each  Receipt,  before  he  set  it  down  in  his  book. 

They  have  all  been  heartily  welcomed  by  a  suffi- 
ciently well  educated  Palate,  and  a  rather  fastidious 
Stomach ;  —  perhaps  this  certificate  of  the  reception  of 
the  respective  preparations  —  will  partly  apologize  for 
the  Book  containing  a  smaller  number  of  them,  than 
preceding  writers  on  this  gratifying  subject,  have 
transcribed,  —  for  the  amusement  of  "  every  man's 
Master,"  the  STOMACH*. 


*  "  The  Stomach  is  the  Grand  Organ  of  the  human  system,  upon  the 
state  of  whi<'h,  all  the  powers  and  feelings  of  the  Individual  depend." — See 
Hunter's  Culina,  p.  13. 

"  The  faculty  the  Stomach  has  of  communicating  the  impressions  made 

by  the  various  substances  that  are  put  into   it,  is  such,  that  it  seems  more 

like  a  nervous  expansion  from  Ihe  Brain,  than  a  mere  receptacle  for  Food." — 

Dr.  WATEiiHoi;st's  Lecture  on  Health,  p.  4. 

B 


2  INTRODUCTION. 

Numerous  as  are  the  Receipts  in  former  Books,  they 
vary  little  from  each  other,  except  in  the  name  given 
to  them  ;  the  processes  of  Cookery  are  very  few,  —  I 
have  endeavoured  to  describe  each,  in  so  plain  and 
circumstantial  a  manner,  as  I  hope  will  be  easily  un- 
derstood, even  by  the  Amateur,  who  is  unacquainted 
with  the  practical  part  of  Culinary  concerns. 

Old  Housekeepers  may  think  1  have  been  tediously 
minute  on  many  points,  which  may  appear  trifling ;  — 
ray  Predecessors  seem  to  have  considered  the  Rudi- 
ments OF  Cookery  quite  unworthy  of  attention. 
These  little  delicate  distinctions,  constitute  all  the 
difference  between  a  common  and  an  elegant  Table, 
and  are  not  trifles  to  the  Young  Housekeeper,  who 
must  learn  them  either  from  the  communication  of 
ethers,  —  or  blunder  on  till  his  own  slowly-accumulating 
and  dear-bought  experience  teaches  him. 

A  wish  to  save  Time,  Trouble,  and  Money,  to  inex- 
perienced Housekeepers  and  Cooks, — and  to  bring  the 
enjoyments  and  indulgencies  of  the  Opulent  within 
reach  of  the  middle  Ranks  of  Society, — were  my  motives 
for  publishing  this  book;  —  I  could  accomplish  it,  only 
by  supposing  the  Reader,  (when  he  first  opens  it,)  to 
be  as  ignorant  of  Cookery, — as  I  was  when  I  first 
thought  of  writing  on  the  subject*. 

*  "  De  toutes  les  Connaissancesuecessaires  ^rhumanite  souffrante;  la  plus 
agreable,  la  plus  importante  a  la  conservation  dcs  hommes,  et  a  la  perpetuite 
de  mutes  Ics  jouissances  de  la  nature,  c'est  la  parfaite  connalssance  des 
alimens  destines  a  former  notre  constitution,  a  fortifier  tous  nos  membres,  a 
ranimer  ces  organes  destines  k  la  perfection  des  sens,  et  a  6tre  les  mediateurs 
des  talens,  de  I'esprjt,  du  genie,  &c.  &c. 

"  C'est  du  sue  exprime  de  nos  flnides  alimentaires,  qu'est  forme  le  tissu  do 
uotre  frele  machine;  c'est  au  chyle  qui  en  provient,  que  notre  sang,  noa 
chairs,  nos  nerfs,  nos  organes,  et  tous  nos  seni,  doivent  leur  existence  et  leur 
seusibilite." 


INTRODUCTION.  6 

I  have  done  my  best  to  contribute  to  the  comfort  of 
my  fellow-creatures:  —  by  a  careful  attention  to  the 
directions  herein  given,  the  most  ignorant  may  easily 
learn  to  prepare  Food — not  only  in  an  agreeable 
and  wholesome, — but  in  an  elegant  and  economical 
manner. 

This  task,  seems  to  have  been  left  for  me,  and  I 
have  endeavoured  to  collect  and  communicate  in  the 
clearest  and  most  intelligible  manner,  the  whole 
of  the  heretofore  abstruse  Mysteries  of  the  Culinary 
Art;  which  are  herein,  1  hope,  so  plainly  developed, 
that  the  most  inexperienced  student  in  the  occult  Art  of 
Cookery,  f?2ai/  work  from  my  Receipts,  with  the  utmost 
JhciUty . 

I  am  perfectly  aware  of  the  extreme  difficulty,  of 
teaching  those  who  are  entirely  unacquainted  with  the 
subject,  and  of  explaining  my  ideas  effectually  by  mere 
Receipts,  to  those  who  never  shook  hands  with  a 
Stew-pan. 

In  my  anxiety  to  be  readily  understood,  —  I  have 
perhaps  been  under  the  necessity  of  occasionally  re- 
peating the  same  directions,  in  different  parts  of  the 
book :  but  I  would  rather  be  censured  for  repetition, 
than  for  obscurity,  —  and  hope  I  shall  not  be  accused 
of  Affectation,  while  my  intention  is  Perspicuity. 

Our  neighbours  in  France,  are  so  justly  famous  for 
their  skill  in  the  affairs  of  the  Kitchen,  that  the  adage 
says,  "  As  many  French?jien,  as  many  Cooks  ;"  surrounded 
as  they  are  by  a  profusion  of  the  most  deUcious  Wines, 
and  seducing  Liqueurs  offering  every  temptation  to 
render  drunkenness  delightful,  yet  a  tippling  French- 
man is  a  "  rara  avis." 

b2 


4  INTRODUCTION. 

They  know  how  so  easily  to  keep  Life  in  sufficient 
repair  by  good  eating,  that  they  require  httle  or  no 
screwing  up  with  hquid  Stimuh.  —  This  accounts  for 
that  **  toujours  gai,"  and  happy  equihbrium  of  the  ani- 
nial  spirits,  which  they  enjoy  with  more  regularity  than 
any  people:  —  their  elastic  Stomachs,  unimpaired  by 
Spirituous  Liquors,  digest  vigorously,  the  food  they 
sagaciously  prepare  and  render  easily  assimilable,  by 
cooking  it  sufficiently, — wisely  contriving  to  get  half 
the  work  of  the  Stomach  done  by  Fire  and  Water, 
till-^ 

"  The   tender  morsels  on  the  palate  melt, 
"  And  all  the  force  of  Cookery  is  felt." 

See  Nos.  5  and  238,  &c. 

The  cardinal  virtues  of  Cookery,  "  cleanliness, 

FRUGALITY,  NOURISHMENT,  AND  PA  LATEABLENESS," 

preside  over  each  preparation  ;  for  I  have  not  presumed 
to  insert  a  single  composition,  without  previously 
obtaining  the  "  imprimatur"  of  an  enlightened  and  in- 
defatigable "  COMMITTEE  OF  TASTE,"  {composed 
of  thorough-bred  grands  gourmands  of  the  first 
magnitude,)  whose  cordial  co-operation  1  cannot  too 
highly  praise ;  and  here  do  I  most  gratefully  record 
the  unremitting  zeal  they  manifested  during  their 
arduous  progress  of  proving  the  respective  Recipes, — 
they  were  so  truly  philosophically  and  disinterestedly 
regardless  of  the  wear  and  tear  of  teeth  and  stomach, 
that  their  Labour  —  appeared  a  Pleasure  to  them. — 
Their  laudable  perseverance,  —  which  has  enabled  me 
to  give  the  inexperienced  Amateur  an  unerring  and 
economical  Guide,  how  to  excite  as  much  pleasure  as 
possible  on  the  Palate,  and  occasion  as  little  trouble  as 


INTRODUCTION.  O 

possible  to  the  Principal  Viscera,  has  hardly  been 
exceeded  by  those  determined  spirits  who  lately  in  the 
Polar  expedition  braved  the  other  extreme  of  tempera- 
ture, &c.  in  spite  of  Whales,  Bears,  Icebergs,  and 
Starvation. 

Every  attention  has  been  paid  in  directing*  the 
proportions  of  the  following  Compositions,  not  merely 
to  make  them  inviting  to  the  Appetite,  but  agree- 
able and  useful  to  the  Stomach  ;  —  nourishing  without 
being  inflammatory,  and  savoury  without  being  sur- 
feiting. 

I  have  written  for  those  who  make  Nourishment 
the  chief  end  of  Eating*,  and  do  not  desire  to  provoke 


*  I  wish  most  heartily  that  the  restorative  process  was  performed  by  us 
poor  mortals,  in  as  easy  and  simple  a  manner,  as  it  is  in  "  the  Cooking 
Animals  i?i  the  Moon,"  who  "  lose  no  time  ai  their  meals;  but  open  their 
left  side,  and  place  the  whole  quantity  at  once  in  their  stomachs,  then  shut  it, 
till  tlie  same  day  in  the  next  month,  for  they  never  indnlge  themselves  with 
food  more  than  twelve  times  in  a  year."-^.5tc  Baron  Munchausen's 
Travels,  p.  188. 

Pleasing  the  Palaie  is  the  main  end  in  most  books  of  Cookery,  but  it  is  my 
aim  to  hlend  the  toothsome  ivith  the  uholesome ;  for,  after  all,  however  the 
hale  Gourmand  may  at  first  differ  from  me  iu  opinion,  the  latter,  is  the  chief 
concern  ;  since  if  he  be  even  so  entirely  devoted  to  the  pleasure  of  eating,  as 
to  think  of  no  other,  still  the  care  of  his  Health  becomes  part  of  that; — ^jf  he 
is  Sick,  he  cannot  relish  his  Food. 

'•  The  term  Gourmand  or  Epicuke,  has  been  strangely  perverted;  it  has 
been  conceived  synonymous  with  a  Glutton,  "  Tie.  pour  la  digestion,"  who 
will  eat  as  long  as  he  can  sit,  and  drink  longer  than  he  can  stand,  nor  leave 
his  cup  while  he  can  lift  it:  or  like  the  great  eater  of  Kent  whom  Fuller 
places  among  his  Worthies,  and  tells  us  that  he  did  eat  with  ease,  thirty 
dozens  of  Pidgeons  at  one  meal,  —  at  another,  four  score  Rabbits,  and 
eighteen  Yards  of  Black-Pudding,  I^ndon  Measure ! ! !  —  or  a  fastidious 
Appetite,  only  to  be  excited  by  fantastic  Dainties,  as  the  brains  of  Peacocks, 
or  Parrots,  the  tongues  of  Thrushes  or  Nightingales,  or  the  teats  of  a 
lactiferous  Sow. 

"  In  the  acceptation  which  I  give  to  the  term  Epicure,  it  mems  only  the 
person  who  has  good  sense  and  good  taste  enough,  to  wish  to  have  his  food 
cooked  according  to  scientific  principles;  that  is  to  say,  so  prepared,  that  the 


b  INTRODUCTION^. 

Appetite,  beyond  the  powers  and  necessities  of  Na- 
ture;—  proceeding  however  on  the  purest  Epicurean 
principles  of  indulging  the  Palate,  as  far  as  it  can 
be  done  without  injury  or  offence  to  the  Stomach  — 
and  forbidding*  nothing,  but  what  is  absolutely  un- 
friendly to  Health. 

This  is  by  no  means  so  difficult  a  task,  as  some 
gloomy  philosophers  (uninitiated  in  culinary  science) 
have  tried  to  make  the  world  believe — who  seem  to 


p.ilate  be  not  offendtd — thai  it  be  reutiered  easy  of  solution  in  tlio  Stoinacli, 
and  ultimately  contribute  to  Health;  exciting  him  as  an  animal,  to  the 
vigorous  cnjoynicnt  of  those  recreations  and  duties,  physical  and  intellectual, 
which  constitute  the  happiness  and  dignity  of  his  nature."  For  this  illustra- 
tion I  am  indebted  to  my  scientific  friend  Apicius  Calius,  Jan.,  wiih  whose 
erudite  observations  several  pages  of  this  work  are  enriched,  to  which  I  Iwve 
affixed  the  signature  A.  C.  Jun. 

*  "  Although  air  is  more  immediately  necessary  to  life  than  food,  the 
knowledge  of  the  latter  seems  of  more  importance  ;  it  ailmits  certainly  of 
great  variety,  and  a  choice  is  more  frequently  in  our  power.  A  very  spare 
and  simple  diet  has  commonly  been  recommended  as  most  conducive  to 
Health;  but  it  would  be  more  beneficial  to  mankind  if  we  could  show  them 
that  a  pleasant  and  vaiied  diet,  was  equally  consistent  witii  health,  as  the 
very  strict  regimen  of  Arnard,  or  the  Miller  of  Essex.  These  and  other 
abstemious  people,  who,  having  experienced  the  greatest  extremities  of  bad 
health,  were  driven  to  temperance  as  their  last  resource,  may  run  out  in 
praises  of  a  simple  diet ;  but  the  probability  is,  that  nothing  but  the  dread  of 
former  sufl'erings  could  have  given  them  the  resolution  to  persevere  in  so 
strict  a  course  of  abstinence ;  which,  persons  who  are  in  health,  and  have  no 
such  apprehension,  could  not  be  induced  to  undertake,  or,  if  they  did,  would 
not  long  continue. 

"  In  all  cases,  great  allowance  must  be  made  for  the  weakness  of  human 
nature;  the  desires  and  appetites  of  mankind,  must  to  a  certain  degree  be 
gratified,  and  the  Man  who  wishes  to  be  most  useful,  will  imitate  the 
indulgent  Parent,  who  whilst  he  endeavours  to  promote  the  tine  interests  of 
his  children,  allows  them  the  full  enjoyment  of  all  those  innocent  pleasures 
which  they  take  delight  in.  If  it  could  be  pointed  out  to  mankind,  that  some 
articles  used  as  food  were  hurtful,  while  others  were  in  their  nature  innocent, 
and  that  the  latter  were  numerous,  various,  and  pleasant,  they  might,  perhaps, 
be  induced  to  forego  those  which  were  hurtful,  and  confine  themselves  to 
those  which  were  innocent."— See  Dr.  Stark's  Experiments  on  Diet.  p.  89 
and  90. 


INTRODUCTION.  / 

have  delighted  in  persuading  you,  that  every  thing  that 
is  nice  must  be  noxious ;  and  that  every  thing  that  is 
nasty,  is  wholesome. 

But  as  worthy  Wilham  Shakespeare  declared  he 
never  found  a  philosopher  who  could  endure  the 
Tooth-ach  patiently,  — the  Editor  protests  that  he  has 
not  yet  overtaken  one,  w^ho  did  not  love  a  Feast. 

Those  Cynical  Slaves, —who  are  so  silly, — as  to  sup- 
pose it  unbecoming  a  wise  man,  to  indulge  in  the 
common  comforts  of  Life  —  should  be  answered  in  the 
words  of  the  French  philosopher.  *'  Hey — What  —  do 
you  Philosophers  eat  dainties?"  said  a  gay  Marquess. 
"  Do  you  think,''  replied  Descartes,  "  that  God  made 
good  things  only  for  Fools?'' 

Every  individual,  who  is  not  perfectly  imbecile  and 
void  of  understanding,  is  an  Epicure  in  his  own  way  — 
ttie  Epicures  in  boiling  of  Potatoes  are  innumerable  — 
the  perfection  of  all  enjoyment,  depends  on  the  perfec- 
tion of  the  faculties  of  the  Mind  and  Body  —  the 
Temperate  man,  is  the  greatest  Epicure, —  and  the  only 
true  Voluptuary. 

The  Pleasures  of  the  Table,  have  been  highly 
appreciated,  and  carefully  cultivated  in  all  Countries  — 
and  in  all  Ages*, — and  in  spite  of  all  the  Stoics, — every 
one  will  allow  they  are  the  first  and  the  last  we  enjoy, — 
and  those  we  taste  the  oftenest,  —  above  a  Thousand 
times  in  a  Year,  exery  Year  of  our  Lives  II! 

The  Stomach,  is  the  mainspring  of  our  System, —  if 
it  be  not  sufficiently  wound  up  to  warm  the  Heart,  and 

•  See  a  curious  account  in  CouRs  Gastronomiqce,  p.  145,  aud  in 
Anacharsis'  Travels,  Robinson  — 1796.  —  Vol.  ii.  p.  58,  and  Obs,  and  note 
under  No.  493. 


8  INTRODUCTION. 

support  the  Circulation,  —  the  whole  business  of  Life, 
will  in  proportion  be  ineffectively  performed,  —  we  can 
neither  7'hink  with  precision, — Sleep  with  tranquillity, — 
IValk  with  vigour,  —  or  sit  doivn  with  comfort. 

There  would  be  no  difficulty  in  provinr;,  that  it 
influences  (much  more  than  people  in  general  imagine) 
all  our  actions :  —  the  destiny  of  Nations  has  often 
depended  upon  the  more  or  less  laborious  digestion  of 
a  Prime  IVTinister*  —  see  a  very  curious  A/iecdute  in  the 
Memoirs  of  Count  Zin den dorff  in  Dodsley's  Annual 
Register  for  1762.    3d  Edition,  p.  32. 

The  philosopher  Pythagoras,  seems  to  have  been 
extremely  nice  in  eating,  —  among  his  absolute  injunc- 
tions to  his  disciples,  he  conunands  them,  to  "  abstain 
from  Beans." 

This  ancient  Sage,  has  ])een  imitated  by  the  learned 
who  have  discoursed  on  this  subject  since  —  who  are 
liberal  of  their  negative  —  and  niggardly  of  their  posi- 
tive precepts  —  in  the  ratio,  that  it  is  easier  to  tell  you 
not  to  do  this,  than  to  teach  you  how  to  do  that. 

Our  great  English  moralist  Dr.  S.  Johnson,  his 
biographer  Boswell  tells  us,  "  was  a  man  of  very  nice 
discernment  in  the  science  of  Cookery,"  and  talked  of 
good  eating,  with  uncommon  satisfaction.  "  Some 
people^"  said  he,  "  have  a  foolish  way  of  not  minding, 
or  pretending  not  to  mind  what  they  eat :  for  my  part, 
I  mind  my  Belly  very  studiously  and  very  carefully, 
and  1  look  upon  it,  that  he  who  does  not  mind  his 
Belly,  will  hardly  mind  any  thing" else." 

The  Dr.   might  have  said,    cannot  mind  any  thing 

•  See  Ihe  2d,  3d,  and  4tb  pages  of  Sir  Wji.  Templb's  Essay  on  the  Cure 
of  the  Gout  by  Moxa. 


INTRODUCTION.  >J 

else  —  the  energy  of  our  Bratns  is  sadly  dependent  on 
the  behaviour  of  our  Bowels*  —  those  who  say  His  no 
matter  what  we  eat  or  what  we  drink,  —  may  as  well  say, 
'Tis  no  matter  whether  we  eat,  or  whether  we  drink. 

The  following  Anecdote  I  copy  from  Boswell's 
Life  of  JoHNSOx. 

Johnson.  —  "  I  could  write  a  better  Book  of  Cookery 
than  has  ever  yet  been  written;  —  it  should  be  a  book 
on  philosophical  principles  — I  would  tell  what  is  the 
best  Butcher's  Meat — the  proper  seasons  of  different 
Vegetables  —  and  then,  how  to  roast,  and  boil,  and  to 
compound.'' 

DUly. —  "  Mrs.  Glasse's  Cookery^  which  is  the  best, 
was  written  by  Dr.  Hill," 

Johnson.  —  "  Well,  Sir  —  this  shows  how  much  better 
the  subject  of  Cookery  t  may  be  treated  by  a  Philoso- 
pher| ;  —  but  you  shall  see  what  a  book  of  Cookery  I 


♦  "  He  that  would  have  a  clear  Head,  must  have  2l.  clean  Stomach."  — 
Dr.  Cheyne  on  Health,  8vo.  1724,  p.  3!. 

"  It  is  sntficiently  manifest  how  much  nncomt'ortable  feelings  of  the  Bowels 
affect  the  Nervous  System,  and  how  immediately  and  completely  the  general 
disorder  is  relieved  by  an  alvine  evacuation." —  p.  53. 

"  We  cannot  reasonably  expect  tranquillity  of  the  Nervous  System, 
whilst  there  is  disorder  of  the  digestive  organs.  As  we  can  perceive  no  per- 
manent source  of  strength,  but  from  the  digestion  of  our  food,  it  becomes 
important  on  this  account,  that  we  should  attend  to  its  quantity,  quality,  and 
the  periods  of  taking  it,  with  a  view  to  ensure  its  proper  digestion."  — 
A&iiRNET-HY's  Sur.  Obs.  8vo.  1817,  p.  &5. 

t  "  If  Science  can  really  coctiibute  to  the  happiness  of  mankind,  it  must  be 
in  this  department;  the  real  comfort  of  the  majority  of  men  in  this  country- 
is  sought  for  at  their  own  fire-side;  how  desirable  does  it  then  become 
to  give  every  inducement  to  be  at  home,  by  directing  all  the  means  of 
Philosophy  to  increase  Domestic  Happiness!"  —  Sylvester's  Philosofhy 
of  Domestic  Economy,  4to.  1819,  p.  IT- 

X  The  best  Books  of  Cookery  have  been  written  by  Physicians:  —  Sir 
Kenelme  Digby  — Sir  Theodore  May  erne  — Professor  Bradley  — 
Dr.  Hill  — Dr.  Le  Cointe  — Dr.  Hunter,  &c. 

B  5 


10  INTRODUCTION. 

shall  make,  and  shall  agree  with  Mr.  Dilly  for  the 
Copyright." 

Miss  Seward.  — ''  That  would  be  Hercules  with  the 
distaff  indeed!"  — 

Jolmson.  — ''  No,  Madam ;  Women  can  spin  very 
well, — but  they  cannot  make  a  good  book  of  Cookery." 
See  vol.  iii.  p.  311. 

Mr.  B.  adds,  *'  I  never  knew  a  man  who  relished 
good  eating  more  than  he  did  :  when  at  Table,  he  was 
totally  absorbed  in  the  business  of  the  moment:  nor 
would  he,  unless  in  very  high  company,  say  one  word. 


"To  understand  the  Theory  of  Cookery,  wc  must  attend  to  the 
action  of  heat  upon  the  various  constituents  of  alimentary  substances  as 
applied  directly  and  iiidirectlj  through  the  medium  of  some  fluid,  in  the  former 
way  as  exemplified."  In  the  processesof  Roasting  and  roiLiNu,the  chief 
constituents  of  animal  substances  undergo  the  following  changes— the  Fibrine 
is  corrugated,  ilie  Albumen  coagulated,  the  Gt7a</Hf  and  Osmazonie  rendered 
more  soluble  in  water,  the  Fat  liquefied,  and  the  Water  evaporated. 

"  If  the  heat  exceed  a  certain  degree,  the  surface  becomes  fust  brown,  and 
then  scorched.  In  consequence  of  these  changes,  the  muscular  fibre  becomes 
opaque,  shorter,  lirmer,  and  drier;  thetendons  less  opaque,  softer, and  gluey  ; 
the  fat  is  either  melted  out,  or  rendered  semi-tianspareut.  Animal  !liu(ij 
become  more  transparent;  the  albumen  is  coagulated  and  separated,  and  they 
dissolve  gelatine  and  osmazome. 

"  Lastly,  and  what  is  the  most  important  change,  and  the  immediate  object 
of  all  Cookery,  the  meat  loses  the  vapid  nanseous  smell  and  taste  peculiar  to 
its  raw  state,  and  it  becomes  savoury  and  grateful. 

"  Heat  applied  through  the  intervention  uf  boiling  oil,  or  melted  fat,  as  in 
Frying,  produces  nearly  the  same  changes;  as  the  heat  is  sutiicient  to 
evaporate  the  water,  and  to  induce  a  dei^rce  of  scorching. 

"  But  when  water  is  the  medium  throue.h  which  heat  is  applied— as  io 
Boiling,  Stewing,  and  Baking,  the  eficcts  are  somewhat  ditterent,  as  the 
heat  never  exceeds  21 C",  which  is  not  snllicieDt  to  commence  the  process  of 
browuiug  or  decomposition,  and  the  soluble  constituents  are  removed, 
by  being  dissolved  in  the  water,  forming  soup  or  broth ;  or,  if  the  direct 
contact  of  the  water  be  prevented,  they  are  dissolved  in  the  juices  of  the 
meat,  and  separate  in  the  form  of  Gravy." 

Vide  Supplement  to  Encyclop.  Brit.  Edm.  vol.  iv.  p.  344,  the  Article 
"  Food,"  to  which  we  refer  our  reader  as  the  most  scientific  paper  on  the 
gubject  that  we  have  seen. 


INTRODUCTION.  11 

or  even  pay  the  least  attention  to  what  was  said  by 
others,  till  he  had  satisfied  his  Appetite." 

The  peculiarities  of  his  constitution  were  as  great 
as  those  of  his  character :  Luxury  and  Intemperance 
are  relative  terms  —  depending  on  other  circumstances 
than  mere  quantity  and  quality. —  Nature  gave  him  an 
excellent  Palate,  and  a  craving  appetite,  —  and  his 
intense  application  rendered  large  supplies  of  nourish- 
ment absolutely  necessary  to  recruit  his  exhausted 
spirits. 

The  fact  is,  —  this  great  Man  had  found  out,  that 
Animal,  and  Intellectual  Vigour*,  are  much  more  entirely 
dependent  upon  each  other,  —  than  is  commonly  under- 
stood;—  especially,  in  those  constitutions,  whose  diges- 
tive and  chylopoetic  organs  are  capricious  and  easily 
put  out  of  tune,  or  absorb  the  "  pabulum  vita:"  indolently 
and  imperfectly,  —  with  such,  it  is  only  now  and  then, 
that  the  "  sensorium  commune'^  vibrates  with  the  full 
tone  of  accurately  considerative,  or  creative  energy. 

Thus  does  the  Health  always, —  and  very  often  the 
Life  of  Invalids,  and  those  who  have  weak  and  infirm 
Stomachs,  depend  upon  the  care  and  skill  of  the 
Cook. — Our  Forefathers  were  so  sensible  of  this, — that 
in  days  of  Yore,  —  no  man  of  consequence  thought  of 
making  a  day's  journey  without  taking  his  "  Magister 
Coquorum"  with  him. 

The  rarity  of  this  talent,  in  a  high  degree  —  is  so  well 


*  "  Health,  Beauty,  Strength  and  Spirits,  and  I  might  add  all  the  faculties 
of  the  Mind,  depend  upon  tlie  Organs  of  the  Body ;  when  these  are  in  good 
order,  the  thinking  part  is  most  alert  and  active,  the  contrary  when  they  are 
disturbed  or  diseased."  — Dr.  Cauogan  on  Nursing  Children,  8vo.  1757, 
p.  5. 


12  IJ^TRODUCTION. 

understood,  that  besides  very  considerable  pecuniary 
compensation,  his  Majesty's  first  and  second  Cooks*' 
are  now  Esquires  by  their  office ;  —  we  have  every 
reason  to  suppose  they  were  persons  of  equal  dignity 
heretofore. 

In  Dr.  Pegge's  *'  Forme  of  Cur y,"  Svo.  London,  1780, 
we  read,  that  when  Cardinal  Otto,  the  Pope's  Legate, 
was  at  Oxford,  A.D.  1248,  his  brother  officiated  as 
"  Magister  Coquin^e." 

This  important  post,  has  always  been  held  as  a  situa- 
tion of  high  trust  and  confidence;  and  the  "  Magnus 
CoQULS,"  Anglic^,  the  Master  Kitchener,  has,  time 
immemorial,  been  an  Officer  of  considerable  dignity, 
in  the  palaces  of  Princes. 

The  Cook  in  Plautus  (Pseudol)  is  called  "  Homi- 
num  serxatoiem,*'  the  preserver  of  mankind;  and  by 
Mercier  "  un  Medeciii  qui  guerit  radicaUnicnt  deux 
fnaladie-s  mortelles ;  la  Faim  ct  la  Soif." 

The  Norman  Conqueror  William  bestowed  several 
portions  of  Land  on  thtse  highly  favoured  domestics,  the 
'•  CoQuoRUM  Propositus,"  and  "  Coquus  Regius," 
—  a  Manor  was  bestowed  on  Robert  Argyllon  the 
"  Grani>  Queux"  to  be  held  by  the  following  service. 
See  that  venerable  Record,  the  Doomsday  Book. 
"  Addington — Co.  Surrey. 

"  Robert  Argyllon  holdeth  one  carucate  of  Land  in 
Addington  in  the  County  of  Surrey,  by  the  service  of 


•  "  We  have  some  good  families  in  England  of  the  name  of  Cook  or  Coke. 
I  know  not  what  they  may  think;  but  we  may  depend  upon  it,  they  all 
originally  sprang  from  real  and  professional  Cooks ;  and  they  need  not  be 
ashamed  of  their  extraction,  any  more  than  the  Butlers,  Parkers,  8c,c."  — 
Pegge,  Forme  ofCury,  p.  l62. 


INTRODUCTION.  13 

making  one  mess  in  an  earthen  pot  in  the  kitchen  of  our 
Lord  the  King,  on  the  day  of  his  coronation,  called  De 
la  Groute,"  i.  e.  a  kind  of  Plum  porridge,  or  Watergruel 
with  Plums  in  it.  This  dish  is  still  served  up  at  the 
Royal  Table,  at  Coronations,  by  the  Lord  of  the  said 
Manor  of  Addington. 

At  the  Coronation  of  King  George  IV.,  Court  of 
Claims,  July  12,  18-20. 

"  The  petition  of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
which  was  presented  by  Sir  G.  Nayler,  claiming  to 
perform  the  service  of  presenting  a  dish  of  De  la 
Groute  to  the  King  at  the  banquet,  was  considered 
by  the  Court,  and  decided  to  be  allowed."' 

A  good  Dinner  is  one  of  the  greatest  enjoyments  of 
human  life; — ^  and  as  the  practice  of  Cookery  is  at- 
tended with  so  many  discouraging  difficulties  *,  so  many 
disgusting  and  disagreeable  circumstances,  and  even 
dangers,  we  ought  to  have  some  regard  for  those  who 
encounter  them,  to  procure  us  pleasure,  and  to  reward 
their  attention,  by  rendering  their  situation  every  way 
as  comfortable  and  agreeable  as  we  can.  JMere  money 
is  a  very  inadequate  compensation  to  a  complete 
Cook  ;  —  he  who  has  preached  Integrity  to  those  in  the 


*  It  is  said,  there  are  seven  chances  against  even  the  most  siirvple  dish 
being  presented  to  the  Mouth  in  absolute  perfection  ;  for  instance  a  Leu 
OF  Mutton. 

lit. —  I  he  Mutton  must  be  good, 

2d.  —  Must  have  been  kept  a  good  time,. 

3d.  —  Must  be  roasted  at  ^  good  fire, 

4lh. —  By  a  good  Cook, 

5th.  —  Who  must  be  hv  good  temper, 

6th.  —  With  all  this  felicitous  combination  you  must  hn\e good  luck,  and 

7th.  —  Good  Appetite.  —  The  Meat,  and  the  mouths  which  are  to  eat  it, 
must  be  ready  for  each  other,  at  the  same  moment. 


14  INTRODUCTION. 

Kitchen, — (see  "  Advice  to  Cooks")  may  be  permitted  to 
recommend  LiberaUti/  to  those  in  the  Parlour ;  —  they 
are  indeed  the  sources  of  each  other. 

Depend  upon  it,  "  True  Self- Love  and  Social — are  the 
same;'  "  Do  as  you  uould  he  done  by ;"  give  those  you 
are  obUged  to  trust,  every  inducement  to  be  honest,  — 
and  no  temptation  to  play  tricks. 

When  you  consider  that  a  good  servant  eats*  no 
more  than  a  bad  one,  —  how  much  waste  is  occasioned 
by  provisions  being  dressed  in  a  slovenly  and  unskilful 
manner — and  how  much  a  good  Cook  (to  whom  the 
conduct  of  the  Kitchen  is  confided)  can  save  you  by 
careful  management  —  no  Housekeeper  will  hardly 
deem  it  an  unwise  speculation, —  it  is  certainly  an  ami- 
able experiment,  —  to  invite  the  Honesty  and  Industry  of 
domestics,  by  setting  them  an  example  of  Liberality ^  — 
at  least,  show  them,  that  "  according  to  their  Pains, 
will  be  their  Gains."  But  trust  not  your  servants  with 
the  secret  of  their  own  strength;  —  Importance  of  any 
kind,  being  what  human  frailty  is  hast  able  to  hear. 

Avoid  all  approaches  towards  Familiarity,  which  to 


•  To  guard  against  "  la  gourmandise,"  of  the  second  table,  "  provide 
cicli  of  your  servants  with  a  hiri^e  pair  of  spectacles  of  the  liiglKs-t  magnifying 
power,  and  never  permit  them  to  sit  down  to  any  meal  without  weariog 
them;  they  are  as  necessary,  and  as  useful  in  a  Kitchen  as  Pols  and 
Kettles:  they  will  make  a  Lark  look  as  large  as  a  Fowl,  a  Goose  as  big  as 
a  Swan,  a  Leg  of  Mutton  as  large  as  a  Hind  Quarter  of  Beef ;  a  twopeuny 
loaf  as  large  as  a  quartern ;"  and  as  Philosophers  assure  you  that  Pain 
even  is  only  imaginary,  we  may  justly  believe  the  same  of  llaoger. 
Tlins,  if  a  servant  who  eats  no  more  than  one  pound  of  food,  imagines,  by 
the  aid  of  these  glasses,  that  he  has  eaten  tliree  pounds,  his  hunger  will 
be  as  fully  satisfied  —  and  the  Addition  to  your  Optician's  Account,  will 
soon  be  overpaid  by  the  Subtraction  from  your  Batcher's  and  Baker's.  —  Life 
of  Col.  Hanger,  vol.  ii.  p.  153. 


INTRODUCTION.  15 

a   proverb   is    accompanied   by   Contempt,    and  soon 
breaks  the  neck  of  obedience. 

Servants  are  more  likely  to  be  praised  into  good  con- 
duct—  than  scolded  out  of  bad  —  always  commend 
them  when  they  do  right  —  to  cherish  the  desire  of 
pleasing  in  them,  you  must  show  them  that  you  are 
pleased :  — 

•'  Be  to  their  Faults  a  little  blind, 
"  And  to  their  Virtues  very  kind." 

By  such  conduct,  —  ordinary  Servants,  will  often 
be  converted  into  Good  ones  ;  — few  so  hardened,  as 
not  to  feel  gratified  when  they  are  kindly  and  liberally 
treated. 

It  is  a  good  Maxim  to  select  .Servants  not  younger 
than  THIRTY, —  before  that  age,  hov/ever  comfortable 
you  may  endeavour  to  make  them,  their  want  of  expe- 
rience, and  the  Hope  of  something  still  better  —  prevents 
their  being  satisfied  with  their  present  state.  —  ^fter, 
they  have  had  the  benefit  of  experience,  if  they  are 
tolerably  comfortable,  they  will  endeavour  to  deserve 
the  smiles  of  even  a  moderately  kind  master,  for  Fear 
they  may  change  for  the  worse. 

Life  may  indeed  be  very  fairly  divided  into  the  sea- 
sons of  Hope  and  Fear.  In  Youth,  we  hope  every 
thing  may  be  right  ; — in  Age,  we  fear  exery  thing  will  be 
wrong. 

Do  not  discharge  a  good  servant  for  a  slight 
offence  — 

"  Bear  and  forbear,  thus  preached  the  stoic  eages. 
And  in  two  v/ords,  include  the  sense  of  pages."  —  Pope. 

Human  nature,  is  the  same  in  all  stations; 


16  INTRODUCTION. 

—  if  you  can  convince  your  Servants,  that  yon  have  a 
generous  and  considerate  regard  for  then*  Health  and 
Comfort  —  why  should  You  imagine  that  They  will  be 
insensible  to  the  good  they  receive  ? 

A  Benevolent  old  Gentlewoman  told  ns  that  on 
Wednesdays  and  Saturdays  she  allowed  her  servants 
(three  in  number)  half  a  Crown  to  purchase  any  thing 
they  pleased  for  Supper  — that  she  was  sure,  that  she 
saved  much  more  than  double  that  sum  by  the  general 
Economy  which  this  provision  for  their  comfort  induced 
her  domestics  to  observe. 

Impose  no  commands  but  what  are  reasonable,  —  nor 
reprove  but  with  justice  and  temper  —  the  best  way  to 
ensure  which,  is  —  neier  to  Lccfinc  thfin,  till  at  hast  one 
dai/f  after  they  haie  offended  you. 

If  they  have  any  particular  hardship  to  endure  in 
your  service,  —  let  them  see  that  you  are  concerned  for 
the  necessity  of  imposing  it. 

J f  they  are  Sick, — remember  you  are  their  Patron  as 
well  as  their  Master,  —  not  only  remit  their  labour, 
but  give  them  all  the  assistance  of  Food,  Physic, 
and  every  comfort  in  your  power.  —  Tender  assiduity 
about  an  Invalid  is  half  a  Cure,  —  it  is  a  balsam  to 
the  Mind,  which  has  a  most  powerful  effect  on  the 
Body,  —  sooths  the  sharpest  Pains,  and  strengtlKins 
beyond  the  richest  Cordial. 

The  following  estimate  of  the  Expenses  of  a 
Female  Servant — was  sent  to  us  by  an  experienced 
Housekeeper  — 

They  are  often  expected  to  find  their  own  Tea 
and    Sugar,  —  which    with    sober    servants    is    the 


INTRODL'CTION.  17 

most    comfortable    meal    they    have  — •  and    will    re- 
quire 

Half  a  pound  of  Tea,  per  month ^ f 

Ditto     Ditto      Snz^v,perueek \  per  annum  3.10  0 

4  pair  of  Shoes,  per  annum 0  18  0 

2  pair  of  black  worsted  Stockings 0    4  0 

2  pair  of  white  Cotton        Do. 0    5  0 

2  Gowns 1  10  0 

6  Aprons — 4  check,  2  white 0  10  6 

6  Caps 0  10  6 

A  Bonnet,  a  Shawl  or  Cloak,  Pattens,   &c.    Ribands,  Haudker- 
ciiiefs,  Pins,  Needles,  Threads,  Thimbles,  Scisfars,  and  other 

woikiiig  tools, —  Stays,  Siay-tape,  and  Buckram,  &c.  &c 2     0  0 

£9:8:0 

Besides  these,  She  has  to  make  a  shift  and  buy  pet- 
ticoats, pockets,  and  many  other  articles. 

We  appeal  to  the  neatest  managing  and  most  economical 
Housewife,  to  inform  us  how  this  can  be  done  —  and 
how  much  a  poor  Girl  will  have  remaining  to  place  to 
her  account  in  the  Saving  Bank,  —  for  help  in  Sickness, 

—  when  Out  of  Place, —  and  for  her  support  in  Old  Age. 

—  Here,  —  is  the  source,  —  of  the  swarms  of  distressed 
Females  which  we  daily  meet  in  our  streets. 

Ye,  who  think  that  to  protect  and  encourage  Virtue,  — 
is  the  best  preventive  frofn  Vice, — give  your  Female  Ser- 
vants liberal  zvages. 

"  Charity  should  begin  at  home,"  —  '*  Prevention 
is  preferable  to  Cure,"  but  I  have  no  objection  to  see 
your  names  ornamenting  the  Lists  of  Subscribers  to 
Foundling  Hospitals,  and  Female  Penitentiaries*. 


*  Much  real  reformation  might  be  effected,  and  most  grateful  services 
obtained,  if  Families  which  consist  wholly  of  females,  would  take  servants 
recommended  from  the  Magdalen  —  Penitentiary  —  or  Guardian  — 
who  seek  to  be  restored  to  virtuous  society. 

'•'  Female  ser rants  who  pursue  an  honest  course  —  have  to  travel  in  their 
peculiar  orbit,  through  a  more  powerfully  resisting  medium  than  perhaps  any 


18  INTRODUCTION. 

"  To  say  nothing  of  the  deleterious  vapours  and 
pestilential  exhalations  of  the  charcoal,  which  soon 
undermine  the  health  of  the  heartiest,  the  glare  of  a 
scorching  fire,  and  the  smoke  so  baneful  to  the  eyes 
and  the  complexion,  are  continual  and  inevitable 
dangers; — and  a  Cook  must  live  in  the  midst  of  them, 
as  a  Soldier  on  the  field  of  battle,  surrounded  by 
bullets,  and  bombs,  and  Congreve's  rockets;  —  with 
this  only  difference,  that  for  the  first,  every  day  is  a 
fighting  day,  that  her  warfare  is  almost  always  without 
glory,  and  most  praisewortliy  achievements  pass  not 
only  without  reward,  but  frequently  without  even 
Thanks;  —  for  the  most  consummate  Cook  is,  alas! 
seldom  noticed  by  the  master,  or  heard  of  by  the 
guests;  who,  while  they  are  eagerly  devouring  his 
Turtle,  and  drinking  his  Wine,  —  care  very  little  who 
dressed  the  one,  or  sent  the  other." — Ahnanach  iks 
Govrmands. 

This  observation  applies  especially  to  the  Second 
Cook,  oy  Jirst  Kitchai  Maid,  in  large  families,  who 
have  by  far  the  hardest  place  in  the  house,  and  are 


other  class  of  people  in  civilized  Life, — they  should  be  treated  with  some- 
thing like  Christian  kindness —  for  want  of  this  —  a  fault  which  might  at  the 
time  have  been  easily  amended — has  become  the  source  of  interminable 
sorrow." 

"  By  the  clemency  and  benevolent  interference  of  two  mistresses  known 
to  the  writer,  two  servants  have  become  happy  wives,  who,  had  they  been  in 
some  situations,  would  have  been  litirally  Outcast?." 

A  most  laudable  Society  for  the  Encouragement  of  Female 
Servants,  by  a  gratuitous  Registry,  and  by  Rewards,  was  instituted 
in  1813. 

Plans  of  which  may  be  had  gratis  at  the  Society's  House,  Is'o.  10,  Ilatton 
Garden.  The  above,  is  an  extract  from  the  Rev.  II.  G.  Watkins's 
Hints  to  Heads  of  ramilies  —  a  work  well  deserving  their  attentive  con- 
sideration. 


INTRODUCTION.  19 

worse  paid,  and  truly  verify  the  old  adage,  *'  the  more 
work,  the  less  wages.''  —  If  there  is  any  thing  right,  the 
Cook  has  the  praise  —  when  there  is  any  thing  wrong, 
as  surely  the  Kiicken  maid  has  the  blame.  —  Be  it 
known,  then,  to  honest  John  Bull,  that  this  humble 
domestic,  is  expected  by  the  Cook  to  take  the  entire 
management  of  all  Roasts  and  Boils,  Fish  and  Vege- 
tables —  i.  e.  the  principal  part  of  an  Englishman  s 
dinner. 

The  Master,  who  wishes,  to  enjoy  the  rare  luxury, 
of  a  table  regularly  well  served  in  the  best  style,  must 
treat  his  Cook  as  his  friend,  —  watch  over  her  Health* 


*  The  greatest  care  should  be  taken  by  the  man  of  fashion,  that  his  Cook's 
health  be  preserved:  —one  hundredth  part  of  the  attention  usually  bestowed 
on  his  dog,  or  his  horse,  will  suffice  to  regulate  her  animal  system. 

"  Cleanliness,  and  a  proper  ventilation  to  carry  off  smoke  and  steam, 
should  be  particularly  attended  to  in  the  construction  of  a  kitchen;  —  the 
grand  scene  of  action,  the  fire-place,  should  be  placed  where  it  may  receive 
plenty  of  light :  — hitherto  the  contrary  has  prevailed,  and  the  poor  Cook  is 
continually  basted  with  her  own  perspiration."  —  A.  C.  Jun. 

"  The  most  experienced  artists  in  Cookery  cannot  be  certain  of  their 
work,  without  Tasting:  —they  must  be  incessantly  Tasting.  —  The  Spoon  of  a 
good  Cook,  is  continually  passing  from  the  Stewpan  to  his  Tongue ;  —  nothing, 
but  frequent  Tasting  his  Sauces,  Ilagouts,  &c.,  can  discover  to  him  what 
progress  they  have  made,  or  enable  him  to  season  A  Soup  with  any 
certainty  of  success:— his  Palate,  therefore,  must  be  in  the  highest  state  of 
excitability,  that  the  least  fault  may  be  perceived  in  an  instant. 

"  But,  alas!  the  constant  empyreumatic  fumes  of  the  stoves,  the  necessity 
of  frequent  drinking,  and  often  of  bad  beer,  to  moisten  a  parched  throat ;  — 
in  short,  every  thing  around  him  conspires  quickly  to  vitiate  the  organs  of 
taste;  the  palate  becomes  blunted,  its  quickness  of  feeling  and  delicacy,  on 
which  the  sensibility  of  the  organs  of  taste  depends,  grows  daily  more  obtuse, 
and  in  a  short  time  the  gustatory  nerves  become  quite  unexcitable. 

"If  you  find  your  Cook  neglect  his  business,— that  his  i?«g'(m?* 
are  too  highly  spiced  or  salted,  and  his  cookery  has  too  much  of  the  "  haut 
goiit," — you  may  be  sure  that  his  Index  of  Taste  wants  regulating,— his 
Palate  has  lost  its  sensibility,— and  it  is  high  time  to  call  in  the  assistance  of 
the  Apothecary. 

"  '  Purger  souvent'  is  the  grand  Maxim  in  all  Kitchens  where  le  Mattre 
d' Hotel  has  any  regard  for  the  reputation  of  his  table.    Les  Boniies  Ilommes 


20  INTRODUCTION. 

with  the  tenderest  care,  and  especially,  be  sure,  her 
Taste  does  not  suffer  from  her  Stomach  being  deranged 
by  Bilious  Attacks. 

Besides  understanding  the  management  of  the 
Spit,  —  the  Stewpan,  —  and  the  RoUivig  Pin,  a  Com- 
plete Cook  must  know  how  to  go  to  Market,  write 
legibly,  and  keep  Accounts  accurately.  In  well  re- 
gulated Private  Families,  the  most  convenient  custom 
seems  to  be,  that  the  Cook  keep  a  house-book,  con- 
taining an  account  of  the  miscellaneous  articles  she 
purchases  —  and  the  Butcher's,  —  Baker's,  —  Butter- 
man's, —  Green-grocer's,  Fishmonger's,  —  Milkman's  — 
and  Washing  Bills  are  brought  in  every  Monday ; 
these  it  is  the  duty  of  the  Cook  to  examine,  before  she 
presents  them  to  her  employer  every  Tuesday  morning 
to  be  discharged. 

The  advantage  of  paying  such  bills  weekly,  is  incal- 
culable ;  among  others  —  the  constant  check  it  affords 
against  any  excess  beyond  the  sum  allotted  for  defray- 


de  Bouche — submit  to  the  operation,  without  a  murmnr ; — to  bind  otiicrs,  it 
shocild  be  ma.le  the  first  condition  in  hiring  them.  Those  who  refuse, — 
prove  they  were  not  born  to  become  Masters  of  their  Art ; — and  their  indif- 
ference to  Fame,  will  rank  them,  as  they  deserve,  among  those  stupid 
Slaves,  who  pass  their  lives  as  in  much  obscurity  as  their  own  stewpans." 

To  tlie  precedLig  observations  from  the  "  Almanack  des  Gourmands," 
we  may  add,  that  the  MouthJcian  will  have  a  still  better  chance  of  success,  if 
he  can  prevail  on  his  master  to  observe  the  same  regime  which  he  orders  for 
his  Cook, — or,  instead  of  endeavouring  to  awaken  an  idle  Appetite,  by 
reading  the  Index  to  a  Cookery  Book,  or  an  additional  use  of  the  Pepj>er-Box 
and  Salt-Cellar — rather  seek  it  from  Abstinence,  or  Exercise — the  philoso- 
phical Gourmand  will  consider  that  the  edge  of  our  Appetite  is  generally 
keen,  in  proportion  to  the  activity  of  our  other  habits — let  him  attentively 
peruse  our  "  Peptic  Precepts,"  &c.,  which  briefly  explain  the  Art  of 
refreshing  the  Gustatory  Nerves — and  of  Invigorating  the  whole  System. — See 
in  the  following  Chapter  on  Invitations  to  Dinner — A  Recipe  ta 
make  Forty  Peristaltic  Persuaders. 


INTRODUCnON.  21 

ing  them,  and  the  opportunity  it  gives  of  correcting 
increase  of  expense  in  one  week  by  a  prudent  retrench- 
ment in  the  next.  '*  If  you  would  hve  tien  with  the 
world,  calculate  your  expenses  at  /lalf  your  Income — if 
you  would  grow  rick,  at  one-third."  —  See  Bacon's 
Essays. 

See  "  Ten  Minutts'  Advice  on  the  Management  of 
Income,  Hatchard,  Piccadilly,  1810;"  Dr.  Truster's 
"  Domestic  Management,  or  the  Art  of  managing  a 
Family ;"  and  by  the  same  author,  another  v/ork  well 
worth  the  purchase  of  Young  Housekeepers,  called, 
"  The  Honours  of  the  Table,  or  the  Art  of  Caning:"  the 
latter  has  been  copied  in  a  mutilated  state  into  almost 
every  Cookery  Book  that  has  been  made  during  the 
kst  thirty  years. 

The  most  complete  Housekeeper's  Account 
Book  is  Poole's,  published  at  No.  48,  Fetter  Lane. 
It  is  an  excellent  plan  to  have  a  table  of  rules  for 
regulating  the  ordinary  expenses  of  the  Family,  in 
oi'der  to  check  any  innovation  or  excess  v/hich  other- 
wise might  be  introduced  unawares,  and  derange  the 
proposed  distribution  of  the  annual  revenue. 

it  is  almost  impossible  for  a  Cook  to  attend  to  the 
business  of  the  Kitchen  with  any  certainty  of  perfection 
if  employed  in  other  household  concerns.  —  It  is  a 
service  of  such  importance^  and  so  difficult  to  perform 
even  tolerably  well,  that  it  is  sufficient  to  engross  the 
entire  attention  of  one  person. 

This  is  a  Maxim  which  is  neither  understood  nor 
admired  in  some  families,  where  the  Cook  is  expected 
to  be  a  house  servant  also,  and  Coals  are  meted  out  to 
her  by  the  Quart,  and  Butter  by  the  Ounce,  &c.  — 


22  INTRODUCTION. 

Nevertheless,  these  ignorant  and  unreasonable  masters 
and  mistresses,  are  surprised,  if  most  of  their  Ragouts, 
and  Sauces,  &c.  are  spoiled ;  and  the  Roasts  either 
burnt  up,  or  not  half  done;  but  how  can  it  be  other- 
-vvise,  —  if  the  Cook  is  obliged  to  be  the  slave  of  the 
Bell*,  &c.  as  well  as  of  the  Spit? 

"  If  we  take  a  review  of  the  Qualifications  that  are 
indispensable  in  that  highly  estimable  domestic,  a  com- 
plete Good  Cook,  we  shall  find  that  very  few  deserve 
that  namef." 


♦  At  Merlin's  Mechanical  MuseuiiUherG  was  a  contrivance  by  the  Beil, 
which  moved  an  Index  to  a  corresponding  word  in  the  Kitchen.  Tor 
inBtauce  — 

Lay  the  Cloth. 

Coals. 

Candies. 

Dinner. 

Tea. 

Hot  Water. 

Snpper. 

Housemaid. 

Cook,  &c. 

Before  you  rim;  the  Bell  set  this  Index  to  what  yon  want  —  the  Servant  will 

then  know  what  yon  wish  for —  and  tlius  much  time  and  trouble  will  be  saved 

to  both  Master  and  Servant. 

t  "  She  must  be  quick  and  strong  of  sight ;  her  hearing  most  acute,  that  she 
may  be  sensible  when  the  contents  of  her  vessels  bubble,  although  they  be 
closely  covered,  and  that  she  may  be  alarmed  before  the  pot  boils  over:  her 
auditory  nerve  ought  to  discriminate  (when  several  saucepans  are  in  operation 
at  the  same  time)  the  simmering  of  one,  the  ebullition  of  another,  and  the  full 
toned  wabbling  of  a  third. 

"  It  is  imperiously  requisite  that  her  organ  of  smell  be  highly  susceptible  of 
the  various  effluvia,  that  her  nose  may  distinguish  the  perfection  of  aromatic 
ingredients,  and  that  in  animal  substances  it  shall  evince  a  suspicious  accuracy 
between  tenderness  and  putrefaction :  above  all,  her  olfactories  should  be 
tremblingly  alive  to  mustiness  and  empyrciraa. 

"  It  is  from  the  exquisite  sensibility  of  her  palate,  that  we  admire  and  judge 
of  the  Cook  ;  from  the  alliance  between  the  olfactory  and  sapid  organs  it  will 
be  seen,  that  their  perfection  is  in  iispensable."  —  A.  C.  Jun. 


INTRODUCTION.  23 

"  The  majority  of  those  who  set  up  for  Professors  of 
this  Art,  are  of  mean  ability,  selfish,  and  pilfering 
every  thing  they  can  :  others  are  indolent  and  insolent. 
Those  who  really  understand  their  Business,  (which 
are  by  far  the  smallest  number,)  are  too  often,  either 
ridiculously  saucy,  —  or  insatiably  thirsty  :  —  m  a  word, 
a  good  subject  of  this  class,  is  a  rara  avis  indeed !" 

"  God  sends  Meat,"  —  who  sends  Cooks*?  the  pro- 
verb has  long  saved  us  the  trouble  of  guessing.  Vide 
Almanack  des  Gourmands ^  p.  83. 

Of  what  value  then  is  not  this  Book?  —  which  will 
render  every  person  of  common  sense  —  a  good  Cook, 
in  as  little  time  as  they  can  read  it  through  atten- 
tively. 

If  the  Masters  and  Mistresses  of  Families  will 
sometimes  condescend  to  make  an  amusement  of  this 
Art,  they  will  escape  a  number  of  disappointments,  &c. 
which  those  who  will  not,  must  suffer,  to  the  detriment 
of  both  their  Health  and  their  Fortune. 

The  author  wishes  he  had  more  time  to  devote  to  the 
subject.  An  ingenious  Chemist,  and  an  intelligent 
Cook,  might  form  a  very  complete  work,  by  taking 
for  their  text  Dr.  George  Pearson's  admirably 
arranged  catalogues  of  Food,  Drink,  and  Seasoning: 
this  most  comprehensive  abstract  of  this  subject  we 
have  ever  seen,  was  printed  for  his  Lectures  on  Thera- 
peutics, &c.  which  the  author  attended  in  1801. 

I  did  not  presume  to  offer  any  observations  of  my 


*  A  facetious  Gourmand  suggests  that  the  old  story  of  "  lighting  a  Candle 
to  the  Devil"  probably  arose  from  this  adage  —  and  was  an  offering  presented 
to  his  Infernal  Majesty,  by  some  Epicure  who  was  in  want  of  a  Cook. 


24  INTRODUCTION. 

own,  till  I  had  read  all  that  I  could  find  written  on  the 
subject,  and  submitted  (with  no  small  pains,)  to  a  patient 
and  attentive  consideration  of  every  preceding  work,  re- 
lating to  culinary  concerns,  that  I  could  meet  with. 

These  Books  vary  very  little  from  each  other,  — 
except  in  the  preface,  they  are 

"   Like  in  all  else  as  or.e  Fgs;  to  another:" 

**  ah  uno,  disce  omnes,''  cutting  and  pasting  seem  to 
have  been  much  oftener  employed  than  the  Pen  and 
Ink  :  any  one  who  has  occasion  to  refer  to  two  or  three 
of  them,  will  find  the  Receipts  almost  always  ''  i*trbatim 
€t  literatim ;''  equally  unintelligible  to  those  who  are 
ignorant, —  and  useless  to  those  who  are  acquainted 
with  tlie  business  of  the  Kitchen. 

Tlie  following  works  are  in  my  own  Library;  others 
ray  friends  have  favoured  me  with  the  perusal  of, 
amounting  in  all  to  not  less  than  250  Volumes. 

Apicins  Caliiis  <le  Arte  Coqiii-  A  BodUc  of  Cookiyc,  gathered 

narin — cum  notis.    I\I.  Lister,  b)   J.  W 1591 

M.D.  F.R.S.  '  Siindrie  N'ew  Remedies  againste 

The  Boke   of  Kervynge,  b.   1.  i       Famine,  by  II.  Piatt,  Esq.   ..  1590 

4IO.  by  \\ynkyn  de  Worde..  1513  ,  F-pulario — or  the  Italian   lian- 

The  Bookeof  Carvyi.gc,  b.  1. —  qiict,  b.  1 139^ 

no  djric.  I  Butte's  Dyets  Dry  Dinner  ....  ISpy 

Sir  Thomas  Elyot,  Cookerie..  1539     Bread  for  the  Boor    l608 

Ehasmiis'  Ipicure,  b.  1 1545    Dawson's  Good  Huswife's  Jewel, 

The  Good  Husive's  Handmaid  1550  •      and  rare  Conceits  in  Cookery  l6lO 

Cnrtius    de  Prandii  et   Coenaj  \  The    Booke     of    Carving    and 

Modo  — Aldus    156c  I      Serving,  b.  1 l(5l.3 

V/illicJiii  de  Arte  Magirica  hoc  i  Api^s  Dinees  par  A.  Balinghem  l6l5 

efit  Coqniiiaria 1563  '  A  Closet  of  Delights  for  Ladica  l630 

A  proper,  new  Booke  of  Cookery  1575  I  Murrell's  Cookerie  and  Manner 

'J he    Ilusbandly   C)rdring    and  of  making  Kickshawes,  &c.  l030 

Governniente     of      Poultrie,  !  The  Philosopher's  Banquet. . ..  :633 

practised    by   the  Karnedsie  JA  Bookeof  Cookery 16.34 

and  such  as  have  bene  knowne  |  Vcnner,  on  Diet   l638 

skilfullest  in  that  art,  b.  1.  ..  1581  j  Bartolomeo  Scappi  del    Cuoco  1643 

The  Honseholder's  Philosophic,  j  Wisdom's  Call  to  Temperance  l65t> 

■ito.  b.  I 1588  I  The   Schoolmaster,  or    Jeacher 

Partridge's    Treasury    of   Con-  |      of  Table   Philosophy,  small 

cietes,  and  Closet  of  Provision  1580        4to l652 

The   Good   Housewife's  Closet  |  The  Ladies' Companion l653 

of  Provision 1590  '  Lord  Ruthven's  Cabin«;t,  Ibmo.  l654 


INTRODUCTION. 


25 


Nature  uiiembowelled,  or  1720 

Receipts 1655 

Archimagirus's  Receipts  in 
Cookery,  by  Sir  Theodore 
Mayerne,  Physician  to  Chas. 

II 1658 

Lovell's  Cookery   l66l 

The  Complete  Cook l662 

The  Court  and  Kitchen  of  Eliza- 
beth Cromwell   1664 

May's  Accomplished  Cook. . . .     l665 
The    Office    of    Clerk    of   the 

Market 1665 

Sir  Kenelm  Digby's  Cookery..     l669 
Countesse  of  Kera's  Choice  Se- 
crets, &c 1671 

The  True  Gentlewoman's  De- 
light      1671 

Cookery  Dissected,  by  William 

Rabisha    l673 

Kitchen  Physic l675 

The     Gentlewoman's     Cabinet 

Unlocked,  7ih  edition,  l2mo.     1675 
Rose's   Sciiool   for  the  Officers 

of  the  Mouth l682 

Hartman's  Cookery,  and  De- 
scription of  aa  Engine  to 
Cook  without    Wood,  Coals, 

Candle,  or  Oil    1682 

Markham's  iMiglish  Housewife, 

.    -Ito 1683 

Hannah Woi. ley's  Rare  Receipts     l684 
The  Accomplished  Ladies'  De- 
light       1686 

Marnitte's  Perfect  English  Cook     1686 

The  Kitchen  1  hysician I688 

The  Cupboard  Door  Opened  . .     1689 
Tillinghasi's  Young  Cook's  Mo- 
nitor      1690 

The  Complete  Servant  Maid  ..     i6gi 

Tryon  on  Liquid  Food 169I 

'Iryon's  Good  Huswife  made  a 

Doctor 1692 

Thomas    Tryon's    Seventy  five 

Noble  Dishes 1606 

The  way  to  save  Wealth 1697 

Evylyn's     Discourse     on     the 

Thirty.fi ve  Sallets I699 

The  plain  dealing  Poulterer,  or 

Poulterer's  Shop  Opened, Bvo.    I699 
England's  ILippiuess  Improved 

—  no  date. 
The  Compleat  Cook's  Guide  . .     1701 
The  Accomplished  Female  In- 
structor         1704 

The  Cook's  Vade  Mecura    ....     1705 

The  Queen's  Cookery 1709 

Dr.  Salmon's  Cookery 1710 

Incomparable  Secrets  in  Cook- 
ery         1710 

The  Compleat  Cook 1710 


The  Whole  Duty  of  Woman,  and 

Guide  from  16  to  60 1712 

The  Court  and  Country  Cook. .     1712 
Le  vrai  Cuisinier    Francois,  et 
Maitre  d'Hotel,  par  le   Sieur 

de  la  Varenne 1712 

Hall's  Royal  Cookery I719 

Cookery  and  Pastry  Cards....     1720 

Lamb's  Royal  Cookery 1726 

Howard's  Cookery    1726 

Carte,  's  System  of  Cookery    . .     1730 

Mrs.  Eales' Receipts    1733 

Middleton's    500    Receipts    in 

Cookery 1734 

Smith's  Cookery    1734 

The  Young  Lady's  Companion     1734 
Three    Hundred    Receipts     in 

Cookery  1734 

Bailey's  Cookery  1736 

Dr.  King's  Art  of  Cookery,   in 

verse 1740 

Arnaud's  Alarm  to  all  Persons 
touching   their    Health    and 

Lives    1740 

Directions    for    Housekeeping 

and  Cookery 1741 

The  Family  Piece 1741 

The  Ladies' Companion 1743 

A  Present  to  a  Servant  Maid, 
or  the  sure  IVIeans  of  gaining 

Love  and  Esteem 1743 

Adam's      Luxury     and     Eve's 

Cookery  1744 

The   Accomplis-hed    Housewife     1745 
Cocchi  on  Vegetable  Diet  ....     1745 

Brownrigg  on  Salt 1748 

Kidder's  tieceipts   for  the   use 

of  his  Scholars    1750 

Lemery  on  Food,  Bvo 1750 

Ha  lison's  Family  Cook 1750 

The  Country  Housewife,  by  R. 
Bradley,  F.R.S.  and  Pro- 
fessor of  Botany  at  Cam- 
bridge       1753 

La  Chapelle's  Modern  Cook  ..     1754 
Miirtha  Bradley's  British  House- 
wife       1755 

Sarah  Jackson's  Cook  Director     1755 
Essay  on  Diet,  Nursing,  &c.  ..     1757 
Mrs.  Glassi.'s  Art  of  Cookery. .     1757 
Dr.    Moifett   on   Foods,  —  cor- 
rected  by  C.  Bennet,  M.D. 

and   R.James,  M.D 1757 

The  Cook's  Cookery,  and  Com- 
ments on  Mrs.  Glasse  1758 

Mrs.  Phillips'  Cookery    1758 

Ur.  ^Markham  on  the  Ten  Ingre- 
dients used  in  the  Adultera- 
tion uf  Bread 1758 

Jackson  on  Bread 1758 

Verral's  Cookery  ,, 1759 


26 


INTRODUCTION. 


E.    Cleland's    new    and    easy 

Method  of  Cookery 1759 

Dr.  Mauning's  Art  of  niakitig 

Bread    I759 

Primitive  Cookery    176" 

Virtues  of  a  Crust  of  Bread ....     1767 

Jeuk's  Complete  Cook 17(38. 

Considerations  relative  to  Bread     1768 

E.  Taylor,  Art  of  Cookery  — 

Berwick,  8vo I769 

The  isorthnmberland  House- 
hold Book  iu  1512 1770 

Mary  Smith's  Complete  House- 
keeper, 8vo 1772 

Sayer  on  I-ood,  Exercise,  and 
Sleep 1772 

The    Use    and    Abuse    of    the 

Steward's  1  able 1772 

Essay  on  Bread 1773 

'Ihe  great  Advantagtr  of  eating 

pai  e  Bread I773 

The  most  proper  Bread  for  ge- 
neral Use 1773 

Easy  \\:ty  to  prolong  Life  by 
attention  to%Nliat  we  Eat  and 
Drink    1775 

C  lermuni's  Cookery ,,..     I77C 

Adair  on  Diet. 

Sarah  1  Unison's  Housekeeper's 

Pocket  Book I777 

Observations  on  Uiet  and  Regi- 
men, by  Wni.  Falconer,  M.D., 
F.R.S 1788 

Pegge's  Forme  of  Ciiry,  com- 
piled by  the  Master  Cooks, 
A.D.  ir'AjO   1780 

Mason's  Cookery 1780 

Dr.  Graham  on  Regimen. 

Keilet's  Cookery    1780 

Borella's  Housekeeper's  Guide     1780 

Dalryniple's  Cookery 17HI 

Montague's  Cookery I78I 

Essay  on  Culinary  Poisons,  8vo.     178I 

Parmenlier  on  N  utritive  Vege- 
table« 1783 

Mrs.  Fisher's  Prudent  House- 
wife      17K8 

Dr.  Stark's  Dietelical  Experi- 
ments, 4to 1788 

Mrs.   Maciver's  Cookery,   &c. 

12nv 1789 

The  Complete  Housewife   ....     1790 

Effects  of  Hard  Drinking,  J. 
Lettsom,  M  D.,  F.R.S 1790 

Moxon's  Cookery I79O 

Royal  Household  Book,  from 
King  Edward  UI.  to  William 
and  Mary 1790 

Henderson's  Cookery 17yo 

Warner's  Antiquitates  Culina- 
riae,  4to 1791 


Briggs's  Cookery 1791 

Frazer's  Cookery 1791 

Coles'    Cookc'  y 1701 

The    Frei.ch    tamily    Cook    (a 
1  ranslation  of  La  Cuisiniire 

Bourgeoi^e)    1793 

Martin's  English   Housekeeper  1795 
The   Seaman's    Guide,    by    ihe 

Hon.  J.  Cochrane 1797 

Sandlord  on  the  Ettects  of  Wine 

and  Spirits I799 

Modern    Method  of  Regulating 

the  Table  with  Bills  of  Fare, 

&c.  folio. 

Skeat's  Art  of  Cookery  ,&c.4to. 

Collingwood     and      Williams' 

Cookery  1801 

Arrai  ged  Catalogues   of   Food, 
Drink,  &c.   by   G.    Pearson, 

M.D.,  F.R.S.,  &c 1801 

Practical  Economy,  by  a  Phy- 
sician      1801 

Millington's  Cookery    1805 

Rattald's  Cookery I8O6 

Culina  I'amulati  ix  Mcdirina;,  by 

A.  Hunter,  M.D.,  F.R.S., &c.  1807 

MoUard's  Cookery 18t;6 

The  Lincolnshire  Family  Jewel 

—  Lincoln,  l-2mo 1808 

.Macdonald's  Family  Cook....  1808 

Nutt's  Koyal  Cook    I8O9 

Melroe's  Cookery 1810 

Smith's  Female  Economist....  1810 

Domestic    Receipts 1810 

Mrs.  Carter's  Frugal  Housewife  1810 
Hints  to  Butchers,  Bakers,  and 

Fi^hmongeis    1810 

Family  Receipts    1810 

The  Bath  Cookery  Book 1810 

Frugal  Housewife lUll 

Farley's  Cookery 1811 

Mrs.  Powel's  Art  of  Cookery..  1811 

Newton  on  \'egetable  Regimeu  1811 

Simpson's  System  ofCookery.,  1813 

Domestic  Cookery    1813 

Honistoii's   Housekecjai 's   As- 
sistant, 12mo 1813 

Ude's  French  Cook 18)3 

Domestic  Management 1813 

Mrs.    Price's     Mew     book     of 

Cookery 1813 

The  Scliotd  of  Good  Living....  1814 

Reynold's  Piofes^ed  Cook....  1815 

Catharine  Brook's  linglishCook  1815 

Young's  Kpicure    .,  1815 

The  Epicure's  Almanack 1815 

The      HiHisekee  pet's      Receipt 

15<)ok,  8vo 1815 

Dallaway's    Servant's    Monitor  1815 

Burford's  Complete   Instructor  18lfi 

Haslehursi's  Family  Friend    ..  I8I6 


INTRODUCTION.  27 


Moubray  on  Breeding  and  Fat- 
tening Poultry    1816 

Hammond's  Modern  Domestic 
Cookery 18l6 

Complete     Housewife's      Best 


Fran9ois  ••.. 1752 

La  Science  da  Maitre  d'Hotel  1776 

La  Cnisini^re  Gasconne 1790 

Les  Dons  de  Comus,  3  toms...  1775 
Nouvelle   Chimie   du   Gout,   2 


Companion —  Derby 1817!      toms I8I9 


House's  Family  Cookery I8I9 

The  Banquet I8J9 

Tlie  Dessert    I8I9 

Sylvester's  Philosophy  of  Do- 
mestic Economy,  4to.  ......     I8I9 

Chamber's   Ladies'  best    Com- 
panion       1820 

Accum  on  Adulteration  of  Foods 

and  Drinks,  2d  Edit 1820 

Do.  on  Brewing  and  Baking..     1820 
Le  Menage  des  Champs  et  de  la 
Ville,  ou  Nouveau  Cuisinier 


La  Cuisini^re  Bourgeoise    ....  1798 

Le  Parfait  Cuisinier 1811 

Le  Nouveau  Cuisinier  ........  1812 

Le  Cours  Gastronomique    ....  180g 

Manuel  des  Amphitryons   ....  1808 

Almanach  des  Gourmands,  &c. 

8  toms * 1808 

Le  Cuisinier  imperial,  par  A. 

Viar,  homme  de  bouche  ....  1812 
L'Art  du  Cuisinier,  par  Beauvil- 

liers 1814 


During  the  Herculean  labour  of  my  tedious  progress 
through  these  books  —  many  of  which  did  not  afford  the 
germ  of  a  single  idea  —  I  have  often  wished  that  the 
authors  of  them  had  been  satisfied  with  giving  us 
the  results  of  their  own  practice  and  experience  — 
instead  of  idly  perpetuating  the  errors,  prejudices,  and 
plagiarisms,  of  their  predecessors,  —  the  strange,  un- 
accountable, and  uselessly  extravagant  farragos,  and 
heterogeneous  compositions,  which  fill  their  pages,  are 
combinations  no  rational  being  would  ever  think  of 
either  dressing  or  eating,  and  without  ascertaining  the 
practicability  of  preparing  the  receipts,  and  their 
fitness  for  food  when  done,  they  should  never  have 
ventured  to  recommend  them  to  others ;  —  the  reader 
of  them  will  often  put  the  same  qucere,  as  Jeremy,  in 
Congreve's  comedy  of  "  Lot: e  for  Love,"  when  Valentine 
observes,  '*  There's  a  page  doubled  down  in  Epictetus, 
that  is  a  feast  for  an  Emperor."  —  Jer.  Was  Epictetus 
a  real  Cook,  —  or  did  he  only  write  Receipts  ? 

Half  of  these  books  are  made  up  with  pages  cut 
out  of  obsolete  works,  such  as  the  "  Choice  Manual  of 
Secrets,"  the  "  True  Gentlewoman's  Delight,"  &c.  of  as 
c2 


28  INTRODUCTION. 

much  use,  in  this  Age  of  refinement,  as  the  following 
curious  passage  from  *'  The  Accomplished  Ladys  Rich 
Closet  of  Rarities,  or  Ingenious  Gentleivomans  Delightful 
Companion,''  12mo.  London,  1653,  chapter  7,  page  42; 
which  I  have  inserted  in  a  note  *  to  give  the  reader 
a  notion  of  the  barbarous  manners  of  the  \Qth  century, 
with  the  addition  of  the  Arts  of  the  Confectioner,  — 
the  Brewer, — the  Baker, — the  Distiller, — the  Gardener, 
—  the  Clearstarcher,  —  and  the  Perfumer,  —  and  how 
to  make  Pickles  —  Puff  Paste  —  Butter  and  Blacking, 
(SlTC.  —  together  with  all  my  Lady  Bountiful's  sovereign 
remedies  for  an  inward  Bruise,  —  and  other  ever- 
failing  Nostrums  —  Dr.  Killemquick's  wonder-working 
Essence,  and  fallible  Elixir  which  cures  all  manner 
of  incurable  maladies  directly  minute —  Mrs.  Notable's 
instructions  how  to  make  soft  Pomatum  —  that  will 
soon  make  more  hair  grow  upon  thy  Head,  —  *'  than 
Dobbin,  thy  thill  horse,  hath  upon  his  tail" — and  many 


•  "  A  GenUewoinan  bein^  at  table,  abroad  or  at  home,  must  observe  to  Ijcep 
her  body  straight,  and  lean  not  by  a.;y  means  with  her  elbows,  nor  by 
ravenous  gesture  discover  a  voracious  appetite;  talk  not  when  you  hare 
meat  in  your  mouth;  and  do  not  smack  like  a  Pig,  nor  venture  to  eat 
Spoonmeat  so  hot  that  the  tears  stand  in  your  Lyes,  which  is  as  unseemly  as 
the  Gentlewoman  who  pretended  to  have  as  little  a  Stomach  as  she  had  a 
Month,  and  therefore  would  not  swallow  her  Peas  by  spoonsful;  but  took 
them  one  by  one,  and  cut  ihcm  in  two  bclbre  she  would  eat  them.  It  is  very 
nncoraely  to  drink  so  large  a  draught  that  your  Breath  is  almost  gone  — and 
are  forced  to  blow  strongly  to  recover  yourself — throwing  down  your  liqiior 
as  into  a  Funnel  is  an  action  fitter  lor  .t  Juggler  than  a  Gcntletvoman ;  thui 
much  for  your  Observations  in  general  ;  if  t  am  defective  as  to  particulars, 
your  own  prudence,  discretion,  and  curious  observations  will  supply. 

"  In  Cakving  at  your  own  Table,  distribute  the  best  pieces  first,  and  it 
will  appear  very  comely  and  decent  to  use  a  Fork ;  so  touch  no  piece  of 
Meat  without  it." 

"  Mem.  The  English  are  indebted  to  ToM  Coryat  for  introducing  the 
Fork,  for  which  they  called  him  Furci/er."  —  See  his  Crudities,  vol.  i. 
p.  106.  — Edit.  lT7G,8vo. 


INTRODUCTION.  29 

Others  equally  invaluable  !  !  !  —  the  proper  appellation 
for  which,  would  be  "  a  dangerous  budget  of  vulgar 
errors,"  concluding  with  a  bundle  of  extracts  from 
"  the  Gardener's  Calendar"  and  "  the  Publican's  Daily 
Companion." 

Thomas  Carter,  in  the  preface  to  his  "  City  and 
Country  Cook,"  London,  1738,  says,  "  What  I  have 
published,  is  almost  the  only  book,  one  or  two  excepted, 
which  of  late  years  has  come  into  the  world,  that  has 
been  the  result  of  the  author's  own  practice  and  expe- 
rience ;  for  though  very  few  eminent  practical  Cooks 
have  ever  cared  to  publish  what  they  knew  of  the 
art,  yet  they  have  been  prevailed  on,  for  a  small 
premium  from  a  Bookseller,  to  lend  their  names  to 
performances  in  this  art,  unworthy  their  owning." 

Robert  May,  in  the  introduction  to  his  "  Accomplished 
Cook,"  1665,  says,  "  To  all  honest  and  well-intending 
persons  of  my  profession.,  and  others,  this  hook  cannot  but  he 
acceptable,  as  it  plainly  and  profitably  discovers  the  mystery 
of  the  whole  art  ;  for  which,  though  I  may  be  envied  by 
some,  that  only  value  their  private  interests  above 
posterity  and  the  public  good  ;  yet,  (he  adds,)  God 
and  my  own  conscience  would  not  permit  me  to  bury 
these,  my  experiences,  with  my  silver  hairs  in  the 
grave." 

Those  high  and  mighty  Masters  and  Mistresses  of 
the  Alimentary  Art,  who  are  commonly  called  "  Pro- 
fess" Cooks  —  are  said  to  be  very  jealous  and  myste- 
rious beings  :  —  and  that  if  in  a  long  life  of  laborious 
Stove  work,  they  have  found  out  a  few  useful  secrets  — 
they  seldom  impart  to  the  public  the  fruits  of  their 
experience,  but  sooner  than  divulge  their  discoveries  for 


30  INTRODUCTION. 

the  benefit  and  comfort  of  their  fellow-creatures  —  often 
run  the  risk  of  a  reprimand  from  their  employers, — 
and  will  sooner  spoil  a  good  Dinner,  —  than  suffer  their 
fellow-servants  to  see  how  they  dress  it ! ! ! 

The  silly  selfishness  of  short-sighted  mortals,  is  never 
more  extremely  absurd  —  than  in  their  unprofitable 
parsimony, — of  what  is  of  no  use  to  them,  —but  would 
be  of  actual  value  to  others,  —  who  in  return  would 
willingly  repay  them  tenfold  :  —  however,  I  hope  1  may 
be  permitted  to  quote  in  defence  of  these  culinary 
Professors  —  a  couple  of  lines  of  a  favourite  old  song: 

"  If  yon  search  the  world  round,  each  profession,  you'll  find, 
Hath  some  snug  little  secrets,  which  the  Mystery  •  they  call." 

My  Receipts  are  the  results  of  experiments  care- 
fully made,  and  accurately  and  circumstantially  re- 
lated : 


•  "  Almost  all  Arts  and  Sciences  are  more  or  less  encumbered  with  vulgar 
errors  and  prejudices,  which  avarice  and  ignorance  have  unfortunately 
sufficient  influence  to  preserve,  by  help  (or  hinderance)  of  mysterious,  unde- 
finable,  and  not  seldom  unintelligible,  technical  terms —  Anglicd,  nicknames 
—  which,  instead  of  enlightening  the  subject  it  is  professedly  pretended  they 
were  invented  to  illuminate,  serve  but  to  shroud  it  in  almost  impenetrable 
obscurity;  and,  in  general,  so  extravagantly  fond  are  the  professors  of  an  art 
of  keeping  up  all  the  pomp,  circumstance,  and  mystery  of  it,  and  of  preserving 
the  accumulated  prejudices  of  agus  past  undiminished,  that  one  mitlit  fairly 
suppose  those  who  have  had  the  courage  and  perseverance  to  overcome 
these  obstacles,  and  penetrate  the  veil  of  science,  were  delighted  with  placing 
difficulties  in  the  way  of  those  who  may  attempt  to  follow  them,  on  purpose 
to  deter  them  from  Uie  pursuit,  and  that  they  cannot  bear  others  should 
climb  the  hill  of  knowledge  by  a  readier  road  than  they  themselves  did :  and 
such  is  Vesprit  du  corps,  that  as  their  predecessors  supported  themselves  by 
serving  it  out  gradatim  et  stillatim,  and  retailing  with  a  sparing  hand  the 
information  they  so  hardly  obtained,  they  find  it  convenient  to  follow  their 
example  :  and,  willing  to  do  as  they  have  been  done  by,  leave  and  bequeath 
the  inheritance  undiminished  to  those  who  may  succeed  them."  —  See  page  7 
of  Dr.  KiTCHiNBR's  Observations  on  Telescopes,  3d  Edit. 


INTRODUCTION.  31 

The  Time  requisite  for  dressing  being  stated. 

The  Quantities  of  the  various  articles  contained 
in  each  composition  being  carefully  set  down  in 
Number,  Weight,  and  Measure. 

The  Weights  are  Avoirdupois;  the  Measure, 
Lynes  graduated  Glass,  i.  e.  a  Wine  pint  divided  into 
sixteen  ounces,  and  the  Ounce  into  eight  Drachms  :  — ■ 
by  a  Wine-glass,  is  to  be  understood  two  ounces  liquid 
measure ; — by  a  large  or  table  Spoonful^  half  an  ounce : 
—  by  a  small  or  Tea  Spoonful^  a  drachm,  or  half  a 
quarter  of  an  ounce,  i.  e.  nearly  equal  to  two  drachms 
avoirdupois. 

At  Price's  glass  warehouse,  near  Exeter  'Change, 
in  the  Strand,  you  may  get  measures  divided  into  Tea 
and  Table  Spoons. —  No  Cook  should  be  without  one, 
who  wishes  to  be  regular  in  her  business. 

This  precision  has  never  before  been  attempted  in 
Cookery  books,  but  I  found  it  indispensable,  from  the 
impossibility  of  guessing  the  quantities  intended  by 
such  obscure  expressions  as  have  been  usually  em- 
ployed  for  this  purpose  in  former  works. 

For  instance  :  a  little  bit  of  this — a  handful  of  that — 
a  nip  or  pinch  of  t'other,  —  do  'em  over  with  an  Egg  — 
and  a  sprinkling  of  salt,  —  a  dust  of  flour,  —  a  shake  of 
pepper,  —  a  squeeze  of  lemon,  —  or  a  dash  of  vinegar, 
&c.  are  the  constant  phrases;  season  it  to  your  Palate, 
(meaning  the  Cook's,)  is  another  form  of  speech: 
now,  if  she  has  any,  — it  is  very  unlikely  that  it  is  in 
unison  with  that  of  her  employers,  —  by  continually 
sipping  piquante  relishes,  it  becomes  blunted  and 
insensible,  and  soon  loses  the  faculty  of  appreciating 


32  INTRODUCTION. 

delicate  flavours,  —  so  that  every  thing  is  done  at 
random. 

These  Culinary  technicals*  are  so  very  differently 
understood  by  the  learned  who  write  them, —  and  the 
unlearned  who  read  them,  —  and  their  "■  rule  ofT/iumb" 
is  so  extremely  indefinite,  —  that  if  the  same  dish  be 
dressed  by  different  persons,  it  will  generally  be  so 
different,  that  nobody  would  imagine  they  had  worked 
from  the  same  directions,  which  will  assist  a  person 
who  has  not  served  a  regular  apprenticeship  in  the 
Kitchen,  no  more  than  reading  "  Robinson  Crusoe," 
would  enable  a  Sailor  to  steer  safely  from  England  to 
India. 

It  is  astonishing  how  cheap  Cookery  Books  are  held 
by  practical  Cooks :  when  I  applied  to  an  experienced 
artist  to  recommend  me  some  books  that  would  give 
me  a  notion  of  the  first  principles  and  rudiments  of 
Cookery,  he  replied  with  a  smile  — "  You  may  read 
Don  Quixote,  or  Peregrine  Fick/e,  they  arc  both  very 
good  books." 

Careless  expressions  in  Cookery  are  the  more  sur- 
prising, as  the  Confectioner  is  regularly  attentive,  in 
the  description  of  his  preparations,  to  give  the  exact 
quantities,  though  his  business,  compared  to  Cookery, 


•  "  In  the  present  language  of  Cookery,  there  has  been  a  woeful  departure 
from  the  simplicity  of  our  Ancestors,  such  a  farrago  of  unappropriale  and 
unmeaning  terms,  many  corrupted  from  the  French,  others  disguised  from 
the  Italian,  some  mis;ipplied  from  the  German,  while  many  are  a  disgrace  to 
the  English.  What  can  any  person  suppose  to  be  the  meaning  of  a  Shoulder 
of  Lamb  in  eyigram,  unless  it  were  a  poor  dish,  for  a  Tennyless  Poet  f 
Aspect  of  Jish,  would  appear  calculated  for  an  Astrologer;  and  shoulder 
of  mutton  surprised,  designed  for  a  Sheep  stealer."  —  A.  C.  Jun. 


INTRODUCTION. 


33 


is  as  unimportant,  as  the  Ornamental  is  inferior  to  the 
Useful. 

The  maker  of  Blanc-mange,  Custards,  &c.,  and  the 
endless  and  useless  collection  of  pretty  playthings  for 
the  Palate,  (of  first  and  second  childhood,  for  the 
vigour  of  manhood  seeketh  not  to  be  sucking  Sugar- 
candy,  or  sipping  Turtle,)  is  scrupulously  exact,  even 
to  a  grain,  in  his  ingredients ;  whilst  Cooks  are  unin- 
telligibly indefinite,  although  they  are  intrusted  with 
the  administration  of  our  food,  upon  the  proper  quality 
and  preparation  of  zvJiich,  all  our  poxiers  of  Body  and 
Mind  depend; — their  Energy,  being  invariably^  in  the 
ratio,  of  the  performance  of  the  restorative  process,  i.  e. 
the  quantity,  quality,  and  perfect  digestion  of  what  v^e 
eat  and  drink ;  and  a  sufficient  portion  of  sound 
Sleep,  ''  the  balm  of  hurt  minds,  chief  nourisher  in  life's 
feast,  gTeat  Nature's  second  course/' 

Unless  the  Stomach  be  in  good  humour,  every  part 
of  the  machinery  of  life  must  vibrate  with  languor ;  — 
can  we  then  be  too  attentive  to  its  adjustment! ! ! 


CULINARY  CURIOSITIES. 

The  fallowing  specimen  of  the  unaccountably  whimsical  Harlequinade  of 
Foreign  Kitchens  is  from  "  La  Chapelle"  Nouveau  Cuisinier,  Paris,  17^8. 

"  A  Turkey,"  in  the  shape  of  "  a  Football,"  or  "  a  Hedge-Hog."  —  "  A 
Shoulder  of  Mutton,"  in  the  shape  of  a  "  Bee-Hive."  —  "  Entree  of  Pigeons," 
"  in  the  form  of  a  Spider"  or  .S/<«-Fashion,  or  "  in  the  form  of  a  Frog,"  or, 
in  "  the  form  of  the  Moon."  —  Or,  "  to  make  a  Pig  taste  like  a  Wild  Boar;" 
Take  a  living  Pig,  and  let  him  swallow  the  following  drink,  viz.  boil  together 
in  vinegar  and  water,  some  rosemary,  thyme,  sweet  basil,  bay-leaves,  and 
sage  ;  when  you  have  let  him  swallow  this,  immediately  uhip  him  to  Death, 
and  roast  him  forthwith.  How  "  to  still  a  Cocke  for  a  weake  bodie  that  k 
consumed,"  "  take  a  red  Cocke  that  is  not  too  olde,  and  beate  him  tw 
death." — See  the   Eooke    of    Cookrye,   very  necessary   for   all   such 

C.5 


34  INTRODUCTION. 

as  delit^ht  therein.  —  Gathered  by  A.  W.  159I,  12mo.  p.  12.  How  to  Roast  a 
pound  o/" Butter,  curiously  and  well;  and  lo  farce  (the  culinary  technical 
for  to  stuff  J  a  boiled  kg  of  Lamb  with  Red  Herrings  and  Garlick;  with 
maDy  other  receipts  of  as  high  a  relish,  and  of  as  easy  digestion  as  the  Devil's 
Venison,  \.  e.  a  roasted  Tiger  stufied  with  tenpenny  >.'ails,  or  the  "  Bonne 
Bouchc,"  the  Rareskin  Rowskiinowmowsky,  oflfered  to  Baron  Munchausen 
"a  fricasee  of  Pistols,  with  Gunpowder  and  Alcohol  sauce,"  —  see  the 
Adventures  0/  Baron  Munchausen,  icmo.  1792,  p.  2O0: — and  the  hor- 
riblc  hut  authentic  account  of  AaoKsoiF  in  Moubray's  Treatise  on 
Poultry,  8vo.  I8I6,  p.  18. 

But  the  most  extraordinary  of  all  the  Culinary  Receipts  that  have  been 
under  my  eye,  is  the  following  diabolically  cruel  directions  of  jMizald's. 
"  Hoiv  to  roast  and  eat  a  Goose  alive."  —  "Take  a  GOOSE,  or  a  DUCK,  or 
some  such  lively  creature,  (but  a  Goose  is  best  of  all  for  this  purpose,)  pull 
off  all  her  feathers,  only  the  head  and  neck  must  be  spared:  then  make  a  fire 
round  about  her,  not  too  close  to  her,  that  the  smoke  do  not  choke  her,  and 
that  the  fire  may  not  burn  her  too  soon;  nor  too  far  oft",  that  she  may  not 
escape  free  :  within  the  circle  of  the  fire  let  there  be  set  small  cups  and  pots 
full  of  water,  wherein  salt  and  hone}'  are  mingled;  and  let  there  be  set  also 
chargers  full  of  sodden  Apples,  cut  into  small  pieces  in  the  dish.  The  Goose 
must  be  all  larded,  and  basted  over  with  butter,  to  make  her  the  more  fit  to  be 
eaten,  and  may  roast  the  belter  :  put  then  fire  about  her,  but  do  not  make  too 
much  haste,  when  as  you  see  her  liegin  to  roast ;  for  by  walking  about,  and 
flying  here  and  there,  being  cooped  in  by  the  fire  that  stops  her  way  out,  the 
unwearied  Goose  is  kept  in;  she  will  fall  to  drink  the  water  to  quench  her 
thirst  and  cool  her  heart,  and  all  her  body,  and  the  Apple  Sauce  will  make 
her  dung,  and  cleanse  and  empty  her.  And  when  she  roastcth,  and  consumes 
inwardly,  always  wet  her  head  and  heart  with  a  wet  sponge  ;  and  when  you 
see  her  giddy  with  running,  and  begin  to  stumble,  her  heart  wants  moisture, 
and  she  is  roasted  enough.  Take  her  up,  set  her  before  your  guests,  and  she 
will  cry  as  you  cut  off  any  part  from  her,  and  will  be  almost  eaten  up  before 
she  be  dead  :  it  is  mighty  pleasant  to  behold!  !!"  — See  Weckkr's  Secrets  of 
Xature,  in  folio,  London,  166O,  pp.  148,  309  •. 

"  We  suppose  IMr.  Mizald  stole  this  receipt  from  the  kitchen  of  his  Infernal 
Majesty :  probably  it  might  have  been  one  of  the  dishes  the  devil  ordered 
when  he  invited  Nero  and  Caligula  to  a  feast."  —  A.  C.  Jun. 

This  is  also  related  in  Baptista  Porta's  Natural  Magicke,  fol.  l658, 
p.  321.  This  very  curious  (but  not  scarce)  Book  contains  among  other  strange 
tricks  and  fancies  of  "  the  Olden  Time,"  directions,  "  how  to  Roast  a«d 
Boil  afoul,  at  the  same  time,  so  that  one-half  shall  be  Roasted  —  and 
the  other  Boiled;"  —  and  "  if  you  have  a  lacke  of  Cooks  —  How  toper, 
suade  a  Goose  —  to  roast  himselfe .' ! .'" 

Many  articles  were  in  vogue  in  the  14th  Century  which  are  now  obsolete — 


♦  See  Isote  to  (No.  59,)  how  to  plump  the  liver  of  a  Goose. 


INTRODUCTION.  35 

ve  add  the  following  Specimens  of  the  Culinaey  Affairs  of  Days  op 
Yore.  ~ 

Sauce  for  a  Goose,  A.D.  1381. 

"  Take  a  faire  panne,  and  set  hit  under  the  Goose  whill  she  rostes;— and 
kepe  clene  the  grese  that  droppes  thereof,  and  put  therto  a  godele  (good  deal) 
of  Wyn,  and  a  litel  vynegnr,  and  verjus,  and  onyonsmynced,  or  garlek;  then 
take  the  gottes  (gut)  of  the  Goose  and  slitte  horn,  and  scrape  horn  clene  in 
watur  and  salt,  and  so  wash  horn,  and  hack  horn  small,  then  do  all  this 
togedur  in  a  piffenent  (pipkin)  and  do  thereto  raisinges  of  corance,  and 
poudei-  of  pepur  and  of  ginger  and  of  canell,  and  hole  clowes  and  maces,  and 
let  hit  boyle  and  serve  hit  forthe." 

"  That  unweiidy  marine  animal  the  PORPUS  was  dressed  in  a  variety  of 
modes,  salted,  roasted,  stewed,  &c.  Our  ancestors  were  not  singular  in  their 
partiality  to  it ;  I  find,  from  an  ingenious  friend  of  mine,  that  it  is  even  nowj 
A.  D.  1790,  sold  in  the  markets  of  most  towns  in  Portugal — the  flesh  of  it  is 
intolerably  hard  and  rancid." — Warner's  Ant'iq.  Cul.  4to.  p.  15. 

"  The  Swan*  was  also  a  dish  of  state,  and  in  high  fashion  when  the  elegance 
of  the  Feast  was  estimated  by  the  magnitude  of  the  articles  of  which  it  was 
composed ;  the  number  consumed  at  the  Earl  of  Northumberland's  table,  A.  D. 
1512,  amounted  to  twenty." — Northumberland  Household  Book,  p.  108. 

"  The  Crane,  whs  a  darling  dainty  in  William  the  Conqueror's  time,  and 
so  partial  was  that  monarch  to  it,  that  when  his  prime  favourite  William  Fitz 
Osborne,  the  steward  of  the  household,  served  him  with  a  Crane  scarcely  half 
roasted,  the  King  was  so  highly  exasperated,  that  he  lifted  up  his  fist,  and 
would  have  strucken  him,  had  not  Eudo  (appointed  Dapifer  immediately 
after)  warded  oflF  the  blow." — Warner's  Antiq.  Cul.  p.  12. 

Seals,  Curlews,  Herons,  Bitterns,  and  the  Peacock— that  noble 
bird  "  the  food  of  Lovers  and  the  meat  of  Lords" — were  also  at  this  time  in  high 
fashion — when  the  Baronial  Entertainments  were  characterized  by  a  grandeur 
and  pompous  ceremonial,  approaching  nearly  to  the  magnificence  of  Royalty  : 
there  was  scarcely  any  Royal  or  Noble  feast  without  Pecokkes,  which  were 
stuffed  with  Spices  and  Sweetherbs,  roasted  and  served  up  whole,  and  covered 
after  dressing  with  the  skin  and  feathers — the  beak  and  comb  gilt  and  the  tall 
spread — and  some,  instead  of  the  feathers,  covered  it  with  leaf-gold: — it  was  a 
common  dish  on  grand  occasions — and  continued  to  adorn  the  English  table 
till  the  beginning  of  the  17th  Century. 

In  Massinger's  Play  of  "  the  City  Madam,"  Holdfast  exclaiming  against 
city  luxury  says,  "  three  fat  wethers  bruised,  to  make  sauce  for  a  single 
Peacock." 

This  Bird  Is  one  of  those  luxuries  which  were  often  sought,  because  they 
were  seldom  found  :  its  scarcity  and  external  appearance  are  its  only  recom- 
mendation— the  meat  of  it  is  tough  and  tasteless. 


•  "  It  isa  curions  illustration  of  the  de  gustibus  non  est  disputandum,  that 
the  ancients  considered  the  Swan  as  a  high  delicacy,  and  abstained  from  the 
flesh  of  the  Goose  as  impure  and  indigestible."— Mou  bray  om  Poultry, p.36» 


36  INTRODUCTIOX. 

Another  favoorile  Dish  at  the  tables  of  onr  Forefathers  was  a  Pie  of 
tto^eDdons  magnitude,  out  i.>f  which,  on  its  being  opened,  a  flock  of  li>ing 
birds  flew  forth,  to  the  no  small  surpiiie  and  amnsensent  of  the  gnests. 

*'  Four-and-twenty  Blackbirds  bak'd  in  a  Tie ; 

"  When  the  Pie  was  opeuM  the  birds  began  to  sing — 

"  Oh :  what  a  dainty  dish — 'lis  fit  for  any  King." 

This  was  a  common  Joke  at  au  old  English  Feast.  These  animated  Pies 
were  often  introduced  "  to  set  on,"  as  Hamlet  sajs,  "  a  quantity  of  barren 
•pectators  to  Ungh," — there  is  an  instance  of  a  Dwarf  undergoing  such  au 
incrustation. — About  the  year  l630.  King  Charles  ai}d  his  Queen  were 
entertained  by  the  Doke  and  Dutchess  of  Buckingham,  at  Burleigh  ou  the 
Hill,  on  %\hich  occasion  Jeffery  Hidsox,  the  DuarJ,  was  served  op  in  a 
cold  Pie.— Sec  NValpolk's  Anecdotes  of  Painting,  vol.  ii.  p.  H. 

The  Baron  of  Beef  was  another  favorite  anil  substantial  support  of  Old 
English  Hospitality. 

AmoBg  the  most  polished  nations  of  the  15th  aud  l6th  Centuries  the 
foudcred  (salted)  Hone  secuis  to  have  been  a  dish  iu  some  esteem  : 
Grimalkin  herself  could  not  e5ca|>e  the  andistiugnishing  fury  of  the  Cook. 
Don  Anthony  of  Guevera,  the  Chronicler  to  Charles  V.,  gives  the  following 
account  of  a  Feast  at  which  he  was  present.  "  I  will  tell  you  no  he,  1  sawe 
soch  kiudes  of  mcates  eaten,  as  are  wont  tj  be  sene,  but  not  eaien — os  a 
Horse  roasted — a  Cat  in  gdy — Lyzakds  in  hot  broihe,  Frocges 
fried,"  &:c. 

While  we  are  thus  considering  the  carious  diihcs  of  olden  limes,  \ve  will 
cursorily  mention  the  singular  diet  of  two  or  three  n.uiou6  of  antiquity 
noted  by  Herodotus,  L.  4.  "  Ihe  Androphagi  (the  cannibals  of  ilie  ancient 
world)  greedily  devoured  the  carcasses  of  their  fellow  creatares;  while  the 
iDofl°ensive  L'abri  (a  Scythian  tribe)  found  both  food  aud  drink  in  the 
agreeable  nut  of  the  Pontic  Tree.  The  Lotophagi  lived  entirely  on  the  fmit 
of  the  Lotus  Tree.  The  savage  Troglodyte  esteemed  a  living  serpent  the 
inost  delicate  of  all  morsels;  while  the  capricious  palile  of  the  ZyguJitini 
preferred  the  Ape  to  every  thing." — Vide  War.ner's  Antiq.  Cut.  p.  135. 

"  The  Romans,  in  the  luxurious  period  of  their  empire,  took  five  meals  a 
day  ;  a  Breakfast  (jentaculumj;  a  Dinner,  which  was  a  light  meal  without  any 
formal  preparation  (prandiumj;  a  kind  of  Tea,  as  we  should  call  it,  between 
dinner  and  s-.ipper  {merendaj ;  a  Supj>er  (canaj,  which  was  their  great 
meal,  aud  commonly  consisted  oftt\o  courses;  the  first  of  meats — the  second, 
what  wc  call  a  Dessert; — and  a  Pusse:,  or  something  delicivus  after  supper, 
(co»«/»«J«/M)>"— Adam's  Rom.  Antiq.  p.  454  and  447- 

The  Romans  usually  began  their  enteMainmeuls  wiih  eggs,  aud  ended  with 
fruits;  hence  Ab  ovo  csque  AD  mala,  from  the  beg;iuDing  to  the  end  of 
snpper,  llorat.  Sat.  i.  3.  6.;  Cic.Fam.  is.  £0. 

The  dishes  (edulia)  held  in  the  highest  estimation  by  the  Romans  are 
enumerated,  Cell.  vii.  10.  Macrob.  Sat.  ii.  0.  Martial,  v.  7;\  ix.  48.  xi.  53. 
tec.  a  Peacock,  (pavo,  v.  us}  Horat.Sat.  ii.  £.  C3.  Juvenal,  i.  143.  first  used 
by  Hortensias  ,the  orator  .at  a  snpper,  which  he  gave  when  adnmted  into  the 


INTEOUUCTIOX.  6/ 

tollege  of  priests,  (aditiali  cana  sacerdotii),  Plin.  x.  £0.  s.  23.  a  pheasant, 
;'PHASIANA,  cx  Thasi  Colchidisjluiio  )  Martial,  iii.  58.  siii.  "2.  Seuec.  ad 
Helv.  9.  Petron.  "0.  Manil.  v.  372.  a  bird  called  Attagen  vel  -iJia,  from  louia 
or  Phryaia,  Horat.  Epod.  ii.  54.  Martial,  xiii.  61.  a  gaiuea  hea,  {aih  Afra, 
Horat.  ibid.  Gallina  Xumidica  vel  A/ricana,  Javenal,  si.  142.  :Maitial. 
xiii.  73.)  a  ilelian  crane;  an  A:ubracian  kid;  nightingales,  lu&cinia ; 
thrushes,  titrdi i  ducks,  geese,  &c.  Tomaculcm,  (a  TEjOcva;),  ifZIsicicM, 
fab  iriscco),  sausages  or  paddings,  Juvenal,  x.  355.  Martial,  i.  42.  9. 
Petron.  Zl.—See  Adam's  Roman  Antiquities,  2d  Edition, 8vo.  17U2,  p.  447. 
That  the  English  reader  may  be  enabled  to  form  some  idea  of  the 
heteroseneous  messes  vith  wh'ch  the  Roman  Palate  was  delighted,  I 
introduce  the  following  Receipt  from  Apicius. 

"  Thick  Sacce  for  a  Boiled  Chicken." — Put  the  followi.^g  ingredients 
into  a  Mortar;— Aniseed;  dried  Mint,  and  Lazer  Root,  (fimilar  to  Asa- 
fcptija.)  cover  them  with  vinegar. — Aud  dales;  pour  in  Liquameji,  Oil,  and 
a  small  quantity  of  Mustard  Seeds— redcoe  all  io  a  proper  thickness  wi;h  Port 
Wine  wanned;  aud  ihen  por.r  this  same  over  your  Chicken,  which  should 
previously  be  boiled  in  Anise-seed  water." 

Liquamcn  aud  Carum  wove  synonymons  terms  for  the  sjme  thing; 
the  former  adopted  in  the  loom  of  the  la'ter — about  the  age  of  Aurelian.  It 
was  a  Liquid,  and  thus  prepared: — The  Guts  of  large  Fish  and  a  variety  of 
small  Fish,  were  put  into  a  vessel  and  well  salted,  and  then  exposed  to  the 
Sun  till  they  became  putrid.  A  liquor  was  produced  in  a  short  time,  which 
being  strained  ofi',  v.  as  the  Liquamen. — Vide  Lister  in  Apicinm,  p.  16,  notes. 
Essence  of  Anchory,  as  it  is  usually  made  for  sale,  wheaitbas  beenopenetl 
about  10  days, is  not  much  unlike  the  Roman  Liquamen.  See  No.  433. — Some 
suppose  it  was  the  same  thing  as  the  Rus-iau  Caviar,  which  is  prepared  from 
the  Roe  of  the  Sturgeon. 

The  Black  Br.OTH  of  Lacedcrmon  wiil  long  coutinue  to  excite  the 
wonder  of  the  Philosopher,  and  tee  disgust  of  the  Epicure.  Y*'h.u  the 
ingredients  of  this  sable  composition  were,  v,e  cannot  exactly  ascertain. 
Jul.  Pollux  says,  the  Lacedemonian  Elack  Broth  was  blood,  thickened  in  a 
certain  way:  Dr.  Li£TER  {in  Apicium)  supposes  it  to  h&se'bee-a  ho^'s  blood ; 
if  so,  this  celebrated  Spartan  dish  bore  no  very  dbtant  resemblance  to  the 
black-puddings  of  our  days,  it  could  not  be  a  very  alluring  mess,  since  a 
citizen  of  Sybaris  having  tasted  it,  declared,  it  was  no  longer  a  matter  of 
astonishment  with  him,  ^\hy  the  Spartans  were  so  fearless  of  death,  since 
any  one  in  his  senses  would  much  rather  die,  than  exist  on  such  execrable 
foo,i.  Tide  Athen-aum,  L.  iv.  c.  3.  When  Dionysius  the  Tyrant  had  tasted 
the  Black  Broth,  he  exclaimed  against  it  as  miserable  stuff;  the  Cook 
replied, — "  It  was  no  wonder,  for  the  sauce  was  wanting."  "  What  sauce  ?"  says 
Dionysius.  The  answer  was, — "  Labour  and  exercise,  hunger  and  thirst, 
these  are  the  sauces  ue  Lacedemonians  use,"  and  they  make  the  coarsest 
fare  agreeable.— CxcEF.o,  3  Tnscul. 


INVITATIONS   TO    DINNER. 


In  ''  the  AJfairs  of  the  Mouth"  the  strictest  punctuality 
is  indispensable;  —  the  Gastronomer  ought  to  be 
as  accurate  an  observer  of  Time,  as  the  Astronomer. 
The  least  delay  produces  fatal  and  irreparable  Mis- 
fortunes. 

Almost  all  other  Ceremonies  and  Civil  Duties  may 
be  put  off  for  several  hours  without  much  incon- 
venience, and  all,  may  be  postponed  without  absolute 
Danger. —  A  little  Delay,  may  try  the  patience  of  those 
who  are  waiting;  but  the  act  itself  will  be  equally 
perfect  and  equally  valid.  —  Procrastination  sometimes 
is  rather  advantageous  than  prejudicial.  It  gives 
time  for  Reflection  —  and  may  prevent  our  taking  a 
step  which  would  have  made  us  miserable  for  Life  ;  the 
delay  of  a  Courier  has  prevented  the  conclusion  of  a 
Convention,  the  signing  of  which  might  have  occasioned 
the  niin  of  a  Nation. 

If  from  Affairs  the  most  important,  we  descend  to 
our  Pleasures  and  Amusements,  we  shall  find  new 
arguments  in  support  of  our  assertions.  The  putting 
off  of  a  Rendezvous,  or  a  Ball,  &c.  will  make  them  the 
more  delightful.     To  hope,  is  to  enjoy. 

"  Man  never  is,  but  always  to  be  blest." 

The  anticipation  of  Pleasure  warms  our  imagination, 


INVITATIONS  TO  DINNER.  39 

and  keeps  those  feelings  alive,  which  Possession  too 
often  extinguishes. 

"  'Tis  Expectation  only  makes  ns  blest; 
"  Enjoyment  disappoints  us  at  the  best." 

Dr.  Johnson  has  most  sagaciously  said :  "  Such  is 
the  state  of  Life,  that  none  are  Happy,  hut  by  the  antici- 
pation of  Change :  the  Change  itself  is  nothing;  when 
we  have  made  it,  the  next  Wish,  is  immediately  to 
change  again." 

However  singular  our  assertions  may  have  at  first 
appeared  to  those  who  have  not  considered  the  subject, 
we  hope  by  this  time  v/e  have  made  converts  of  our 
readers,  and  convinced  the  "  Ajnateurs  de  Bonne  Chere' 
of  the  truth  and  importance  of  our  remarks ;  and  that 
they  will  remember,  that  Dinner  is  the  only  act  of  the 
day  which  cannot  he  put  off  with  Impunity,  for  even  five 

MINUTES. 

In  a  well  regulated  family,  all  the  Clocks  and  Watches 
should  agree ;  on  this  depends  the  fate  of  the  Dinner  ; 
•what  would  be  agreeable  to  the  Stomach,  and  restorative  to 
the  System,  if  served  at  five  o'clock, — will  be  uneatable 
and  indigestible  at  a  quarter  past. 

The  Dining  room  should  be  furnished  with  a  good 
going  Clock;  —  the  space  over  the  Kitchen  fire-place 
with  another,  vibrating  in  unison  with  the  former,  so 
placed,  that  the  Cook  may  keep  one  Eye  on  the  Clock, 
and  the  other  on  the  Spit,  &c.  She  will  calculate  to  a 
minute  the  time  required  to  roast  a  large  Capon  or  a 
little  Lark,  —  and  is  equally  attentive  to  the  degree  of 
heat  of  her  Stove,  and  the  time  her  Sauce  remains  on 


40  INVITATIONS  TO   DINNER. 

it  —  when  to  withdraw  the  Bakings  from  the  oven,  the 
Roast  from  the  spit,  and  the  Stew  from  the  pan. 

With  all  our  Love  of  punctuahty,  the  first  considera- 
tion must  still  be,  that  the  Dinner  "  he  u-ell  dune,  uhcn 
'ris  done.'' 

It  is  a  common  fault  with  Cooks  uho  are  uver'aniious 
about  Time  —  to  overdress  txcry  thing — the  Guests  had 
better  wait  than  the  Dinner  —  a  little  delay  will  improve 
their  Appetite*;  —  but  if  the  Dinner  waits  for  the 
Guests,  it  will  be  deteriorated  every  minute  :  —  there- 
fore the  Host  who  wishes  to  entertain  his  friends  with 
food  perfectly  well  dressed,  must,  while  he  most 
earnestly  endeavours  to  impress  on  their  minds  the 
importance  of  being  punctual  to  the  appointed  hour, — 
will  still  allow  his  Cook  —  her  quarter  of  an  hour's 
grace. 

The  old  Adage  that  "  the  Eye  is  often  bigger  than 
the  Belly,"  is  often  verified  by  the  ridiculous  vanity  of 
those,  who  wish  to  make  an  appearance  above  their 
fortune  —  nothing  can  be  more  ruinous  of  real  comfort 


•  "  II  y  a  trois  sortes  d'appeliis;  celui  que  Ton  eprouve  :i  jeun  ;  sensation 
imptricuse  qui  nc  chicane  point  sur  le  met',  et  qui  vous  fait  vciiir  I'eau  a  la 
bouclie  a  I'aspect  d'un  bon  ragout.  Je  le  compare  au  dtsir  impclueux  (i'uii 
jeuuc  homme  qui  voit  sourirc  la  beante  qu'il  aime. — Le  second  appttii  est 
celui  que  I'on  ressent  lorsquc,  s'etant  mis  a  table  sans  faim,  on  a  deja  goiite 
rt'un  plat  succulent,  et  qui  a  consacre  Ic  proverbe,  I'apfctit  lient  en  mangeant. 
Je  rassimile  ii  IViat  d'un  inari  dont  le  ccEur  ticde  s'eclnuffe  aux  premieres 
caresses  de  sa  fenime. — Le  troisicme  appetit  est  celui  qu'excile  nn  iiicls 
delicieux  qui  paraU  a  la  fin  d'un  repas,  lorsqne,  I'estomac  satisfait,  I'liommc 
sobrc  allait  quiltcr  la  table  sans  regret.  Celui-la  trouve  son  cmbl^me  dans 
Ics  feux  da  libertinagc,  qui  quoique  illusoires,  font  naitre  cependaut  quL-lques 
plaisirs  reels.  La  connoissance  de  cette  metaphysique  de  I'appetit  doit 
guider  le  Cuisinier  habile  dans  la  composition  du  premier,  du  second,  et  du 
troisiime  service."— C't>«r4  Gastrono7nique,  p.  64. 


INVITATIONS  TO  DINNER.  41 

than  the  too  common  custom  of  setting  out  a  table, 
with  a  parade  and  a  profusion,  unsuited  not  only  to 
the  circumstances  of  the  Host,  but  to  the  number  of  the 
Guests  :  —  or  more  fatal  to  true  Hospitality,  than  the 
multiplicity  of  dishes  which  luxury  has  made  fashion- 
able at  the  tables  of  the  Great,  the  Wealthy  —  and 
the  Ostentatious, — who  are  often,  neither  great  nor 
wealthy. 

Such  excessive  preparation,  instead  of  being  a  com- 
pliment to  our  Guests,  is  nothing  better  than  an 
indirect  offence;  it  is  a  tacit  insinuation,  that  it  is 
absolutely  necessary  to  provide  such  delicacies  —  to 
bribe  the  depravity  of  their  palates,  when  we  desire  the 
pleasure  of  their  company  —  and  that  Society  in  Eng- 
land, ':iow,  must  be  purchased,  at  the  same  price 
Swift  told  Pope,  he  was  obliged  to  pay  for  it  in 
Ireland  —  "I  should  hardly  prevail  to  find  one  Visitor, 
if  I  were  not  able  to  hire  him  with  a  bottle  of  Wine." — 
Vide  Swift's  Letters  !o  Pope,  July  \Oth,  1732. 

When  twice  as  much  cooking  is  undertaken  as  there 
are  Servants,  or  conveniencies  in  the  Kitchen  to  do  it 
properly  —  dishes  must  be  dressed  long  before  the 
dinner  hour,  and  stand  by  spoiUng  —  the  poor  Cook 
loses  her  credit,  and  the  poor  guests  get  Indigestions — 
Why  prepare  for  eight  or  ten  Friends,  more  than 
sufficient  for  twenty  or  thirty  Visitors  ?  '*  Enough  is  as 
good  as  a  Feast,"  and  a  prudent  provider,  who  takes 
measure  of  the  Appetites,  instead  of  the  Eyes  of  his 
Guests,  may  entertain  his  Friends,  —  three  times  as 
often,  and  ten  times  as  well. 

It  is  vour  SECOND  COURSES  —  ridiculous  variety  of 


42  INVITATIONS  TO   DINNER. 

Wines,  Liqueurs,  Ices*,  Desserts,  Sec. — which  are 
served  up  to  feed  the  Eye  —  that  overcome  the  Stomachy 
and  paralyze  Digestion,  and  seduce  *'  children  of  a 
larger  Growth"  to  sacrifice  the  health  and  comfort  of 
several  days,  —  for  the  Baby-pleasure  of  tickling;  their 
tongue  for  a  few  minutes,  with  Trifles  and  Custards!!! 
&c.  &c. 

"  Indigestion  will  sometimes  overtake  the  most 
experienced  Epicure  ;  —  when  the  gustatory  nerves  are 
in  good  humour,  Hunger  and  Savoury  Viands  will 
sometimes  seduce  the  Tongue  of  a  "  Grand  Gourmand^ 
to  betray  the  interests  of  his  Stomach,  in  spite  of  his 
Brains. 

*'  On  such  an  unfortunate  occasion,  when  the  Stomach 
sends  forth  eructantf  signals  of  distress,  for  help,  the 
Peristaltic  Persuaders  are  as  agreeable  and  effectual 
assistance  as  can  be  offered  ;  and  for  delicate  Consti- 
tutions, and  those  that  are  impaired  by  Age  or  Intem- 
perance, are  a  valuable  Panacea. 

**  They  derive,  and  deserve  this  name,  from  the 
peculiar  mildness  of  their  operation.  One  or  two  very 
gently  increase  the  action  of  the  principal  viscera,  help 
them  to  do  their  work  a  little  faster,  and  enable  the 
Stomach  to  serve  with  an  ejectment  whatever  offends 
it,  and  move  it  into  the  Bowels. 


•  Swilling  cold  Soda  Water  immediately  after  rating  a  hearty  diuner,  is 
another  very  unwholesome  custom. 

t  The  Strong  Peppermint,  or  Ginger  Lozenges,  made  by  Smith,  Fell 
Street,  Wood  Street,  Cheapside,  are  an  excellent  help  for  that  flatulence  with 
which  some  aged  and  Dyspeptic  people  are  afflicted  three  or  four  hours  after 
Dinner. 


INVITATIONS  TO   DINNER.  43 

*'  Thus  Indigestion  is  easily  and  speedily  removed, — 
^;);?e^?7e  restored, —(the  mouths  of  the  absorbing  vessels 
being  cleansed)  Nutrition  is  facilitated,  —  and  Strength 
of  Body,  and  Energy  of  Mind,  are  the  happy  results." — 
See  "  Peptic  Precepts,"  from  which  we  extract  the 
following  prescription  — 

To  make  Forty  Peristaltic  Persuaders, 
Take 

Turkey  Rhubarb,  finely  pulverized, — two  drachms. 
Syrup,  (by  weight)  one  drachm. 
Oil  of  Cairaway,  ten  drops  (minims.) 
Made    into  Pills,   each   of   which  will    contain    Three 
Grains  of  Rhubarb. 

"  The  Dose  of  the  Persuaders  must  be  adapted 
to  the  constitutional  pecuharity  of  the  Patient  —  when 
you  wish  to  accelerate  or  augment  the  Alvine  Exonera- 
tion—  take  two  —  three  —  or  more,  according  to  the 
eflPect  you  desire  to  produce  —  Tzco  Pills  will  do  as 
much  for  one  person,  as  Jiie  or  six  will  for  another ; 
they  will  generally  very  regularly  perform  what  you 
wish  to-day,  —  without  interfering  with  what  you  hope 
will  happen  to-morrow ;  —  and  are  therefore  as  con- 
venient an  argument  against  Constipation  as  any  we 
are  acquainted  with. 

*'  The  most  convenient  opportunity  to  introduce  them  to 
the  Stomach,  —  is  early  in  the  morning,  when  it  is  unoc- 
cupied, and  has  no  particular  business  of  Digestion, 
&c.  to  attend  to  —  i.  e.  at  least  half  an  hour  before 
breakfast.  Physic  must  never  interrupt  the  Stomach, 
when  it  is  engaged  in  digesting  Food. 

"  From  two  to  four  Persuaders,  will  generally  produce 
one  additional  motion,  within  twelve  hours.  They 
may   be   taken    at   any    time    by   the    most   delicate 


44  INVITATIONS  TO   DINNER. 

Females,  whose  constitutions  are  so  often  distressed 
by  constipation  —  and  destroyed  by  the  drastic  purga- 
tives they  take  to  reheve  it.'' 

The  Cloth*  should  be  laid  in  the  Parlour,  and  all  the 
paraphernalia  of  the  dinner  table  completely  arranged, 
at  least  an  hour  before  dinner  time. 

The  Cook's  labour  will  be  lost,  if  the  Parlour  table 
be  not  ready  for  action,  —  and  the  Caters  ready  for  the 
Eatables  —  which  the  least  delay  will  irreparably 
injure:  —  therefore,  the  Gouumand  will  be  punctual 
for  the  sake  of  gratifying  bis  ruling  passion;  —  the 
Invalid,  to  avoid  the  danger  of  encountering  an 
Indigestion  from  eating  ill-dressed  food ;  and  the 
Rational  Ep'cure,  who  happily  attends  the  Banquet 
with  "  mens  sana  in  corpore  sano,"  will  keep  the  time  not 
only  for  these  strong  reasons,  but  that  he  may  not  lose 
the  advantage  of  being  introduced  to  the  other  Guests. 
He  considers  not  only  what  is  on  the  Table,  —  but 
Who  are  around  it;  —  his  principal  inducement  to- 
leave  his  own  Fire-side,  is  the  charm  of  agreeable  and 
instructive  Society,  and  the  opportunity  of  making 
connexions,  which  may  augment  the  interest  and  enjoy- 
ment of  existence. 

It  is  the  most  pleasing  part  of  the  Duty  of  the  Master  of 
the  Feast,  (especially  when  the   Guests   are  not  very 


•  Le  Grand  Sommelier,  or  Chief  Bltler,  in  former  times  was  expected 
10  be  especially  accomplished  in  the  Art  of  folding  Table  Linen— so  as  to 
lay  his  napkins  in  different  forms  every  day — these  transformations  are 
particularly  described  in  Rose's  Instructions  for  the  Otlicers  of  the  Mouth, 
l682,  p.  Ill,  &c.  "  To  pleat  a  napkin  in  the  form  of  a  CockleShell  Double." 
— "  In  the  form  of^Hen  and  Chickens" — "  shape  of  two  capons  in  a  Pye"— 
or  "  like  a  Dog  with  a  Collar  about  his  Keck" — aud  many  others  equally 
wliimsical. 


INVITATIONS  TO   DINNER.  46 

numerous,*)  to  take  advantage  of  these  moments  to 
introduce  them  to  one  another,  —  naming  them  indivi- 
dually in  an  audible  voice,  —  and  adroitly  laying  hold 
of  those  ties  of  acquaintanceship  or  profession  which 
may  exist  between  them. 

This  will  much  augment  the  pleasures  of  the  Festive 
Board,  —  to  which  it  is  indeed  as  indispensable  a 
Prelude,  as  an  Overture  to  an  Opera:  and  the  Host 
will  thus  acquire  an  additional  claim  to  the  gratitude 
of  his  Guests.  —  We  urge  this  point  more  strongly, 
because,  from  want  of  attention  to  it,  —  we  have  seen 
more  than  once,  —  persons  whom  many  kindred  ties 
would  have  drawn  closely  together,  pass  an  entire  day 
without  opening  their  lips  to  each  other,  because  they 
were  mutually  ignorant  of  each  other's  names,  profes- 
sions, and  pursuits. 

To  put  an  end  at  once  to  all  Ceremony  as  to  the 
order  in  which  the  Guests  are  to  sit,  it  will  save  much 
time  and  trouble  if  the  Master  of  the  House  adopts  the 
simple  and  elegant  method  of  placing  the  name  of  each 
Guest  in  the  plate  which  is  intended  for  him. — This 
proceeding,  will  be  of  course  the  result  of  consideration, 
and  the  Host  will  place  those  together  who  he  thinks 
will  harmonize  best. 

Le  Journal  des  Dames  informs  us,  that  in  several 
fashionable  houses  in  Paris,  a  new  arrangement  has 
been  introduced  in  placing  the  company  at  a  Dinner 
table. 

''  The  Ladies  first  take  their  places,  leaving  intervals 


•  "  Depuis  long-temps  le  nonibre  des  Gi  ices  ou  celni  des  Muses  a  regie  les 
diners  airaables;  passe  ce  dernier  nombre  il  n'y  a  plus  ni  intimite,  ni  conver- 
sation generale."— Co?<r*  Gostronomique,  p.  311. 


46  INVITATIONS  TO  DINNER. 

for  the  Gentlemen ;  after  being  seated,  each  is  desired 
to  call  on  a  gentleman  to  sit  beside  her;  and  thus  the 
Lady  of  the  House  is  relieved  from  all  embarrassment 
of  etiquette,  as  to  rank  and  pretensions/'  &c. 

But  without  doubt,  says  the  Journalist,  this  method 
has  its  inconveniences. 

"  It  may  happen  that  a  bashful  Beauty  dare  not  name 
the  object  of  her  secret  wishes,  and  an  acute  observer 
may  determine,  from  a  single  glance, —  that  the  elected, 
is  not  always  the  chosen." 

If  the  Party  is  large,  the  Founders  of  the  Feast 
shoald  sit  in  the  middle  of  the  Table,  instead  of  at 
each  end,  —  thus  they  will  enjoy  the  pleasure  of 
attending  equally  to  all  their  Friends  —  and  being  in 
some  degree  relieved  from  the  occupation  of  Carving — 
will  have  an  opportunity  of  administering  all  those 
little  attentions  which  contribute  so  much  to  the 
comfort  of  their  Guests. 

If  the  GuRSTS  have  any  respect  for  their  Host,  —  or 
prefer  a  well-dressed  dinner  to  one  that  is  spoiled, — 
instead  of  coming  ha/fan  hour  after,  they  will  take  care 
to  make  their  appearance  a  quarter  of  an  hour  before  the 
time  appointed. 

The  operations  of  the  Cook  are  governed  by  the 
Clock,  —  the  moment  the  Roasts,  S^c.  are  ready,  they 
must  go  to  table,  if  they  are  to  be  eaten  in  perfection. 

An  invitation  to  come  at  Five  o'clock,  seems  to  be 
generally  understood  to  mean  Six',  Five  precisely, 
half  past  Fixe;  and  not  later  than  Five,  (so  that 
Dinner  may  be  on  the  table  within  ten  minutes  after, 
•llowing  this  for  the  variation  of  watches,)  Five 
o'clock  exactly. 


INVITATIONS   TO  DINNER.  47 

Be  it  known  to  all  Loyal  Subjects  of  the  Empire  of 
Goodlking,  that  the  Committee  of  Taste  have 
unanimously  resolved,  "  an  Invitation  to  ETA.  BETA. 
PI.  7nust  he  in  Writing,  and  sent  at  least  ten  days  before 
tlie  Banquet  —  and  must  be  answered  in  Writing,  {as  soon 
as  possible  after  it  is  received) — within  Twenty  four  hours 
at  latest" — especially  if  it  be  not  accepted  —  then,  in 
addition  to  the  usual  complimentary  expressions  of 
thanks,  &c.  the  best  possible  reasons  must  be  assigned 
for  the  non-acceptance,  as  a  particular  pre-engagement, 
or  severe  indisposition,  &c. 

Nothing  can  be  more  disobhging  than  a  refusal 
which  is  not  grounded  on  some  very  strong  and  un- 
avoidable cause,  —  except  not  coming  at  the  appointed 
hour;  —  "  according  to  the  Laws  of  Conviviality,  a  cer- 
"  tificate  from  a  Sheriff's  Officer,  a  Doctor,  or  an 
*'  Undertaker,  are  the  only  Pleas  which  are  admissible. 
"  The  duties  which  Invitation  imposes,  do  not  fall  only 
"  on  the  Persons  invited,  but  like  all  other  Social 
"  duties,  are  reciprocal. 

•'As  he  who  has  accepted  an  Invitation  cannot 
"  disengage  himself  from  it;  the  Master  of  the  Feast 
"  cannot  put  oft'  the  entertainment  on  any  pretence 
"  whatever.  —  Urgent  Business,— Sickness,  — not  even 
"  Death  itself  can  dispense  with  the  obligation  which  he 
"  is  under  of  giving  the  Entertainment  for  which  he  has 
"  sent  out  invitations,  which  have  been  accepted;  —  for 
"  in  the  extreme  cases  of  compulsory  Absence,  or 
*'  Death,  his  pkce  may  be  filled  by  his  Friend  or 
"  Executor." —  Vide  le  Manuel  des  Amphitryons,  8vo. 
Paris,  1808,  f/  Corns  Gastronomique,  1809;  —  to  which 
the  reader  is  referred  for  further  Instructions. 


48  INVITATIONS  TO  DINNER. 

It  is  the  hast  Punishment  that  a  blundering  Ill-Bred 
Booby  can  receive^  txho  comes  half  an  hour  after  the  time  he 
•ii;<is  bidden,  to  Jind  the  Soup  removed,  and  the  Fish  cold: 
moreover,  for  such  an  Oftence,  let  him  also  be  mulcted 
in  a  pecuniary  Penalty,  to  be  applied  to  the  fund  for 
THE  BENEFIT  OF  DECAYED  COOKS.  This  is  the  least 
punishment  that  can  be  inflicted  on  one  whose  silence, 
or  violation  of  an  engag:ement,  tends  to  paralyze  an 
entertainment,  and  to  draw  his  friend  into  useless 
expense. 

Box  LEA  u,  the  French  satirist,  has  a  shrewd  obser- 
vation on  this  subject.  "  1  have  always  been  punctual 
"  at  the  hour  of  Dinner,"  says  the  Bard,  "  for  1  knew, 
"  that  all  those  whom  I  kept  waiting  at  that  provoking 
"  interval,  would  employ  those  unpleasant  moments, 
"  to  sum  up  all  my  faults.  —  Boileau  is  indeed  a  man 
*<  of  Genius  —  a  very  honest  man;  —  but  that  dilatory 
"  and  procrastinating  way  he  has  got  into,  would  mar 
"  the  virtues  of  an  Angel." 

There  are  some,  who  seldom  keep  an  appointment; 
—  we  can  assure  tbem  they  as  seldom  "  'scape  without 
whipping" — and  exciting  those  murmurs  which  inevit- 
ably proceed  from  t'le  best  regulated  Stomachs, — when 
they  are  empty  and  impatient  to  be  filled. 

The  most  amiable  Animals,  when  hungry,  become 
Ill-tempered,  —  our  best  Fiiends  employ  the  time  they 
are  kept  waiting,  in  recollecting  and  repeating  any  real 
faults  we  have,  —  and  attributing  to  us  a  thousand 
imaginary  ones. 

Ill-Bred  Beings,  who  indulge  their  own  caprice, 
regardless  how  they  wound  the  feelings  of  others, 
if  they   possess   brilliant   and    useful   talents,  —  may 


CARVING. 


49 


occasionally  be  endured  as  convenient  Tools;  — 
but  deceive  themselves  sadly,  if  they  possess  all  the 
Wisdom,  and  all  the  Wit  in  the  World,  — they  fancy 
they  can  ever  be  esteemed  as  Friends. 

Manners  make  the  Man. 

Good  Manners  have  often  made  the  Fortune  of 
many,  who  have  had  nothing  else  to  recommend  them : 

III  Manners  have  as  often  marred  the  hopes,  of 
those  who  have  had  every  thing  else  to  advance  them. 

These  regulations  may  appear  a  little  rigorous  to 
those  phlegmatic  philosophers, 


I,  past  all  pleasures,  damn  the  joys  of  sense, 
1  rev'rend  dulness,  and  grave  impotence;" 


"  Who.  . 

"  With  rev'rend 


and  are  incapable  of  comprehending  the  Importance 
(especially  when  many  are  invited)  of  a  truly  hospitable 
Entertainment:  but  Genuine  Connoisseurs  in  the  Science 
of  Good  Cheer,  will  vote  us  Thanks  for  our  endeavours 
to  initiate  well-disposed  Amateurs, 

CARVING. 

Ceremony,  does  not  in  any  thing,  more  commonly, 
and  completely  triumph  over  Comfort,  than  in  the 
administration  of  "  the  Honours  of  the  Table." 

Those  who  serve  out  the  Loaves  and  Fishes,  seldom 
seem  to  understand,  that  he  is  the  best  Carver  —  who 
fills  the  plates  of  the  greatest  number  of  Guests,  in 
the  least  portion  of  time. 

To  effect  this,^//  the  Plates  and  send  them  round  — 


50  CAR^I^■G. 

instead  of  asking' each  Individual  if  they  choose  Soiij) 

—  Fish,  &c.  or  what  particular  part  tliey  prefer  —  for 
as  they  cannot  all  be  Choosers  —  you  will  thus  escape 
making  any  invidious  distinctions. 

A  dexterous  Carver*,  (especially  if  he  be  possessed 
with  that  determined  enemy  to  Ceremony  and  Sauce,  a 
keen  appetite,)  will  help  half  a  dozen  people  in  half  the 
time,  one  of  your  would  be  thought  polite  folks  wastes 
in  making  civil  faces,  <&rc.  to  a  single  Guest. 

Jt  uoitld  save  a  great  deal  of  Time,  <^c.  if  Poultry, 
especially  large  Turkeys  and  Geese  —  were  sent  to 
table  ready  cut  up.  (No.  530*.) 

Fish  that  is  fried,  should  !)e  previously  divided  into 
such  portions  as  are  fit  to  liclp  at  table  —  see  (No.  145.) 

A  prudent  Carver  will  cut  fairt ;  and  observe  an 
equitable  distribution  of  the  Dainties  he  is  serving  out 

—  and  regulate  his  helps,  by  the  proportion  which  his 
dish  bears  to  the  number  he  has  to  divide  it  amongst, 

—  taking  into  this  reckoning,  the  quantum  of  Appetite 

—  the  several  guests  are  presumed  to  possess. 

•  In  Days  of  Yore  "  I.e  Grand  Ecuyer  Tranthant,"  or  the  Master 
Cah  vtn,  wastlie  next  Officer  of  the  Mouth  in  rank  tothe  "  Militred'Hutel," 
^nd  the  technical  terms  of  his  Art,  were  as  singular  as  any  of  those  >vliicli 
ornament  "  Grose's  Classical  Slang  Dictionary,"  or"  Ihe  Gipsies  Ciliberi^Ii  :" 
the  only  one  of  these  old  phrases  now  in  common  u?c  is,  "  cut  up  the 
TiKKET," — we  are  no  longer  desired  to  "  disfigure  a  Peacock" — "  unbrace 
a  DncR"  —  "  unlace  a  Conev"  — "  tame  a  Crab"  —  "  tire  an  Euc"  —  and 
"  spoil  the  Hen,"  &c.  —See  Instructions/or  the  Officers  of  the  Mouth,  by 
Rose,  i68C. 

+  Those  in  the  Parlour,  should  recollect  the  importance  of  setting  a  good 
example  to  their  friends  at  the  second  table.  —  Tf  they  cut  Bread,  —  Meat  — 
Cheese— &c.  fairly — it  will  go  twice  as  far  as  if  they  hack  and  mangle  it— 
a*  if  they  had  not  half  so  much  consideration  for  those  in  the  Kitchen,  as  a 
■^)od  Sportsman  has  for  Lis  Dogs. 


CARVING.  Ol 

"  Study  their  Genius,  caprices,  Gout  — 

"  They,  in  return,  may  haply  study  you  : 

'*  Some  wish  a  Piuioo,  some  prefer  a  Leg, 

"  Some  for  a  IMerry-thought,  or  Sidesbone  beg  :  — 

"  The  wings  of  Fowls,  then  slices  of  the  round, — 

"  The  triiil  of  Woodcock,  of  Codfish  the  sound. 

"  Let  strict  impartiality  preside  — 

"  Nor  freak,  nor  favour,  nor  affection  guide." 

From  the  Banquet. 

The  Guest  who  wislies  to  ensure  a  hearty  welcome, 
and  frequent  invitation  to  the  board  of  hospitaUty, 
may  calculate  that  the  ''  easier  he  is  pleased,  the 
oftener  he  will  be  invited  ;"  instead  of  unblushingly  de- 
manding of  the  fair  Hostess  that  the  prime  "  tit  bit"  of 
every  dish  be  put  on  his  plate  —  must  receive,  (if  not 
with  pleasure  —  or  even  content)  with  the  liveliest  ex- 
pressions of  thankfulness  whatever  is  presented  to  him, 

—  and  let  him  not  forget  to  praise  the  Cook,  and  the 
same  shall  be  reckoned  unto  him  even  as  the  praise  of 
the  Mistress, 

The  Invalid  or  the  EpicurCj  when  he  dines  out,  to 
save  trouble  to  his  friends,  may  carry  with  him  a  port- 
able Magazine  of  Taste,  (See  No.  463.) 

"  If  he  does  not  like  his  fare,  he  may  console 
himself  with  the  reflexion,  that  he  need  not  expose  his 
Mouth  to  the  like  mortification  again ;  —  Mercy  to  the 
feelings  of  the  Mistress  of  the  Mansion,  will  forbid  his 
then  appearing  otherwise  than  absolutely  delighted  with 
it, — notwithstanding  it  may  be  his  extreme  antipathy." 

"  If  he  likes  it  ever  so  little,  he  will  find  occasion  to 
congratulate  himself  on  the  advantage  his  digestive 
organs  will  derive  from  his  making  a  moderate  dinner, 

—  and  consolation  from  contemplating  the  double 
relish  he  is  creating  for  the  following  meal,  and  antici- 

d2 


62  CARVING. 

pating  the  (to  him)  rare  and  delicious  zest  of  (that  best 
sauce)  good  appetite,  and  an  unrestrained  indulgence 
of  his  gormandizing  fancies  at  the  Chop-house  he 
frequents." 

**  Never  intrust  a  Cook-Teaser  with  the  important 
office  of  Carver,  —  or  place  him  within  reach  of  a 
Sauce-boat.     These  Chop-house  Cormorants,  who 

"  Critique  yonr  wine,  and  analyze  your  meat, 
Yet  on  plain  piulding  deign  at  home  to  eat," 

are,  generally,  tremendously  officious  in  serving  out 
the  loaves  and  fishes  of  other  people,  —  for,  under  the 
notion  of  appearing  exquisitely  amiable  —  and  killingly 
agreeable  to  the  Guests  —  they  are  ever  on  the  watch  to 
distribute  themselves  —  the  dainties  —  which  it  is  the 
peculiar  part  of  the  Master  and  Mistress  to  serve  out, 
and  is  to  them  the  most  pleasant  part  of  the  business 
of  the  Banquet, —  the  pleasure  of  helping  their  friends 
is  the  gratification,  which  is  their  reward  for  the  trouble 
Ihey  have  had  in  preparing  the  Feast:  such  Gentry  are 
the  terror  of  all  good  Housewives;  — to  obtain  their 
favourite  Cut  —  they  will  so  unmercifully  mangle  your 
Joints,  —  that  a  dainty  dog  would  hardly  get  a  meal 
from  them  after,  —  which  managed  by  the  considerative 
hands  of  an  old  Housekeeper,  would  furnish  a  decent 
Dinner  for  a  large  Family."  —  Vide  '■^Almanack  cies 
Gourmands!' 

I  once  heard  a  gentle  hint  on  this  subject,  given  to  a 
Blue-mould  fancier,  who  by  looking  too  long  at  a 
Stilton  cheese,  was  at  last  completely  overcome  by  his 
Eye  exciting  his  Appetite,  till  it  became  quite  un- 
governable and  unconscious  of  every  thing  but  the  mity 


CARVING.  53 

object  of  his  contemplation ;  he  began  to  pick  out  in 
no  small  portions,  the  primest  parts  his  Eye  could 
select  from  the  centre  of  the  Cheese. 

The  good-natured  Founder  of  the  Feast,  highly 
amused  at  the  Ecstacies  each  morsel  created  in  its 
passage  over  the  palate  of  the  enraptured  Gourmand, 
thus  encouraged  the  perseverance  of  his  Guest — "  Cut 
away,  my  dear  sir,  cut  away,  use  no  Ceremony,  I  pray  : 
—  I  hope  you  will  pick  out  all  the  best  of  my  Cheese — 
THE  RIND  and  the  rotten  will  do  very  well  for  my  Wife 
and  Family  !  /" 

Half  the  trouble  o/"  waiting  at  table  may  be  sated, 
by  giving  each  guest,  two  plates,  two  knives  and  forks, 
two  pieces  of  bread,  a  spoon,  a  wine  glass,  and  a  tum- 
bler, and  placing  the  Wines  and  Sauces,  and  the 
Magazine  of  Taste,  463,  &c.  as  a  Dormant,  in  the 
centre  of  the  table ;  one  neighbour  may  then  help 
another. 

Dinner  tables  are  seldom  sufficiently  lighted,  or 
attended  —  an  active  waiter  will  have  enough  to  do, 
to  attend  upon  half  a  dozen  active  Eaters — there  should 
be  half  as  many  Candles  as  there  are  Guests  —  and 
their  flame  be  about  18  inches  above  the  table  —  our 
foolish  modern  pompous  Candelabras,  seem  intended 
to  illuminate  the  Ceiling,  rather  than  to  give  light  on 
the  Plates,  &c. 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO  COOKS*, 


AND  OTUrR 

SERVANTS. 


\.B.  Read  Die  pncodiiig  Preface,  &c.  and  "  the  Rj'dimevts  oi 
COOKERY,"  before  the  following  Addres?. 


On  your  first  coining  into  a  family,  lose  no  time  in 
immediately  getting  into  the  good  oraces  of  vour 
fellow-servants,  —  that  you  may  learn  from  them  the 
customs  of  the  Kitchen,  and  the  various  rules  and 
orders  of  the  House. 

Take  care,  to  be  on  good  terms  with  the  servant  who 
waits  at  table;  —  you  may  make  use  of  him  as  your 
Sentinel  to  inform  you  how  your  work  has  pleased  in 
the  parlour,  and  by  his  report  you  may  be  enabled  in 
some  measure  to  rectify  any  mistake;  — but  re(|uest  the 
favour  of  an  interview  with  your  Master  or  Mistress, — 
depend  as  little  as  possible,  on  seeond-hand opinions — judge 
of  your  Employers,  from  your  own  observations,  and 
f/ieir  behaviour  to  you,  —  not  from  any  idle  reports  from 
tlie  other  Servants,  who,  if  your  Master  or  Mistress 
inadvertently  drop  a  word  in  your  praise  —  will  innne- 


•  A  Chapter  of  Advice  to  Cooks,  will,  we  hope,  be  found  as  useful  as  it  is 
original :  all  we  have  on  this  subject  in  the  works  of  our  predccessurs,  is  ilii- 
following  :  "  I  shall  strongly  recommend  to  all  Cooks  of  lither  sex,  tu  keep 
their  htomachs  free  from  strong  liquors  till  after  Dinner,  and  their  Noses 
irom  snutt."  —  Fide  Clermont's  Professed  Cook,  p.  30,  8vo.  London,  1776. 


FRIENDLY   ADVICE  TO   COOKS.  55 

diately  take  alarm,  and  fearing  your  being  more  in 
favour  than  themselves,  will  seldom  stick  at  trifles  to 
prevent  it,  by  pretending  to  take  a  prodigious  liking 
to  you,  and  poisoning  your  mind  in  such  a  manner  as 
to  destroy  all  your  confidence,  &c.  in  your  Employers, 
and  if  they  do  not  immediately  succeed  in  worrying 
you  away  —  will  take  care  that  you  have  no  comfort 
while  you  stay. 

If  you  are  a  good  Cook,  —  and  have  tolerably 
fair  play,  —  you  will  soon  become  a  favourite  domestic 
—  if  your  Master  is  a  Man  of  Taste  —  but  never  boast 
of  his  approbation,  for  in  proportion  as  they  think  you 
rise  in  his  estimation  —  you  will  excite  all  the  tricks, 
that  Envy,  Hatred,  and  Malice,  and  all  Uncharitable- 
ness,  can  suggest  to  your  fellow-servants;  —  every  one 
of  whom  —  if  less  diligent,  —  or  less  favoured  than 
yourself — will  be  your  Enemy. 

While  we  warn  you  against  making  others  your 
Enemy  —  we  must  caution  you  also  to  take  care  that 
you  do  not  Yourself  become  your  own  and  greatest 
Enemy.  —  '•'  Favourites  are  never  in  greater  danger  of 
falling,  than  when  in  the  greatest  favour" — which  often 
begets  a  careless  inattention  to  the  commands  of  their 
employers,  and  insolent  overbearance  to  their  equals  — 
a  gradual  neglect  of  duty  —  and  a  corresponding  for- 
feiture of  that  regard  —  which  can  only  be  preserved 
by  the  means  which  created  it. 

Jf  your  Employers  are  so  pleased  with  your  conduct 
as-to  treat  you  as  a  friend  rather  than  a  servant — do 
not  let  their  kindness  excite  your  self-conceit,  so  as  to 
make  you  for   a  moment  forget  you  are   one.     Con- 


56  FRIENDLY   ADVICE  TO  COOKS. 

descension  even  to  a  proverb  produces  Contempt  —  in 
inconsiderate  minds  —  and  to  such  the  very  means 
which  Benevolence  takes  to  cherish  attention  to  duty, 
becomes  the  cause  of  the  evil  you  wished  to  prevent. 

To  be  an  agreeable  Companion  in  the  Kitchen, — 
without  compromising  your  duty  to  your  Patrons  in  the 
Parlour,  —  requires  no  small  portion  of  good  sense  and 
good  nature  —  in  a  word,  you  must  *'  do  as  you  would  he 
done  by." 

Act  for,  —  and  speak  of  every  body  as  if 
they  were  present. 

We  hope  the  Culinary  Student  who  peruses  these 
pages,  will  be  above  adopting,  the  common,  mean  and 
base,  and  ever  unsuccessful  way  of  "  holding  with  the 
Hare,  and  running  with  the  Hounds," — of  currying 
favour  with  fellow-servants  —  by  flattering  them,  and 
ridiculing  the  Mistress  when  in  the  Kitchen,  —  and  then 
prancing  into  the  Parlour  —  and  purring  about  her, 
and  making  opportunities,  to  display  all  the  little 
faults  you  can  find  {or  invent)  that  will  tell  well 
against  those  in  the  Kitchen  —  assuring  them,  on  your 
return,  —  that  they  were  praised^  —  for  whatever  you 
heard  them  blamed,  —  and  so,  excite  them  to  run  more 
extremely  into  any  little  error  —  which  you  think  will 
be  most  displeasing  to  their  Employers  —  watching  an 
opportunity  to  pour  your  poisonous  lies  into  their 
unsuspecting  ears,  when  there  is  no  third  person  to 
bear  witness  of  your  Iniquity  —  making  your  Victims 
believe,  it  is  all  out  of  your  sincere  regard  for  them  — 
assuring  them  (as  Betty  says  in  the  Man  of  the  World.) 
"  That  indeed  you  are  no  busybody  that  loves  fending 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO  COOKS.  57 

Dor  proving,  but  hate  all  tittling  and  tattling  —  and 
gossiping  and  back-biting,"  &c.  &c. 

Depend  upon  it,  if  you  hear  your  fellow-servants 
speak  disrespectfully  of  a  Master  or  Mistress  with 
whom  they  have  lived  some  time  —  it  is  a  sure  sign 
that  they  have  some  sinister  scheme  against  yourself — 
if  they  have  not  been  well  treated,  why  have  they 
stayed? 

"  There  is  nothing  more  detestable  than  defamation, 
—  I  have  no  scruple  to  rank  a  Slanderer,  with  a 
Murderer  or  an  Assassin.  —  Those  who  assault  the 
reputation  of  their  Benefactors  —  and  '  rob  you  of 
that  which  nought  enriches  them' — would  destroy 
your  Life,  if  they  could  do  it  with  equal  impunity." 

*'  If  you  hope  to  gain  the  respect  and  esteem  of 
others,  and  the  approbation  of  your  own  Heart  —  be 
respectful  and  faithful  to  your  Superiors  ;  obhging  and 
good  natured  to  your  fellow-servants  —  and  charitable 
to  all." 

*'  Let  your  character  be  remarkable  for  Industry, 
and  Moderation  —  your  Manners  and  Deportment,  for 
modesty  and  humility ;  and  your  Dress  distinguished 
for  simplicity,  frugality,  and  neatness,  —  if  you  outshine 
your  companions  in  finery,  you  will  most  inevitably 
excite  tiieir  Envy,  and  make  them  your  Enemies." 

"  Do  every  thing  at  the  proper  time." 
'*   Keep  every  thing  in  its  proper  place." 
"  Use  every  thing  for  its  proper  purpose." 

*'  Never  think  any  part  of  your  business  too  trifling 
to  be  well  done." 

d5 


58  FRIENDLY   ADVICE  TO   COOKS. 

"  Ea2:erly  embrace  every  opportunity,  oflearning-  any 
thing  which  may  be  useful  to  yourself— or  of  doing  any 
thing  which  may  benefit  others." — Dallaway's 
SenanCs  Monitor,  1815,  p.  165,  &zc.  a  work  well  wortii 
the  perusal  of  Young  Housekeepers. 

Do  not  throw  yourself  out  of  a  good  place  for  a  slight 
affront.  *'  Come  when  you  are  called,  and  do  what 
you  are  bid." 

Place  yourself  in  your  Master's  situation,  and  then, 
consider,  what  you  would  expect  from  him,  if  he  were 
in  yours. 

Although  there  may  be  "■  more  places  than  parish 
churches,"  it  is  not  very  easy  to  find  many  more  good 
ones. — 

"  A  rolling  stone  never  gathers  moss.'' 

**   Honesty  is  the  best  Policy." 

**  A  still  tongue,  makes  a  wise  head." 

*'  Saucy  answers  are  highly  aggravating— and  answer 
no  good  purpose." 

Let  your  Master  or  Mistress  scold  ever  so  much,  or 
])e  ever  so  unreasonable;  —  as  "  a  soft  answer  turneth 
away  wrath" — "  so  will  silence,  or  a  mild  answer,  be 
the  best  a  servant  can  make." 

"  If  your  Employers  are  hasty,  and  have  scolded 
without  reason  —  bear  it  patiently  —  thev  will  soon  s^ee 
their  error,  and  be  happy  to  make  you  amends  — 
muttering  on  leaving  the  room — or  slamming  the 
<loor  after  you,  is  as  bad  as  an  impertinent  reply  —  it  is, 
in  fact,  showing  that  you  would  be  impertinent  if  you 
dared" 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO   COOKS.  59 

**  A  faithful  Servant,  will  not  only  never  ^peak 
disrespectfully  to  her  Employers  —  but  will  not  hear 
disrespectful  words  said  of  them." — Trus leu's  Do- 
inestic  Management ^  p.  12,  17,  &c. 

Apply  direct  to  your  Employers^  and  beg  of  them  to 
explain  to  you,  as  fully  as  possible,  how  they  like  their 
Victuals  dressed,  —  whether  much  —  or  little  done*. 

Of  what  complexion  they  wish  the  Roasts,  of  a  gold 
colour,  or  well  browned,  and  if  they  like  them  frothed  ? 

Do  they  like  Soups  and  Sauces,  thick  or  thin, 
or  white  or  brown,  clean  or  full  in  the  mouth?  What 
accompaniments  they  are  partial  to? 

What  Flavours  they  fancy?  especially  of  Spice  and 
Herbs. 

"  Namqne  coquns  doraini  debet  habere  gulam." — Martial. 

It  is  impossible  that  the  most  Accomplished  Cook 
can  please  their  palates,  till  she  has  learned  their 
particular  taste  —  this,  it  will  hardly  be  expected,  she 
can  hit  exactly  the  first  time  —  however,  the  hints  we 
have  here  given,  and  in  the  7th  and  8th  Chapter  of  the 
Rudiments  of  Cookery,  will  very  much  facilitate  the 
ascertainment  of  this  Main  Chance  of  getting  into  their/ 
favour. 

Be  extremely  cautious  of  Seasoning  High,  —  leave  it  to 
the  Eaters,  to  add  the  piquante  condiments,  according 
to  their  own  palate  and  fancy :  for  this  purpose, 
"  The  MAGAZi'isrE  of  Taste,"  or  "  Sauce-box'',''  (No. 
463.)   will   be   found    an    invaluable   acquisition  —  its 


*  Meat  that  is  not  to  be    cut   till    it    is  Cold,   mist   be    thorouglily  done, 
especially  ia  summer. 


60  FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO   COOKS. 

contents  will,  instantaneously,  produce  any  flavour  that 
may  be  desired. 

"  De  gustibus  non  est  disputandnin." 

Tastes  are  as  different  as  Faces, — and  without  a 
most  attentive  observation  of  the  directions  g:iven  by  her 
Employers,  the  most  experienced  Cook  will  never  be 
esteemed  a  sagacious  Palatician. 

It  will  not  go  far  to  pacify  the  rage  of  a  ravenous 
Gourmand^  who  likes  his  Chops  broiled  brown  (and 
done  enough,  so  that  they  can  appear  at  table  decently, 
and  not  blush  when  they  are  cut,)  to  be  told  that  some 
of  the  Customers  at  Dolly's  Chop  house  choose  to  have 
them  only  half-done,  and  that  this  is  the  best  way  of 
eating  them. 

We  all  think  that  is  the  best  "way^  which  JVe  relish 
best,  and  which  agrees  best  with  our  Stomach :  —  in 
this.  Reason  and  Fashion  —  all  powerful  as  they  are 
on  most  occasions,  —  yield,  to  the  imperative  caprice  of 
the  Palate. 

Chacun  a  son  Gout. 

"  The  Irishman  loves  Usquebaugh,  the  Scot  loves  Ale  cali'd  Blue-Cap,— 
"  The  Welchman,  he  loves  Toasted  Cheese,  and  makes  liis  mouih  like  a 
Monsc-trap." 

Our  Italian  neighbours  regale  themselves  with 
Macaroni  and  Parmesan,  and  eat  some  things,  which 
we  call  Carrion. — Vide  Ray's  Travels,  p.  362  and  406. 

Whilst  the  Englishman  boasts  of  his  Roast  Beef, 
Plum  Pudding  and  Porter  — 

The  Frenchman  feeds  on  his  favourite  Frog  and 
Soupemaigre — 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO   COOKS.  61 

The  Tartar  feasts  on  Horse-Jlesh  — 

The  Chinaman  on  Dogs  — 

The  Greenlander  preys  on  Garbage  and  Train 
Oil — and  each  "  blesses  his  Stars  and  thinks  it 
Luxury." — What  at  one  time  or  place,  is  considered  as 
beautiful,  fragrant,  and  savoury,  at  another  —  is 
regarded  as  deformed  and  disgustful*. 

*'  Ask  a  Toad  what  is  Beauty,  the  supremely 
beautiful,  the  TO  KALON  !  He  will  tell  you,  it  is  my 
Wifcy — with  two  large  eyes  projecting  out  of  her  little 
head,  a  broad  and  flat  neck,  yellow  belly,  and  dark 
brown  Back.  —  With  a  Guinea  Negro,  it  is  a  greasy 
black  skin,  hollow  eyes  and  a  flat  nose.  —  Put  the 
question  to  the  Devil,  and  he  will  tell  you,  that 
Beauty  is  a  pair  of -Horns,  four  Claws,  and  a  Tail." — 
Voltaire's  Fliilos.  Diet.  8vo.  p.  32. 

Assafxtida  was  called  by  the  Ancients,  "  Food  for 
the  Gods."  The  Persians,  Indians,  and  other 
Eastern  people,  now  eat  it  in  Sauces,  and  call  it  by 
that  name: — the  Germans  call  ic  "  Dexil's  Dung" — 
Vide  PoMET  on  Drugs. 

Garlick,  and  Clove,  or  Allspice,  combined  in  certain 
proportions,  produce  a  flavour  very  similar  to  Assa- 
foetida. 

The  organ  of  Taste  is  more  rarely  found  in  perfec- 
tion, and  is  sooner  spoiled  by  the  operations  of  Time, 
excessive  use,  &c.  than  either  of  our  other  senses. 

There  are  as  various  degrees  of  sensibility  of  Palate, 
as  there  are  of  gradations  of  perfection  in  the  Eyes  and 


*  See  Chapter  xv.  "  Chaque  Pays,  chaqiie  Coutiime."~Cours  Castrono- 
mique,  8vo.  I8O9,  p.  l62. 


62  FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO   COOKS. 

Ears  of  Painters  and  Musicians:  —  after  all  the  pains 
which  the  Editor  has  taken  to  explain  the  Harmony  ol 
subtle  relishes,  —  without  nature  has  given  the  Orgart  of 
Taste  in  a  due  degree,  this  book  will,  alas  !  no  more  make 
an  OsBORN  * — than  it  can  a  Reynolds  —  or  an  Arne. 

Where  nature  has  been  most  bountiful  of  this 
faculty,  its  sensibility  is  so  easily  blunted,  —  by  a 
variety  of  unavoidable  circumstances,  —  that  the 
Tong-ue,  is  very  seldom,  in  the  highest  condition  for 
appreciating  delicate  flavours,  or  accurately  estimating, 
the  relative  force,  of  the  various  materials,  the  Cook 
employs  in  the  composition  of  an  harmonious  relish;  — 
Cooks  express  this  refinement  of  Combination  by 
saying,  a  well  finished  Ragout  *'  tastes  of  every  thing, 
and  tastes  of  nothing:"  (this  is  "  kitchen  gibberish,"  for 
a  Sauce  in  whicli  the  component  parts  arc,'  well 
proportioned). 

However  delicately  sensitive  nature  may  have 
formed  the  or;jans  of  Taste,  —  it  is  only  during  those 
few  happy  moments,  —  that  they  are  perfectly  awake, 
nnd  in  p-rfect  good  humour —  (alas!  how  very  seldom 
they  are)  that  the  most  accomplished  and  experienced 
Cook,  lias  a  chance,  of  working  with  any  degree  of 
certainty,  witp.out  the  auxiliary  tests  of  the  balance 
and  the  measure  : — by  the  help  of  these,  when  you  are 
once  right,  it  is  your  own  fault  if  yow  arc  ever 
otherwise. 

The  sense  of  Taste,  depends  much  on  the  health  of 
the  Individual,  and  is  hardly  ever  for  a  single  hour,  in 


•  Coek  to  Sir  Jusepu  Banks,  Bart.,  late  Prcsi(K'n!  of  ilie  liojal  Society. 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE   TO    COOKS.  63 

the  same  state,  — -  such  is  the  extremely  intimate 
sympathy,  between  the  Stomach  and  the  TongMie,  that 
in  proportion  as  the  former  is  Empty*,  the  latter  is 
acute  and  sensitive :  —  this  is  the  cause  that  "  good 
Appetite  is  the  best  Sauce" — and  that  the  dish  we  find 
relishing  and  savoury  at  Luncheon,  —  is  insipid  at 
Dinner,  —  and  at  Supper  quite  tasteless. 

To  taste  any  thing  in  perfection,  the  Tongue  must  be 
moistened,  or  the  substance  applied  to  it  contain 
moisture  —  the  nervous  papilla  which  constitute  this 
sense  are  roused  to  still  more  lively  sensibility  by  Salt 
—  Sugar  —  Aromatics,  &c. 

If  the  Palate  becomes  dull  by  repeated  tasting,  one 
of  the  best  ways  of  refreshing  it  —  is  to  masticate  an 
Apple,  or  to  wash  your  mouth  well  with  JMilk.  See 
p.  19. 

The  incessant  Exercise  of  Tasting,  which  a  Cook  is 
obliged  to  submit  to  during  the  Education  of  her 
Tongue,  —  frequently  impairs  the  very  faculty  she  is 
trying  to  improve.  "  'Tis  true  —'tis  pity  —  and  pity 
'tis,"  (says  a  grand  Gourmand,)  "  'tis  true,  —  her  too 
anxious  perseverance  to  penetrate  the  mysteries  of 
Palatics,  may  diminish  the  tact,  exhaust  the  power  and 
destroy  the  Index  Vvithout  which  all  her  labour  is  in 
vain." 

*  "  Son  Diner  sera  tonjours  une  pi^ce  en  trois  actes,  ou  la  gradation  des 
saveuis  suivra  celle  qu'  Aristote  present  pour  I'interet  I lientral. 

"  II  faut  preparer  avec  art  les  jonissances  du  gourmand;  Le  Premier 
service  doit  ttre  doiix  et  feu  epici  ;  c'est  I'acte  d'exposition :  T.e  Second — 
plus  iiiteressant,  plus  releve  :  Le  Troisieme,  appeler  ensuite  a  son  secours  le 
Sucre  et  I'atnbrosie,  s'armer  des  brulaiis  aroniates,  des  spiritueux  volaliles,  ft 
<emp^rer  de  tpmps  en  temps  leur  energie  par  la  fraicliPur  des  fniiti 
savouienx." — Court  Gastronomique,  p.  67  and  312. 


64  FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO   COOKS. 

Therefore,  a  sagacious  Cook,  instead  of  idly  and 
wantonly  wasting  the  excitability  of  her  Palate  —  on 
the  sensibility  of  which,  her  reputation  and  fortune 
depends,  when  she  lias  ascertained  the  relative 
strength  of  the  flavour  of  the  various  ingredients  she 
employs,  will  call  in  the  Balance  and  the  Measure,  to 
do  the  ordinary  business,  and  endeavour  to  preserve 
her  Organ  of  Taste,  with  the  utmost  care,  that  it  may 
be  a  faithful  Oracle,  to  refer  to,  on  Grand  occasions, 
and  new  Compositions*,  —  of  these  an  ingenious  Cook 
may  form  as  endless  a  variety,  as  a  Musician  with  his 
seven  notes,  or  a  Painter  with  his  colours:  —  read 
chapters  7  and  8  of  the  Rudiments  of  Cookery. 


•  "  The  diversities  of  Tasti-  are  so  many  arn'  so  considerable,  that  it  seeraeth 
strange  to  see  the  matter  treated  of,  both  by  Philosophers  and  I'hysicians  with 
so  much  scantiness  and  delect:  for  the  tubject  is  not  barren,  but  yieldeth 
mnch  a';d  pleasant  variety,  and  doth  also  appear  to  be^  of  great  importance." 
— Fiom  Dr.  Crew's  Anatomy  of  Plants,  fol.  1682,  p.  286.  The  Dr. 
enumerates  sixteen  ^ilnple  tastes:  however,  it  is  ditficult  to  define  more  than 
fix. — Is-t.  Bitter  as  Wormwood.  2d.  Sweet  as  Sugar.  3d.  Sour  as  Vinegar. 
4th.  Salt  as  Brine.  5th.  Cold  as  Ice.  6th.  Hot  as  Brandy.  Compound 
lastcs,  inuuiiierable,  may  be  foimed  by  the  conibiaatioD  of  these  simple  tastes 
— as  words  are  of  letters." 

"  Si  I'association  de  certaiiies  couleors  plaisent  ^  I'oeil,  tandis  que  d'autres 
choqueiit  la  vue,  <le  meme  ceitaiues  saveurs  mariees  ensemble  flatlent  le  goGt, 
tandis  que  d'autres  repugnent  au  palais :  ainsi  le  jaune  et  le  violet,  le  vert 
avec  le  rose  font  un  elfet  agreable;  le  bleu  perd  sa  nuance  quand  il  est  mis 
sur  du  vert:  ainsi  le  sucre  s'aliie  ires-bien  avec  Ics  alimens  doux,  acides  on 
amers;  mais  il  ne  peut  s'ascocier  avec  les  substances  salees :  on  doit  done 
etudier  ces  convenances.  Je  vais  plus  loin  ;  il  faut  savoir  que  dans  la  bonche, 
les  organes  du  gout,  disiribues  sur  diHerens  points,  ne  sont  pas  tous  afl'ecies 
par  les  meuies  saveurs.  Le  pimeut,  par  exemple,  piq  te  principalement  les 
bords  lateraux  de  la  langue ;  la  canelle  slitnule  specialement  le  bout  de  ce 
meme  muscle;  le  poivre  fait  sentir  son  ardeur  sur  le  milieu,  les  amers  dans 
Je  fond  de  la  bouche,  les  spiritueux  au  palais,  et  sur  les  joues ;  il  est  meme 
des  substances  qui  ne  sont  sapides  que  dans  le  gosier,  et  d'autres  d::ns 
I'esloinar." — Cours  Gastronomique,  p.  Q5. 


FRIENDLY    ADVICE    TO    COOKS.  65 

Receive  as  the  highest  testimonies  of  your  Employer's 
regard,  whatever  observations  they  may  make  on  your 
work — such  admonitions  are  the  most  vnequiiocal 
proofs,  of  their  desire  to  make  you  thoroughly  under- 
stand their  taste  —  and  their  wish  to  retain  you  in 
their  service  —  or  they  would  not  take  the  trouble  to 
teach  you. 

Enter  into  all  their  plans  of  Economy*,  and  endeavour 
to  make  the  most  of  every  thing,  as  well  for  your  own 
honour  as  your  master's  profit  —  take  care  that  the 
Meat  which  is  to  make  its  appearance  again  in  the 
Parlour,  is  handsomely  cut  with  a  sharp  knife  —  and 
put  on  a  clean  dish  —  take  care  of  the  Gravy,  see 
(No.  326,)  which  is  left,  it  will  save  many  pounds  of 
Meat  in  making  sauce  for  Hashes,  Poult ry,  and  many 
little  dishes. 

Many  things  may  be  re-dressed,  in  a  different  form, 
from  that  in  which  they  were  first  served,  and  improve 
the  appearance  of  the  table  without  increasing  the 
expense  of  it. 

Cold  Fish,— Soles— Cod— Whitings— Smelts,  &c. 
may  be  cut  into  bits,  and  put  into  Escallop  Shells  — 
with  cold  Oyster,  Lobster,  or  Shrimp  Sauce,  and 
bread  crumbled  and  put  into  \  Dutch  Oven,  and 
browned  like  scalloped  Oysters.     (No.  182.) 

The  best  way  To  warm  cold  Meat  is  to  sprinkle 
the  joint  over  with  a  little  salt,  put  in  a  Dutch  Oven, 
at  some  distance  before  a  gentle  fire,  that  it  may  warm 


»  "I  am  persuaded  that  no  Servant  ever  saved  her  Master  sixpence,  but  she 
found  it  in  the  end  in  her  own  pocket." — Tkusler's  Domestic  Manage- 
ment, p.  11. 


66  FRIENDLY   ADVICE  TO   COOKS. 

gradually  —  watch  it  carefully,  and  keep  turning  it  till 
it  is  quite  hot  and  brown  ;  it  will  take  from  twenty 
minutes  to  three  quarters  of  an  hour,  according  to  its 
thickness— serve  it  up  with  Gravy; — this  is  much  better 
than  Hashing  it,  and  by  doing  it  nicely,  a  Cook  will  get 
great  credit.  Poultry,  (No.  530*.);  Fried  Fish, 
(See  No.  145.)  &c.  may  be  re  dressed  in  this  way. 

Take  care  of  the  Liquor  you  have  boiled  Poultry  or 
Meat  in :  in  five  minutes  you  make  it  into  excellent 
So  IP  —  see  Ohs.  to  (No.  555.)  and  229,  No.  5,  and  the 
7th  chapter  of  the  Rudiments  of  Cookery. 

No  good  Housewife  has  any  pretensions  to  Rational 
Economy  who  boils  Animal  food  without  converting 
the  Broth  into  some  sort  of  Soup. 

However  highly  the  uninitiated  in  the  Mystery  of  Soup 
making — may  elevate  the  external  appendage  of  his 
Olfactory  Organ  at  the  mention  of  "  Pot  Liquor,"  if 
he  tastes  (No.  5,  or  218,  555,  &c.),  he  will  be  as  well 
pleased  with  it,  as  a  Frenchman  is  with  "  I'otage  a  la 
Camerani,"  of  which  it  is  said  "  a  single  spoonful  will 
lap  the  Palate  in  Elysium,  —  and  while  a  drop  of  it 
remains  on  the  Tongue,  each  other  sense  is  eclipsed 
by  the  voluptuous  thrilling  of  the  Lingual  nerves  ! !" 

Broth  of  Fragments.  —  When  you  dress  a  large 
Dinner,  you  may  make  good  Broth,  or  Portable  Soup, 
(No.  252.)  at  vert/  amall  cost,  by  taking  care  of  all  the 
trimmings  and  parings  of  the  meat,  game,  and  poultry 
you  are  going  to  use  ;  wash  them  well,  and  put  them 
into  a  stewpari,  with  as  much  cold  water  as  will  cover 
them ;  set  your  stewpan  on  a  hot  fire ;  when  it  boils, 
take  "off  all  the  scum,  and  set  it  on  ag:ain  to  simmer 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO   COOKS.  67 

gently;  put  in  two  carrots,  two  turnips,  a  large  onion, 
three  blades  of  pounded  mace,  and  a  head  of  celery ; 
some  mushroom  parings  will  be  a  great  addition.  Let 
it  continue  to  simmer  gently  four  or  five  hours,  strain 
it  through  a  sieve  into  a  clean  basin.  This  will  save  a 
great  deal  of  expense  in  buying  Gravy  Meat. 

Have  the  Dust,  &c.  removed  regularly  once  in  a 
fortnight,  —  and  have  your  Kitchen  Chimney  swept 
once  a  month ;  —  many  good  Dinners  have  been 
spoiled  and  many  houses  burnt  down  by  the  soot 
falling  —  the  best  security  against  this,  is  for  the  Cook 
to  have  a  long  birch  broom,  and  every  morning  brush 
down  all  the  soot  within  reach  of  it.  —  Give  notice  to 
your  employers  when  the  contents  of  your  Coal 
Cellar  are  diininished  to  a  chaldron. 

It  will  be  to  little  purpose  to  procure  good  Provi- 
vions,  —  v/ithout  you  have  proper  Utensils*  to  prepare 
them  in :  the  most  expert  Artist  cannot  perform  his 
work  in  a  perfect  manner  without  proper  instruments  ; 
—  you  cannot  have  neat  work  —  without  nice  tools,  nor 
can  you  dress  Victuals  well  —  without  an  apparatus 
appropriate  to  the  work  required.  See  1st  page  of 
Chapter  Vil.  of  the  Rudiments  of  Cookery. 

In  those  houses  where  the  Cook  enjoys  the  confi- 
dence of  her  employer  so  much  as  to  be  intrusted  with 
the  care  of  the  store-room,  which  is  not  very  common^ 
she  unli  keep  an  exact  account  of  every  thing  as  it  comes  in, 
and  insist  upon  the  weight  and  price  being  fixed  to  every 


*  "  A  Surgeon  may  as  well  attempt  to  make  an  incision  with  a  pair  of 
Sheers,  or  open  a  vein  with  an  Oyster-Knife,  as  a  Cook  pretend  to  dress  a 
Dinner  wiihotit  proper  Tools."  —  Verrall's  Cookery,  8vo.  1759,  p.  vi. 


68  FRIExNDLY  ADVICE  TO  COOKS. 

article  she  purchases  —  and  occasionally  —  will  (and  it 
may  not  be  amiss,  to  jocosely  drop  a  hint  to  those  who 
supply  them  —  that  she  does)  re^ueigh  them,  for  her 
own  satisfaction,  as  well  as  that  of  her  employer,  and 
will  not  trust  the  key  of  this  room  to  any  one ;  she  will 
also  keep  an  account  of  every  thing  she  takes  from  it, 
and  manage  with  as  much  consideration  and  frugality 
as  if  it  was  her  own  property  she  was  using,  endea- 
vouring to  disprove  the  adage,  that  "  plenty  makes 
Waste,"  and  remembering  that  '•  wilful  waste  makes 
woefal  want." 

The  honesty  of  a  Cook  must  be  above  all  suspicion : 
she  must  obtain,  and,  {in  spite  of  the  nujubcrkss  Tempta- 
tions, S^'C.  that  daily  ofer  to  bend  her  from  it,)  preserve 
a  character  of  spotless  Integrity,  and  useful  Industry*, 
remembering  that  it  is  the  fair  price  of  In  depen  de:n  ce, 
which  all  wish  for,  but  none  without  it  can  hope  for; 
onli/  a  Fool  or  a  Madman  will  be  so  silly  or  so  crazy,  as  to 
expect  to  reap,  where  he  has  been  too  idle  to  sow. 


•  Many  Cooks  miss  excellent  opportui.itics  of  making  ihemselves  inde- 
pendent,— by  their  Idlene?s,— in  lefiising  any  place,  however  profitable,  &c. 
if  there  is  not  a  Kitchen  Maid  kept  to  wait  upon  ihem. 

There  are  maiiy  Invaliils  wlio  require  a  good  Cook,  and  as  (after  reading 
tliis  Book  they  will  understand  how  much)  their  comfort  and  effective 
existence  depends  on  their  food  being  properly  prepared,  will  willingly  pay 
handsome  wages — (who  would  not  rather  pay  the  Cook  than  the  Doctor?)  — 
bat  have  so  little  work  in  the  Kitchen  —  that  one  person  may  do  it  all  with 
the  utmost  ease,  wiihout  injury  t<»  their  health, — which  is  not  the  case  in  a 
large  family,  where  the  poor  Cook  is  roasting  and  stewing  all  day  —  and  is 
often  deprived  of  her  rest  at  night.  No  artists  have  greater  need  to  "  make 
Hay  while  the  Sun  shines,"  and  timely  provide  for  the  infirmities  of  Age. 

It  is  melancholy  to  fm^l,  that  according  to  the  authority  of  a  certain  gicat 
French  author — "  Cooks,  half  stewed,  and  half  roasted,  when  unable  to  work 
any  longer,  generally  retire  to  some  unknown  corner,  and  die  in  forlornness 
and  want." —  Blackwood's  Edhib.  Mag.  vol.  vii.  p.  668. 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO   COOKS.  69 

Very  few  modern  built  Town  houses  have  a  proper 
place  to  preserve  provisions  in  —  the  best  substitute,  is 
a  Hanging-safe,  which  you  may  contrive  to  suspend 
in  an  airy  situation,  and  when  you  order  Meat, 
Poultry,  or  Fish,  tell  the  Tradesman  when  you  intend 
to  dress  it,  —  he  will  then  have  it  in  his  power  to  serve 
you  with  provision  that  will  do  him  credit,  which  the 
finest  Meat,  &c.  in  the  world,  will  never  do,  unless  it 
has  been  kept  a  proper  time  to  be  ripe  and  tender. 

If  you  have  a  well-ventiiated  Larder,  in  a  shady, 
dry  situation,  you  may  make  still  surer,  by  ordering  in 
your  Meat  and  Poultry,  such  a  time  before  you  want 
it  as  will  render  it  tender,  which  the  finest  meat  cannot 
be,  unless  hung  a  proper  time  ;  (see  2d  Chapter  of  the 
Rudiments  of  Cookery ;)  according  to  the  season,  and 
nature  of  the  meat,  &c.,  but  always  as  "  les  bons 
hommes  de  bouche  de  France,''  say,  till  it  is  '*  assez 
mortifiee." 

Permitting  this  process  to  proceed  to  a  certain 
degree,  renders  Meat  much  more  easy  of  solution  in 
the  Stomach,  and /or  those  whose  digestive  faculties  are 
delicate,  it  is  of  the  ufniost  importance,  that  it  be  attended  to 
with  the  greatest  nicety, — for  the  most  consummate  skill 
in  the  Culinary  preparation  of  it,  will  not  compensate 
the  want  of  attention  to  this.  Read  Obs.  to  No.  68. 
Meat  that  is  thoroughly  Roasted,  or  Boiled,  eats  much 
shorter  and  tenderer,  and  is  in  proportion  more 
digestible,  than  that  which  is  under  done. 

You  will  be  enabled  to  manage  much  better,  if  your 
Employers  will  make  out  a  Bill  of  Fare  for  the 


70  FRIENDLY   ADVICE   TO   COOK1?. 

AVeek,  oa  the  Saturday  before  —  for  example  for  a 
Family  of  half  a  dozen  — 

Sundai/ Roast  Beef  (No.  ig.)*  and  My  Pudding  (No.  551.) 

Mondinj    ....Fowl  (Nos.  l6,  58.)  Do.    boiled. 

Tuesday  ....Calf  Head  (No.  10.)  Apple  Pic. 

Wed ncsda I/.. Leg  of  Mutton  (No.  1.),  oi  (No.  23.) 

Thursday    ..Do.  broiled  or  hashed  (No.  487.),  or  (No.  484.),  Pan  Cakus. 

Friday Fish  (No.  145.).  Pudding  (No.  554.) 

Saturday     ..Fish,  or  Eggs  and  Bacon  (No.  545.) 

It  is  an  excellent  plan  to  have  certain  things  on  certain 
days — When  your  Butcher  or  Poulterer  knows  v.'hat  you 
will  want,  he  has  a  better  chance  of  doing  his  best  for 
you:  and  never  think  of  ordering  Beef  for  Roasting 
—  except  for  Sunday. 

H'hen  the  IVcather  or  Season*  is  lery  unj'axourahle for 
keeping  Meat,  SfC. — give  him  the  choice  of  sending  that 
which  is  in  the  best  order  for  dressing — i.  e.  either  Ribs 
or  Sir-Loin  of  Beef — or  Leg  —  Loin  —  or  Neck  of 
Mutton,  &c. 

Meat  in  which  you  can  detect  the  slightest  trace  of 
putrcscency,  has  reached  its  highest  degree  of  tender- 
ness, and  should  be  dressed  without  delay  ;  but  before 


•  "  The  Season  of  the  year  has  considerable  influence  on  the  quality  of 
£utchcr  meat — depending  upon  the  more  or  less  plentiful  supply  of  Food, 
upon  the  periodical  change  whicli  takes  place  in  the  body  of  the  Animal,  and 
upon  temperature.  The  flesh  of  most  full  grown  Quadrupeds  is  in  highest 
seaaoii  during  the  first  months  of  Winter,  after  having  enjoyed  (he  advantage 
of  the  abundance  of  fresh  summer  food.  lis  flavour  then  begins  to  be  injured 
by  the  turnips,  &c.  given  as  winter  food,  and  in  Spring  it  gets  lean  fioni 
deficiency  of  food.  Although  Beef  and  Mutton  are  never  absolutely  out  of 
seiison,  or  not  fit  for  the  table,  they  are  best  in  November,  December,  and 
.l.muary.  Pork  is  absolutely  bad,  except  during  the  Winter." —  Sufpler.ient 
to  the  Edinburgh  Ency.  Brit.  p.  3C8. 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE   TO   COOKS.  71 

this  period,  which  in  some  kinds  of  meat  is  offensive, 
the  due  degree  of  inteneration  may  be  ascertained,  by 
its  yielding  readily  to  the  pressure  of  the  finger,  and  by 
its  opposing  little  resistance  to  an  attempt  to  bind  the 
joint. 

Although  we  strongly  recommend  that  Animal  Food 
should  be  hung  up  in  the  open  air,  till  its  fibres  have 
lost  some  degree  of  their  toughness — yet,  let  us  be 
clearly  understood,  also  to  warn  you  —  that  if  kept  till 
it  loses  its  natural  sweetness  —  it  is  as  detrimental  to 
Health,  as  it  is  disagreeable  to  the  Smell  and  Taste. 

In  very  cold  weather  —  bring  your  Meat, 
Poultry,  &c.  into  the  kitchen,  early  in  the  mornino-  — 
if  you  roast  —  boil  —  or  stew  it  ever  so  gently  and 
ever  so  long  — if  it  he  frozen  —  it  will  continue  touo-h 
and  unchewable. 

Without  very  watchful  attention  to  this,  the  most 
skilful  Cook  in  the  world  will  get  no  credit,  be  she  ever 
so  careful  in  the  management  of  her  Spit  or  her 
Stewpan. 

The  time  Meat  should  hang  to  be  tender  —  depends  on 
the  heat  and  humidity  of  the  air  :  if  it  is  not  kept 
long  enough,  it  is  hard  and  tough ;  —  if  too  long,  it 
loses  its  flavour :  —  it  should  be  hung  where  it  will 
have  a  thorough  air,  and  be  dried  with  a  cloth  night 
and  morning,  to  keep  it  from  damp  and  raustiness. 

Before  you  dress  it,  wash  it  well,  —  if  it  is  roasting 
Beef,  pare  off  the  outside. 

If  you  fear  Meat%  &c.  will  not  keep  till  the  time  it 


Larbers,  Pantries  and  Safes— must  be  sheltered  from  the  Suu,  and 


72  FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO   COOKS. 

is  wanted, — par-ro:ist  or  par-ho'i\  it,  —  it  will  then  keep 
a  couple  of  days  longer,  when  it  may  be  dressed  in 
the  usual  way,  only  it  will  be  done  in  rather  less. 
time. 

The  Cook  and  the  Butcher  as  often  lose  their 
credit,  by  Meat  being  dressed  too  fresh,  as  the  Fish- 
monger does  by  fish  that  has  been  kept  too  long. 

Dr.  Franklin  in  his  philosophical  experiments  tells 
us,  that  if  Game  or  Poultry  be  killed  by  Electricity 
it  will  become  tender  in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye,  and  if 
it  be  dressed  immediately,  will  be  delicately  tender. 

During  the  su/try  summer  months,  it  is  almost 
impossible  to  procure  meat  that  is  not  either  tough  — 
or  tainted  —  the  former,  is  as  improper  as  the  latter  for 
the  unbraced  stomachs  of  relaxed  Valetudinarians  — 
for  whom,  at  this  season.  Poultry  —  Stews,  &c.,  and 
Vegetable  Soups,  are  the  most  suitable  food  —  when 
the  digestive  organs  are  debilitated  by  the  extreme 
heat  —  and  profuse  perspiration  requires  an  increase 
of  liquid  to  restore  equilibrium  in  the  constitution. 

I  have  taken  much  nturc  pains  than  aity  of  my  predeces- 
sors, to  teach  the  young  Cook  how  to  perform,  in  the  best 
manner,  the  common  business  of  her  profession;  —  being 
well  grounded   in  the  RUDIMENTS  of  COOKERY, 

olhtrwise  removed  from  the  heat,  be  dry,  and  if  possible  have  a  current  of 
dry,  cool  air  continually  passing  through  them. 

"The  freezing  temperature,  i.  e.  32  degrees  of  Fahrenheit,  is  a  perfect 
preservative  from  putrefaction  —  warm  moist  muggy  weather  is  the  worst  for 
keeping  meat.  —  The  south  \^ind  is  especially  unfavourable,  and  lightning 
is  quickly  destructive;  but  the  greatest  Enemy  you  have  to  encounter, 
is  the  IKsh-lly,  which  becomes  troublesome  about  the  month  of  May,  and 
continues  so  till  towards  Michaelmas." — For  further  Obs.  on  this  subject* 
See  "  The  Experienced  Butcher,"  p.  l6(). 


FRIENDLY   ADVICE  TO  COOKS.  73 

she  will  be  able  to  execute  the  orders  that  are  given 
her,  with  ease  to  herself,  and  satisfaction  to  her 
Employers,  and  send  up  a  delicious  dinner,  with  half 
the  usual  Expense  and  Trouble. 

I  have  endeavoured  to  lessen  the  labour,  of  those 
who  wish  to  be  thoroughly  acquainted  with  their 
profession ;  and  an  attentive  perusal  of  the  following 
pages,  will  save  them  much  of  the  irksome  drudgery, 
attending  an  apprenticeship  at  the  Stove;  — an  ordeal 
so  severe,  that  few  pass  it  without  irreparable  injury 
to  their  Health*;  and  many  lose  their  lives,  before 
they  learn  their  business. 

To  encourage  the  best  performance  of  the  machinery 
of  Mastication,  the  Cook  must  take  care  that  her 
Dinner  is  not  only  well  cooked  —  but  that  each  dish 
be  sent  to  table,  with  its  proper  accompaniments  —  in 
the  neatest,  and  most  elegant  manner. 

Remember,  to  excite  the  good  opinion  of  the  Eye, 
is  the  first  step  towards  awakening  the  Appetite. 

Decoration  is  much  more  rationally  employed,  in 
rendering  a  plain  wholesome  nutritious  dish  inviting, 
than  in  the  elaborate  embellishments  which  are 
crowded  about  Trifles  and  Custards. 

Endeavour  to  avoid  orer-dressing  Roasts  and  Boils, 
&c.  and  orer-seasoning  Soups  and  Sauces  with  Salt, 
Pepper,  &c.  —  it  is  a  fault  which  cannot  be  mended. 

*  "  Bny  it  with  health,  strength,  and  reiolution. 
And  pay  for  it,  a  robust  constitutiou." 

Preface  to  the  Ctwk's  Cookery,  1758, 
See  the  preface  to  "  The  Cook's  Cookery,"  page  9.   This  work,  which  is  very 
scarce,  was,  we  believe,  written  to  develope  the  mistakes  in  what  He  calls 
"  the  Thousand  Errors,"  L  e.  "  The  Lady's  Cookery,"  i.  e.  Mrs.  Glasse's,  i.  e. 
Sir  John  Hill's. 


/4  FRIENDLY   ADVICE  TO   COOKS. 

If  your  Roasts,  &c.  are  a  little  tnider-done;  with  the 
assistance  of  the  Stevvpan,  —  the  Gridiron,  —  or  the 
Dutch  Oven,  you  may  soon  rectify  the  mistake  made, 
—  with  the  Spit  or  the  Pot. 

If  oiTr-done,  the  best  juices  of  the  Meat  are  evapo- 
rated,—  it  will  serve  merely  to  distend  the  Stomach, 
and  if  the  sensation  of  Huufrer  be  removed,  it  is  at  the 
price  of  an  Indigestion. 

The  chief  business  of  Cookery,  is  to  render  food 
easy  of  Digestion  —  and  to  facilitate  Nutrition.  This 
is  most  completely  accomplished  by  Plain  Cookery  in 
perfection—  i.  e.  neither  over  nor  vnder-ilione. 

With  all  your  care,  you  will  not  get  much  credit  by 
Cooking  to  perfection,  if  more  than  One  Dish  goes  to 
table  at  a  time. 

To  l)e  eaten  in  perfection,  the  interval  between  Meat 
being  taken  out  of  the  Stevvpan,  and  its  being  put  into 
the  Mouth,  must  be  as  short  as  possible  :  —  but  Cere- 
mony, that  most  formidable  enemy  to  good  Cheer,  too 
often  decrees  it  otherwise,  and  the  Guests  seldom  get 
a  bit  of  an  "  Entrcmtt'  till  it  is  half  cold.  (See 
No.  485.) 

So  much  time  is  often  lost  in  placing  every  thing  in 
Apple-pie  order,  —  that  long  before  Dinner  is  an- 
nounced, all  becomes  lukewarm,  —  and  to  complete 
the  mortification  of  the  grand  Gourmand,  his  meat  is 
put  on  a  sheet  of  Ice  in  the  shape  of  a  Plate,  which 
instantly  converts  the  Gravy  into  Jelly,  and  the  Fat 
into  a  something  which  puzzles  his  teeth  and  the  roof 
of  his  mouth  as  much  as  if  he  had  Birdlime  to  masti- 
cate : —  a  complete  Meat  Skreen  will  answer  the  pur- 
pose of  a  Hot  closet  Plate  uarmer,  &c,  — r  See  Index. 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO  COOKS.  75 

It  will  save  you  infinite  trouble  and  anxiety,  if  you 
can  prevail  on  your  employers  to  use  the  '*  sauce-eox," 
No.  463,  hereinafter  described  in  the  chapter  of  Sauces. 
With  the  help  of  this  "  Magazine  of  Taste/'  every 
one  in  company  may  flavour  their  Soup  and  Sauce,  and 
adjust  the  vibrations  of  their  Palate,  exactly  to  their 
own  fancy :  —  but  if  the  Cook  give  a  decidedly  predo- 
minant, and  pi(jiianie  gout  to  a  dish,  to  tickle  the 
Tongue  of  two  or  three  visitors,  whose  taste  she  knows, 
—  she  may  thereby  make  the  Dinner  disgusting  to  all 
the  other  guests. 

Never  i/nderfake  more  work  than  you  are  quite  cer- 
tain you  can  do  uell ;  —  if  you  are  ordered  to  pre- 
pare a  larger  Dinner  than  you  think  you  can  send 
up  with  ease  and  neatness,  —  or  to  dress  any  dish 
that  you  are  not  acquainted  with,  rather  than  run  any 
risk  of  spoiling  any  thing  —  (by  one  fault.  You  may 
perhaps  lose  all  your  credit)  —  request  your  em- 
ployers to  let  you  have  some  help.  — They  may  acquit 
you  for  pleading  guilty  of  inability  —  but  if  you 
make  an  attempt,  and  fail,  will  vote  it  a  capital 
<3fFence. 

Do  not  trust  any  part  of  your  work  to  others  "without 
carefully  overlooking  them ;  whatever  faults  they  com- 
mit, You  will  be  censured  for  —  if  you  have  forgotten 
any  article  which  is  indispensable  for  the  day's  dinner, 
request  your  employers  to  send  one  of  the  other 
servants  for  it.  —  The  Cook  must  never  quit  her  Post, 
till  her  work  is  entirely  finished. 

It  requires  the  utmost  skill  and  contrivance  to  have 
all  things  done  as  they  should  be,  and  all  done  to- 
E  2 


76  FRIENDLY   ADVICE  TO   COOKS. 

gether  —  at  that  critical  momoit  when  the  Dinner  Bell 
sounds  —  "  to  the  Banquet." 

"  A  feast  must  be  without  a  fault ; 
And  if,  'tis  uot  all  ritrlit,  'tis  naueht." 

But 

"  Good  natare  will  some  failings  overlook, 
Forgive  mischance,  not  errors  of  the  Cook; 
As,  if  no  salt  is  thrown  about  the  tlisii, 
Or  nice  crisp'd  parsley  scattei-'d  on  the  fish ; 
Shall  we  in  Passion  from  our  Dinner  fly. 
And  hopes  of  pardon  to  the  Cook  deny, 
For  things  which  Mrs.  Glasse  herself  might  oversee. 
And  all  mankind  commit  as  well  as  she?" 

\'ide  King's  Art  of  Cooker v- 

Such  is  the  endless  variety  of  Culinary  preparations, 
it  would  be  as  vain  and  fruitless  a  search,  as  that  for 
the  Philosopher's  Stone,  to  expect  to  find  a  Cook  who 
is  quite  perfect  in  all  the  operations  of  the  Spit,  —  the 
Stevvpan,  —  and  the  Rolling  Pin;  —  you  will  as  soon 
find  a  Watchmaker  who  can  make,  put  together,  and 
regulate  every  part  of  a  Watch. 

"  The  universe  cannot  produce  that  Cook  who 
knows  how  to  do  every  branch  of  Cookery  well,  be  his 
Genius  as  great  as  possible." — Vide  the  Cook's  Cooker]/, 
8vo.  page  40. 

The  best  rule  for  marketing,  is  to  pa?/  ready 
MONEY  for  every  thing,  and  to  deal  uith  the  moat 
respectable  Tradesmen  in  your  neighbourhood. 

If  you  leave  it  to  their  integrity  to  supply  you  with 
a  good  article,  at  the  fair  market  price,  —  I  have,  from 
my  own  experience,  — every  reason  to  believe,  you  wiW 
be  supplied  with  better  Provisions,  and  at  as  reasonable 
a  rate,  as  those  Bar  gain- Hunters,  who  trot  "  around 
around  around  about "  a  market  till  they  are  trapped  to 


1?R1ENDLY  ADVICE  TO  COOKS.  77 

buy  some  vnchewahte  old  Poultry — tough  Tup-Mutton — - 
stringy  Cow-Beef —  or  stale  unseasonable  Fish*  —  at  a 
very  little  less  than  the  price  of  prime  and  proper 
food:  —  with  savings  like  these,  they  toddle  home  in 
triumph,  cackling;  all  the  way,  like  a  Goose,  that  has 
got  ankle  deep  into  good  luck. 

All  the  skill  of  the  most  accomplished  Cook  will 
avail  nothino-,  unless  she  is  furnished  with  prime 
PROVISIONS.  The  best  way  to  procure  these  is  to  deal 
with  shops  of  established  character; — you  may  pay, 
perhaps.  Ten  per  Cent  more  than  you  would  were  you 
to  deal  with  those  who  pretend  to  sell  cheap  —  but  you 
will  be  more  than  in  proportion  better  served. 

Every  Trade  has  its  tricks  and  deceptions,  —  those 
who  follow  them  can  deceive  you  if  they  please,  —  and 
they  are  too  apt  to  do  so,  if  you  provoke  the  exercise 
of  their  over-reaching  talent f. 

Challenge  them  to  a  game  at  "  Catch  who  Can,^'  by 
entirely  relying  on  your  own  judgment:  and  you  will 
soon  find  nothing  but  very  long  experience  can  make 
you  equal  to  the  combat  of  marketing  to  the  utmost 
advantage. 

•  See  the  Marketing  Tables  at  the  end  of  the  Work. 

t  "  He  who  will  not  be  cheated  a  little, — must  be  content  to  he  abused 
a  great  deal;  the  first  lesson  in  the  art  of  comfortable  Economy,  is  to  learn 
to  submit  cheerfully  to  small  impositions,— if  you  do  not,  you  will  continually 
be  in  hot  water. 

"  If  you  think  a  tradesman  has  imposed  upon  you,  never  use  a  second  word, 
if  the  first  will  not  do— nor  drop  the  least  hint  of  an  imposition  :— the  only 
method  to  induce  him  to  make  an  abatement,  is  the  hope  of  future  favours, — 
pay  the  demand — and  deal  with  the  Gentleman  no  more; — but  do  not  let  him 
see  that  you  are  displeased,  or  as  soon  as  you  are  out  of  sight, — your  Repji- 
tation  will  suffer  as  much  as  your  Pocket  has."— Trusler's  Way  to  be  Rich, 
Svo.  1776.  p.  85. 


78  FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO  COOKS, 

Before  you  go  to  Market,  look  over  your  Larder,  and 
consider  well  what  things  are  wanting  —  especially  on 
a  Saturday.  No  well-regulated  family  can  suffer  a 
disorderly  Caterer,  to  be  jumping  in  and  out  to  the 
Chandler's  Shop  on  a  Sunday  morning. 

Give  your  directions  to  your  assistants,  and  begin 
your  Business  early  in  the  Morning,  or  it  will  be 
impossible  to  have  the  Dinner  ready  at  the  time  it  is 
ordered. 

To  be  half  an  hour  after  the  time,  is  such  a  frequent 
fault,  that  there  is  the  more  merit  in  being  ready  at  the 
appointed  hour.  This  is  a  difficult  task,  and  in  the 
best  regulated  family  you  can  only  be  sure  of  your 
time  by  proper  arrangements. 

With  all  our  love  of  punctuality,  we  must  not  forget 
that  the  first  consideration  must  still  be,  that  the 
Dinner  '*  be  well  done  when  'tis  done." — If  any  accident 
occurs,  which  is  likely  to  prevent  your  sending  the 
Soup,  &c.  to  table  at  the  moment  it  is  expected,  send 
up  a  message  to  your  employers,  stating  the  circum- 
stance, and  bespeak  their  patience  for  as  many  minutes 
as  you  think  you  shall  want  to  be  ready.  —  This  is 
better  than  either  keeping  the  Company  waiting 
without  an  apology ;  or  dishing  your  Dinner  before  it 
is  done  enough,  and  so  disgusting  the  Stomachs  of  the 
guests  at  the  first  appearance  of  it. 

Those  who  desire  regularity  in  the  service  of  th'^ir 
table,  should  have  a  DIAL  of  about  twelve  inches 
diameter,  placed  over  the  Kitchen  fire-place,  carefully 
regulated,  to  keep  time  exactly  with  the  clock  in  the 
Hall  or  dining  Parlour;  —  with  a  frame  on  one  side. 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO  COOKS.  /9 

containing  a  taste  table,  of  the  peculiarities  of  the 
master's  palate,  and  the  particular  rules  and  orders  of 
his  Kitchen ;  —  and  on  the  other  side,  of  the  rewards 
given  to  those  who  attend  to  them,  and  for  long  and 
faithful  service. 

Ill  S77iaU  Fatnilies  where  a  Dinner  is  seldom  given  — 
a  great  deal  of  preparation  is  required,  and  the  pre- 
ceding day  must  be  devoted  to  the  business  of  the 
Kitchen. 

On  these  occasions  a  Chair-woman  is  often  employed 
to  do  the  dirty  work ;  but  we  rather  advise  you  to  hire 
a  Cook  to  help  to  dress  the  Dinner — this  would  be 
very  little  more  expense  —  and  the  work  got  through 
much  better. 

When  you  have  a  very  large  Entertainment 
to  prepare,  get  your  Soups  and  Sauces,  Force- 
meats, &c.  ready  the  day  before  —  and  read  the  7th 
Chapter  of  our  Rudiments  of  Cookery:  —  many  Made 
Dishes  may  also  be  prepared  the  day  before  they  are 
to  go  to  table  —  but  do  not  do  them  quite  enough  the 
first  day  —  that  they  may  not  be  overdone  by  warming 
up  again. 

Prepare  every  thing  you  can,  the  day  before  the 
Dinner,  and  order  every  thing  else  to  be  sent  in  early 
in  the  Morning  —  if  the  Tradesmen  forget  it  —  it  will 
allow  you  time  to  send  for  it. 

The  Pastry, — Jellies,  &c.  you  may  prepare  while 
the  Broths  are  doing  :  then  truss  your  Game  and  Poul- 
try,—and  shape  your  Collops,  Cutlets,  &c.,  —  and  trim 
them  neatly  —  cut  away  all  Flaps  and  Gristles^  S^c.  —  No- 
thing should  go  to  Table  but  what  has  indisputable  preten- 
sions to  be  eaten  ! 


80  FRIENDLY   ADVH  E  TO   COOKS. 

Put  your  MADE  Dishes  in  plates,  and  arrange  them 
upon  the  dresser  in  regular  order :  —  next  see  that  your 
Roasts  and  Boils  are  all  nicely  trimmed,  trussed,  &c. 
and  quite  ready  for  the  Spit  or  the  Pot. 

Have  your  Vegetables  neatly  cut,  pared,  picked, 
and  clean  washed  in  the  cullender :  — provide  a  tin  dish 
with  partitions  to  hold  your  fine  herbs ;  Onions  and 
Shallots —Parsley — Thyme — Tarragon— Chervil — and 
Burnet  —  minced  xery  jine^  and  Lemon  peel  grated, 
or  cut  thin,  and  chopped  very  small,  —  Pepper  and 
Salt  ready  mixed, — and  your  Spice-box  and  Salt-cellar 
always  ready  for  action, —  that  every  thing  you  want 
may  be  at  hand  for  your  Stove-work,  —  and  not  be  scam- 
pering about  the  kitchen  in  a  whirlpool  of  confusion, 
hunting  after  these  trifles,  while  the  Dinner  is  waiting. 

In  one  drawer  under  your  Spice-Box,  keep  ready 
ground,  in  well  stopped  Bottles,  the  several  spices 
separate ;  and  also  that  mixture  of  them  which  is 
called  "  Ragout  Powder:"  (No.  457.),  or  (No.  460.)— 
in  another,  keep  your  dried  and  powdered,  Sweet, — 
Savoury,  —  and  Soup-herbs,  &:c.,  and  a  set  of  weights 
and  scales  : — you  may  have  a  third  drawer,  containing 
Flavouring  Essences,  &c.,  an  invaluable  auxiliary 
in  finishing  soups  and  sauces  :  (see  the  account  of 
the  "  Magazine  of  Taste,"  or  "  Sauce-Box," 
(No.  463.) 

Have  also  ready,  some  thickening,  made  of  the 
best  white  flour  sifted,  mixed  with  soft  water  with  a 
wooden  spoon  till  it  is  the  consistence  of  thick  batter, — 
a  bottle  of  plain  Browning  (No.  322.),  some  strained 
Lemon-juice,  and  some  good  Glaze,  or  Portable 
Soup,  (No.  252.) 


FRIENDLY  ADVICE  TO   COOKS.  81 

Nothing  can  be  done  in  perfection^  that  must  be  done  in 
a  hurry  ;  —  therefore,  if  you  wish  the  dinner  to  be  sent 
up  to  please  your  Master  and  Mistress,  and  do  credit 
to  yourself,  set  a  high  value  on  your  character  for 
punctuality :  this  shows  the  establishment  is  orderly, 
is  extremely  gratifying  to  the  Master  and  his  Guests, 
—  and  is  most  praiseworthy  in  the  Attendants. 

But,  remember,  you  cannot  obtain  this  desirable 
reputation,  without  good  management  in  every  respect; 
—if  you  wish  to  ensure  Ease  and  Independence  in  the 
latter  part  of  your  life,  you  must  not  be  unwilling  to 
pay  the  price  for  which  only  they  can  be  obtained, 
and  earn  them  by  a  diligent  and  faithful*  performance 
of  the  duties  of  your  station  in  your  young  days, 
which,  if  you  steadily  persevere  in,  you  may  depend 
upon  ultimately  receiving  the  reward  your  services 
deserve. 

All  Duties  are  reciprocal;  and  if  you  hope  to  receive 
favour, —  endeavour  to  deserve  it — by  showing  yourself 
fond  of  obliging,  and  grateful  when  obliged  —  such 
Behaviour  will  win  regard  and  maintain  it,  enforce 
what  is  right,  and  excuse  what  is  wrong. 

Quiet  steady   Perseverance,  is  the  only    sure   spring 

*  N.  B.  "  If  You  will  take  half  the  pains,  to  deserve  the  regard  of  yon r 
master,  by  being  a  good  and  faithful  servant,  you  take  to  be  considered 
a  good  fellow-servaut,  so  many  of  you  would  not,  in  the  decline  of  life,  be 
left  destitute  of  those  comforts  which  age  requires,  nor  have  occasion  to  quote 
the  saying  that,  "  Service  is  no  inheritance,"  unless  your  own  misconduct 
makes  it  so. 

"The  idea  of  being  called  a  Tell-tale,  has  occasioned  many  good  servants 
to  shut  their  Eyes  against  the  frauds  of  fellow-servants. — In  the  eye  of  the 
Jaw,  persons  standing  by  and  seeing  a  felony  committed,  which  they  conld 
have  prevented,  are  held  equally  guilty  v/ith  those  committing  it." — Dr.  Trus- 
LER's  Domestic  Management,  p.  12,  and  Instructions  to  Servants, 

e5 


82  FRIENDLY   ADVICE  TO   COOKS. 

which  you  can  safely  depend  upon  to  infallibly  pro- 
mote your  progress  on  the  road  to  Independence. 

If  your  employers  do  not  immediately  appear  to  be 
sensible  of  your  endeavours  to  contribute  your  utmost 
to  their  comfort  and  interest,  be  not  easily  dis- 
couraged ;  —  Persciere,  and  do  all  in  your   power  to 

MAKE  YOURSELF    tJSEFUL. 

Endeavour  to  promote  the  Comfort  of  every  Indivi- 
dual in  the  Family  —  let  it  be  manifest,  that  you  are 
desirous,  to  do  rather  more  than  is  required  of  you, 
than  less  than  your  duty — they  merit  little  who  perform 
merely  what  would  be  exacted  —  if  you  are  desired  to 
help  in  any  business  which  may  not  strictly  belong  to 
your  department  —  undertake  it  Cheerfully,  Patiently, 
and  Conscientiouslv. 


TABLE  OF  WEIGHTS  AND   MEASURES, 


To  reduce  our  Culinary  Operations  to  as  exact  a 
certainty,  as  the  nature  of  the  processes  would  admit 
of;— we  have,  wherever  it  \7as  needful,  given  the  Quan- 
tities of  each  article. 

The  Weights,  are  Avoirdupois. 

The  Measure,  —  the  graduated  glass  of  the  Apo- 
thecaries; this  appeared  the  most  accurate  and  con- 
venient;—  the  Pint  being  divided  into  sixteen  ounces, 
the  Ounce  into  eight  drachms.  A  middling  size  Tea- 
spoon will  contain  about  a  Drachm; — four  such  Tea- 
spoons are  equal  to  a  middling  size  Tablespoon,  or  halt 
an  Ounce; — four  Tablespoons  to  a  common  sized 
IVinei^lass, 

The  specific  gravities  of  the  various  substances,  being 
so  extremely  different,  we  cannot  offer  any  auxiliary 
standards*  for  the  Weights,  which  we  earnestly  re- 
commend the  Cook  to  employ,  if  she  wishes  to  gain 
credit  for  accuracy  and  uniformity  in  her  business  :  these 
she  w^ill  find  it  necessary  to  have  as  small  as  the 
quarter  of  a  drachm  Avoirdupois,  which  is  equal  to 
nearly  seven  grains  Troy. 

Glass  jMeasures,  (divided  into  Tea,  and  Table- 
spoons,) containing  from  Half  an  Ounce  —  to  Half  a 
Pint,  —  may  be  had  at  Price's,  near  Exeter  'Change, 
Strand;  where  also  may  be  had,  —  the  double 
headed  pepfer  and  spice-boxes,  with  caps  over 
the  gratings.  The  superiority  of  these,  by  preserving 
the  contents  from  the  action  of  the  air,  must  be  suffi- 
ciently obvious  to  every  one  :  the  fine  aromatic  flavour  of 
Pepper  is  soon  lost,  from  the  bottles  it  is  usually  kept  in  not 

•  A  large  tablespnonful  of  Flour  weighs  about  half  an  Onnce. 


84         TABLE  OF  WEIGHTS   AND   MEASURES. 

bchig  xvelt  stopped.  Peppers  are  seldom  ground  or 
pounded  sufficiently  fine.     (See  N.B.  to  369.) 

N.B,  The  Trough  Nutmeg  Graters,  made  by 
Brooks,  Ironmonjier  in  Piccadilly,  (near  Bond  Street), 
are  by  far  the  best  we  have  seen,  especially  for  those 
who  wish  to  grate  tine,  and  fast. 

Lloyd,  furnishincr  Ironmonger,  Strand,  near  Norfolk 
Street,  sells  Springs  which  weigh  from  an  ounce  to 
20  pounds,  for  £\  Is. 

Lloyd's  Balance,  which  weighs  from  \  of  a 
drachm  to  20  pounds,  is  a  very  accurate  and  con- 
venient machine  for  weighing. 


RUDIMENTS  OF  COOKERY. 


CHAPTER  I. 

BOILING. 


This  most  simple  of  Culinary  processes  is  not  often 
performed  in  perfection,  —  it  does  not  require  quite  so 
much  nicety  and  attendance,  as  Roasting,  —  to  skim 
your  pot  well,  and  keep  it  really  boiling  (the  slower  the 
better)  all  the  while,  —  to  know  how  long  is  required 
for  doing  the  joint,  &c.,  and  to  take  it  up,  at  the 
critical  monjent  when  it  is  done  enough, — comprehends 
almost  the  whole  art  and  mystery.  This,  however, 
demands  a  patient  and  perpetual  vigilance,  of  which 
few  persons  are  capable. 

The  Cook  must  take  especial  care  that  the  water  really 
boils  all  the  zvhile  she  is  Cooking,  or  she  will  be  deceived  in 
the  time ;  and  make  up  a  sufficient  fire  (a  frugal  Cook 
will  manage  with  much  less  fire  for  Boiling  than  she 
uses  for  roasting)  at  first,  to  last  all  the  time,  without 
much  mending  or  stirring. 

JVhe?i  the  Pot  is  coming  to  a  boil,  there  will  always, 
from  the  cleanest  Meat  and  clearest  Water,  rise  a 
Scum  to  the  top  of  it :  proceeding  partly  from  the 
foulness  of  the  meat,  and  partly  from  the  Water, — this 
must  be  carefully  taken  off  as  soon  as  it  rises. 

On  this,  depends  the  good  appearance  of  all  boiled 
things. 

When  you  have  scummed  well,  put  in  some  cold 
water,  which  will  throw  up  the  rest  of  the  scum. 

The  oftener  it  is  scummed,  and  the  cleaner  the  top 
of  the  Water  is  kept,  the  cleaner  will  be  the  Meat. 


86  BOILING. 

If  let  alone,  it  soon  boils  down  and  sticks  to  the 
Meat';  which,  instead  of  looking-  delicately  white  and 
nice,  —  will  have  that  coarse  and  filthy  appearance  we 
have  too  often  to  complain  of,  and  the  Butcher  and 
Poulterer  be  blamed  for  the  carelessness  of  the  Cook 
in  not  scumming  her  pot. 

Many  put  in  Mi/k,  to  make  what  they  boil  look 
white;  but  this  does  more  harm  than  g-ood  :  —  others 
wrap  it  up  in  a  cloth;  —  but  these  are  needless  pre- 
cautions, if  the  scum  be  attentively  removed,  Meat  will 
have  a  much  more  delicate  colour  and  finer  flavour 
than  it  has  when  muffled  up.  This  may  give  rather 
more  trouble  —  but  These  u/io  -wish  to  excel  w  their  Art 
must  only  consider  how  the  processes  of  it  can  he  most 
perfectly  peifurmeci ;  —  a  Cook  who  has  a  proper  pride 
and  pleasure  in  her  business,  will  iv.ake  this  her  maxim 
on  all  occasions. 

Put  your  Meat  into  colJi  water,  —  in  the  proportion 
of  about  a  quart  of  Water  to  a  pound  of  Meat :  —  it 
should  be  covered  with  water  during  the  whole  of  the 
process  of  Boiling  —  but  not  drowned  in  it  —  the  less 
water,  provided  the  meat  be  covered  with  it, — the  more 
Savoury  will  be  the  Meat,  and  the  better  will  be  the 
Broth. 

The  Jl'ater  should  he  healed  gradually  ~  according  to 
the  thickness,  &c.  of  the  article  boiled — for  instance,  a 
Leg  of  Mutton  of  10  pounds  weight,  (No.  1.),  should 
be  placed  over  a  moderate  fire,  which  will  gradually 
make  the  uater  hot,  uithout  causing  it  to  hoii  for  ahout 
forty  minutes  —  if  the  water  boils  much  sooner,  the 
meat  will  be  hardened,  and  shrink  up  as  if  it  was 
scorched — by  keeping  the  water  a  certain  time  heating 
without  boiling,  its  tibres  are  dilated,  and  it  yields  a 

♦  If,  unfortuna'.ely,  this  should  happen,  the  Cook  must  carefully  take  it  off 
^hen  she  dishes  up,  either  with  a  cleHD  Sponge  or  a  Paste-brusli. 

t  Cooks,  however,  as  will  as  Ucctors,  disagree;  for  some  ssy,  that  **  ail 
sorts  of  fresh  meat  should  be  put  m  when  the  water  boils."  1  prefer  the 
above  method,  for  the  reason  given — ger.tle  slewii  g  renders  Meat,  &c.  It-Jider, 
and  ttill  leave*  it  sapid  and  nutritive. 


BOILING.  87 

quantity  of  scum,  which  must  be  taken  off  as  soon  as 
it  rises. 

"  104.  If  a  vessel  containing  water  be  placed  over  a 
steady  Fire,  the  Water  will  grow  continually  hotter  till  it 
reaches  the  limit  of  boiling,  after  which  the  regular  ac- 
cessions of  heat,  are  wholly  spent  in  converting  it  into 
Steam — the  Water  remains  at  the  same  pitch  of  tem- 
perature, however  fiercely  it  boils.  The  only  differ- 
ence is,  that  with  a  strong  fire  it  sooner  comes  to  boil, 
and  more  quickly  boils  away,  and  is  converted  into 
Steam."  —  Buchanan  on  the  Economi/  of  Fuel,  1810. 

The  Editor  placed  a  Thermometer  in  water  in  that 
state  which  Cooks  call  gentle  simmtring,  —  the  heat 
was  212^ — i.  e.  the  same  degree  as  the  strongest  boiling. 
Two  Mutton  Chops  were  covered  with  cold  water, 

—  and  one  boiled  a  gallop  —  and  the  other  .simmered 
gently  for  three  quarters  of  an  hour — the  Flavour  of  the 
Chop  which  was  simmered  was  decidedly  superior 
to  that  which  was  boiled  —  the  Liquor  which  boiled 
fast,  was  in  like  proportion  more  savoury,  and,  when 
cold,  had  much  more  fat  on  its  surface :  —  this  ex- 
plains why  quick  boiling  renders  meat  hard,  &c.  —  be- 
cause its  juices  are  extracted  in  a  greater  degree. 

Reckon  the  Time  /ro/«  its  Jirst  coming  to  a  boil. 

The  old  rule  of  15  minutes  to  a  pound  of  meat,  we 
think  rather  too  little;  —  the  slower  it  boils,  the  ten- 
derer,—  the  plumper,  —  and  whiter  it  will  be. 

For  those  who  choose  their  Food  thoroughly  cooked 

—  which  all  will  who  have  any  regard  for  their  Stomachs 

—  Twenty  minutes  to  a  Pound  will  not  be  found 
too  much  for  gentle  sinnnering  by  the  side  of  the  fire  ;  — 
allowing  more  or  less  time,  according  to  the  thickness 
of  the  Joint,  and  the  coldness  of  the  Weather,  —  always 
remembering,  the  slower  it  boils  the  better. 

Without  some  practice  it  is  difficult  to  teach  any 
art;  and  Cooks  seem  to  suppose,  they  must  be  right, 
if  they  put  meat  into  a  pot,  and  set  it  over  the  fire  for 


88  BOILING. 

a   certain   time,  —  making  no    allowance,   whether  it 
simmers  witliout  a  bubble,  or  boils  a  gallop. 

Fresh- killed  Meat  will  take  much  longer  time  boiling 
than  that  which  has  been  kept  till  it  is  what  the 
butchers  call  ripe,  —  and  longer  in  cold  than  in  7iarm 
weather;  —  if  it  he  frvzcn,  it  must  be  thawed  before 
boiling  as  before  roasting;  —  if  it  be  fresh  killed,  it  will 
be  tough  and  hard,  if  you  .st&w  it  ever  so  long,  and  erer 
so  gently.  —  In  cold  weather,  the  night  before  the  day 
you  dress  it,  bring  it  into  a  place  of  which  the  tempe- 
rature is  not  less  than  45  degrees  of  Fahrenheit's 
thermometer. 

'J'he  Size  of  the  Boiling  Pots  should  be  adapted  to 
what  they  are  to  contain  :  —  the  larger  the  Saucepan  — 
the  more  room  it  takes  up  on  the  fire,  and  a  larger 
quantity  of  Water  requires  a  proportionate  increase  of 
Fire  to  boil  it. 

In  Small  Families,  we  recommend  BLOCK  TIN 
saucepans,  &c.  as  lightest,  and  safest;  —  if  proper  care 
is  taken  of  them,  and  they  are  w^ell  dried  after  they  are 
cleaned,  tlu-y  are  by  far  the  cheapest;  —  the  purchase 
of  a  ne^v  Tin  saucepan  being  little  more  than  the  ex- 
pense of  tinning  a  Copper  one. 

Take  care  that  the  Covers  of  your  boiling  pots  fit 
close,  not  only  to  prevent  unnecessary  evaporation  of 
the  water,  but  that  the  smoke  may  not  insinuate  itself 
under  the  edge  of  the  lid,  and  give  the  meat  a  bad  taste. 

If  you  let  meat  or  poultry  remain  in  the  water 
after  it  is  done  enough,  it  will  become  sodden,  and 
lose  its  flavour. 

Beef  and  IMuttox  a  little  under-done  (especially 
very  large  joints,  which  will  make  the  better  Hash  or 
Broil),  is  not  a  great  fault  —  by  some  people  it  is  pre- 
ferred;—  but  Lawb, —  /'orA,  —  and  Feal,  are  uneatable 
if  not  thoroughly  boiled — but  do  not  otf;--do  them. 

A  Trivet,  or  Fish  drainer  put  on  the  bottom  of  the 
boiling  Pot,  raising  the  contents  about  an  inch  and  a 


BOILING.  89 

half  from  the  bottom,  will  prevent  that  side  of  the 
meat  which  comes  next  the  bottom  from  being  done 
too  much, —  and  the  lower  part  of  the  meat  will  be  as 
delicately  done  as  the  other  part ;  and  this  will  enable 
you  to  take  out  the  contents  of  the  Pot  without  sticking 
a  fork,  &c.  into  it.  If  you  have  not  a  trivet,  use  four 
Skewers,  or  a  Soup-plate  laid  the  wrong  side  upwards. 

Take  care  of  the  Liquor  you  have  boiled  Poultry  or 
Meat  in  ;  in  Five  Minutes  you  may  make  it  into  excel- 
lent Soup,  see  Obs.  to  (No.  555.)  and  (No.  229.) 

The  GOOD  Housewife  never  boils  a  Joint  without 
converting  the  Broth  into  some  sort  of  Soup,  (Read 
No.  5,  and  chapter  7,  and  see  page  66). — If  the  1  iquor 
be  too  salt,  only  use  half  the  quantity,  and  the  rest 
water;  —  wash  salted  Meat  well  with  cold  water  be- 
fore you  put  it  into  the  boiler. 


An  Estimation  of  the  Loss  of  Weight  which  takes  place 
in  Cooking  Animal  Food.  —  From  Mr.  Tilloch's 
Philosophical  Magazine. 

"  It  is  well  known  that,  in  whatever  way  the  flesh  of 
animals  is  prepared  for  food,  a  considerable  diminution 
takes  place  in  its  weight.  We  do  not  recollect,  how- 
ever, to  have  seen  any  where  a  statement  of  the  loss 
which  meat  sustains  in  the  various  culinary  processes, 
although  it  is  pretty  obvious  that  a  series  of  experi- 
ments on  this  subject  would  not  be  without  their  use 
in  domestic  economy. 

"  We  shall  here  give  the  result  of  a  series  of  experi- 
ments which  were  actually  made  on  this  subject  in  a 
public  establishment;  premising  that,  as  they  were  not 
undertaken  from  mere  curiosity,  but,  on  the  contrary, 
to  serve  a  purpose  of  practical  utility,  absolute  accu- 
racy was  not  attended  to.  Considering,  however,  the 
large  quantities  of  provisions  which  were  actually  ex- 
amined, it  is  presumed  that  the  results  may  be  safely 
depended  upon  for  any  practical  purpose.     It  would 


90  BOILING. 

no  doubt  have  been  desirable  to  have  known  not  only 
the  whole  diminution  of  weight,  but  also  the  parts  which 
were  separated  from  the  nieat  in  the  form  of  aqueous 
vapour,  jelly,  fat,  &c.  ;  but  the  determination  of  these 
did  not  fall  within  the  scope  of  the  inquiry. 

lli.t.      or.t. 

28  pieces  of  beef  weighing 280     0 

Lost  in  boiling • 73   14 

*'  Hence  the  weight  lost  by  beef  in  boiling  was  in 
this  case  about  262lbs.  in  lOOlbs. 

lbs.       ozt. 

19  pieces  of  beef  weighing 190     0 

Lost  in  roasting 61     2 

"  The  weight  lost  by  beef  in  roasting  appears  to  be 
32  per  cent. 

lbs.     f):t. 

9  pieces  of  beef  weighing 90     0 

Lost  in  baking 27     0 

"  Weight  lost  by  beef  in  baking,  30  per  cent. 

lbs.        ozf. 

27  legs  of  mutton  weighing 260     0 

Lost  in  boiling,  and  by  having  )      ^^     4 
the  shank-bone  taken  ofV«  •  J 

"  The  shank-bones  were  estimated  at^ 
4  oimces  each ;    therefore  the  loss  by  ,      55     8 
boiling  was J 

"  The  loss  of  weight  in  legs  of  mutton,  in  boiling,  is 
21  \  per  cent. 

lbs.       ozs. 

35  shoulders  of  mutton  weighing  •  •  350     0 
Lost  in  roasting 109   10 

"  The   loss  of  weight   in   shoulders   of  mutton,  by 
roasting,  is  about  31^  per  cent. 

lbs.      ozs. 

16  loins  of  mutton  weighing 141      0 

Lost  in  roasting 49    14 

't  Hence  loins  of  mutton  lose,  by  roasting,  about  35^ 
per  cent. 


BOILING.  91 

Ihs,      ozs. 

10  necks  of  mutton  weighing 100     0 

Lost  in  roasting •  •  •     32     6 

"  The  loss  in  necks  of  mutton,  by  roasting,  is  about 
32 i  per  cent. 

"  We  shall  only  draw  two  practical  inferences  from 
the  foregoing  statement. —  1st.  In  respect  of  economy, 
it  is  more  profitable  to  boil  meat  than  to  roast  it. 
2dly.  Whether  we  roast  or  boil  meat,  it  loses,  by 
being  cooked,  from  one-fifth  to  one-third  of  its  whole 
weight." 

The  loss  of  Roasting  arises  from  the  melting  out 
of  the  Fat,  and  evaporating  the  water;  but  the  nutri- 
tious matters  remain  condensed  in  the  cooked  solid. 

In  Boiling,  the  loss  arises  partly  from  the  fat 
melted  out,  but  chiefly  from  Gelatine  and  Osmazome 
being  extracted  and  dissolved  by  the  water  in  which 
the  meat  is  boiled ;  there  is,  therefore,  a  real  loss  of 
nourishment  unless  the  Broth  be  used;  —  when  this 
mode  of  cooking  becomes  the  most  economical. 

The  Sauces  usually  sent  to  Table  with  Boiled 
Meat,  ^c. 

These  are  to  be  sent  up  in  Boats,  and  never  poured 
over  the  Meat,  &c.* 

Gravy  for  boiled  Meat (No.  3C7.) 

Parsley  and  Butter (No.  26l.) 

Mock  Ditto    (No.  262.) 

Che.vil    (No.  C64.) 

Caper (No.  274.) 

Oyster (No.  278.) 

Liver   and  Parsley (No.  287.) 

Celery (No.  289-) 

Onion (No.  CQii,  &c.) 

Shallot (No.  295.) 

Wow  Wow CNo.  328.) 

C^irry   (^o.  318.) 


*  The  diminution  of  weight,  by  Boiling  and  Roarting,  is  not  all  lost  — the 
Fat  Skimmings  and  the  Drippings  nicely  clarified,  v,M  well  supily  the 
place  of  Lard  and  for  Frying.  See  (No.  83.)  and  the  Receipt  for  Cheap 
Soup,  (No.  229.) 


92 


BAKING. 


BAKING. 


The  following  Observations  were  written  expressly 
for  this  work  by  Mr.  Turner,  English  and  French 
Bread  and  Biscuit  Baker,  the  Corner  of  London 
Street  and  Fitzroy  Street,  Fitzroy  Square. 

Baring  is  one  of  the  cheapest,  and  most  convenient 
ways  of  dressincc  a  Dinner  in  small  families;  and  i  may 
say  that  the  Oven  is  often  the  only  Kitchen  a  poor  man 
has,  if  he  wishes  to  enjoy  a  joint  of  Meat  at  home  with 
his  family. 

I  don't  mean  to  deny  the  superior  excellence  of 
Roasting  to  Baking;  but  some  joints,  when  Baked,  so 
nearly  approach  to  the  same  wiien  Roasted,  that  I 
have  known  them  to  be  carried  to  the  Table,  and 
eaten  as  such  with  great  satisfaction. 

Legs,  and  Loins  of  Pork  ;  —  Legs  of  Mutton;  — 
Fillets  of  Veal;  — and  many  other  joints,  will  Bake 
to  great  advantage  if  the  meat  be  good  ;  I  mean  well 
fed,  rather  inclined  to  be  fat;  —  if  the  meat  be  poor, 
no  Baker  can  give  satisfaction. 

When  baking  a  joint  of  poor  meat,  before  it  has 
been  half  baked,  I  have  seen  it  start  from  the  bone, 
and  shrivel  up  scarcely  to  be  believed. 

Besides  those  Joints  above  mentioned,  I  shall  enu- 
merate a  few  Baked  dishes,  which  I  can  particularly 
recommend. 

A  Pig,  when  sent  to  the  Baker  prepared  for  Baking, 
should  have  its  Ears  and  Tail  covered  with  buttered 
paper  properly  fastened  on,  and  a  bit  of  Butter  tied  up 
in  a  piece  of  linen  to  baste  the  back  with,  otherwise  it 
will  be  apt  to  blister  :  with  a  proper  share  of  attention 
from  the  Baker,  I  consider  this  way  equal  to  a  roasted 
one. 


BAKING.  93 

A  Goose  prepared  the  same  as  for  roasting,  taking- 
care  to  have  it  on  a  stand,  and  when  half  done,  to  tura 
the  other  side  upwards.     A  Duck  the  same. 

A  Buttocli  of  Beef  the  following  way  is  particularly 
fine.  After  it  has  been  in  salt  about  a  week,  to  be 
well  washed  and  put  into  a  brown  earthen  pan,  with  a 
pint  of  water;  cover  the  pan  tight  over  with  two  or 
three  thicknesses  of  cap  or  foolscap  Paper  —  never 
cover  any  thing  that  is  to  be  baked  with  Brown  paper, 
the  pitch  and  tar  that  is  in  brown  paper  will  give  the 
meat  a  smoky  bad  taste  —  give  it  four  or  five  hours  in 
a  moderate  heated  oven. 

A  Ham  (if  not  too  old)  put  in  soak  for  an  hour, 
taken  out  and  wiped,  a  crust  made  sufiicient  to  cover 
it  all  over,  and  baked  in  a  moderate  heated  oven;  cuts 
fuller  of  gravy,  and  of  a  finer  flavour  than  a  boiled  one. 
I  have  been  in  the  habit  of  baking  small  Cod-fish,  — 
Haddock, —  and  Mackarel,  with  a  dust  of  flour,  and 
some  bits  of  butter  put  on  them.  Eels,  when  large 
and  stuffed.  Herrings  and  Sprats,  in  a  brown  pan, 
with  vinegar  and  a  little  spice,  and  tied  over  with 
paper.  A  FIare,  prepared  the  same  as  for  Roasting, 
with  a  few  pieces  of  Butter,  and  a  little  drop  of  Milk 
put  into  the  dish,  and  Basted  several  times,  will  be 
found  nearly  equal  to  roasting ;  or  cut  it  up,  season  it 
properly,  put  it  into  a  jar  or  pan,  and  cover  it  over 
and  bake  it  in  a  moderate  oven  for  about  three  hours. — 
In  the  same  manner,  1  have  been  in  the  habit  of  baking 
Legs  and  Shins  of  Beef, — Ox  Cheeks,  &c.  prepared 
with  a  seasoning  of  Onions,  Turnips,  &c. :  they  will 
take  about  four  hours  :  let  them  stand  till  cold  to  skim 
off  the  fat;  then  warm  it  up  all  together,  or  part, 
as  you  may  want  it. 

All  these  I  have  been  in  the  habit  of  baking  for 
the  first  families. 

The  time  each  of  the  above  articles  should  take, 
depends   much    upon  the    state  of  the   Oven,   and   I 


94  BAKING. 

do  consider  the  Baker  a  sufficient  judge ;  —  if  they  are 
sent  to  him  in  time,  he  n)ust  be  very  neglectful,  if  they 
are  not  ready  at  the  time  they  are  ordered. 


For  Receipts  for  making 

Bread, 

French  Rolls, 

Mui  TINS, 

Crumpets, 
Sally  Lunn,  &:c. 
See  the  Appendix. 


RUDIMENTS  OF  COOKERY. 


CHAPTER  II. 

ROASTING. 

In  all  studies,  it  is  the  best  practice,  to  begin  with  the 
plainest  and  easiest  parts ;  and  so  on,  by  degrees,  to 
such  as  are  more  difficult:  we,  therefore,  treated  of 
plain  Boiling,  and  we  now  proceed  to  Roasting:  —  we 
shall  then  gradually  unravel,  to  our  Culinary  students, 
the  Art,  (and  mystery,  until  developed  in  this  work)  of 
making,  with  the  least  trouble  and  expense,  the  most 
highly  finished  Made-dishes. 

Let  the  young  Cook  never  forget,  that  Cleanli- 
ness is  the  chief  Cardinal  Virtue  of  the  Kitchen; — 
the  first  preparation  for  Roasting  is  to  take  care  that 
the  Spit  be  properly  cleaned  with  sand  and  water: 
nothing  else.  —  When  it  has  been  well  scoured  with 
this,  dry  it  with  a  clean  cloth.  If  Spits  are  wiped 
elean,  as  boon  as  the  meat  is  drawn  from  them,  and  whiter 
they  are  hot,  a  very  little  cleaning  will  be  reqnired.  The 
less  the  Spit  is  passed  through  the  meat,  the  better*, 
and  before  you  spit  it,  joint  it  properly  —  especially 
necks  and  loins  —  that  the  Carver  may  separate  them 
easily  and  neatly,  and  take  especial  care  it  be  evenly 
balanced  on  the  spit,  that  its  motion  may  be  regular, 
and  the  fire  operate  equally  on  each  part  of  it;  — 
therefore,  be  provided  with  Balancing  Skewers,  and 
Cookholds,  and  see  it  is  properly  Jointed. 

•  Small  families  have  not  always  the  convenience  of  roasting  with  a  Spit, 
—  a  remarJi  uijon  roasting  by  a  string  is  necessary. —  Let  the  Cook, 
before  she  puts  her  meat  down  to  the  fire,  pass  a  strong  skewer  through  each 
end  of  the  joint:  by  this  means,  when  it  is  about  half  done,  she  can  with 
ease  turn  ttie  bottom  upwards;  the  gravy  will  then  flow  to  the  part  which  ha« 
been  uppermost,  and  the  whole  joint  be  deliciously  gravy-full. 

A  Bottle-Jack,  as  it  is  termed  by  the  furnishing  ironmongers,  is  a  valu- 
able instrument  for  roasting. 

A  Dutch  Oven,  is  another  very  convenient  utensil,  for  roasting  fight 
joints,  or  warming  them  up. 


96  ROASTING. 

Roasting  should  be  done  by  the  radiant  heat, 
of  a  clear  glowing  Fire,  —  otherwise  it  is  in  fact 
Baked  —  the  Machines  the  Economical  Grate-makers 
call  ROASTERS,  are  in  plain  English,  Ovens. 

Count  lUmiford  was  certainly  an  exact  economist  of 
Fuel,  when  he  contrived  these  things, — and  those  Phi- 
losophers who  try  all  questions  "  According  to  Cocker" 
may  vote  for  Baked  Victuals;  —  but  the  rational  Epi- 
cure, who  has  been  accustomed  to  enjoy  Beef  well 
RoASTKD,  will  soon  be  convinced,  that  the  Poet  who 
wrote  our  national  Ballad  at  the  end  of  this  Chapter, 
was  not  inspired  by  Sir  Benjamin  Thompson's  Cookery. 

All  your  attention  in  Roasting,  will  be  thrown  away, 
it  you  do  not  take  cart  that  your  Meat,  especial/}/  Beef^ 
(which  can  seldom  be  bought  ready  for  the  spit  except  on  a 
Saturday,)  has  been  kept  long  enough  to  be  Tender.  See 
"  Advice  to  Cooks,"  —  and  Obs.  to  (No.  68.) 

Make  up  the  Fire  in  time;  let  it  be  proportioned 
to  the  dinner  to  be  dressed,  and  about  three  or  four 
inches  longer,  at  each  end,  than  the  thing  to  be  roasted 
—  or  the  ends  of  the  meat  cannot  be  done  nice  and 
brown. 

A  Cook  must  be  as  j  articular  to  proportion  her  Fire  * 
to  the  business  f>he  has  to  do.,  as  a  Chtmiit — the  degree 
of  Heat  most  desirable  for  dressing  the  dijjerent  sorts 
of  food  ought  to  be  attended  to  with  the  utmost  pre- 
cision. 


*  "  T^  s  viandes  en  e'neral  nr  doivcnt  pas  etre  saisies  par  nn  feu  vif  si 
dies  out  nn  certain  volume,  parce  que  1'ex.lt-rieiii  fcorait  lissole  el  brule  avant 
que  I'intericnr  fiit  ciiit :  d'un  autre  cote  il  ne  faut  pas  exposer  trop  long- 
temps  un  roti  a  uiie  chaleur  modci  ee,  parce  qne  cette  chaleur,  qui  suffit  pour 
evaporer  tons  les  priiicipes  iiqnides,  et  coa^uler  I'albumiuee,  rapprocheraitles 
fibres  miiscolairtb  et  Ui  (iesst  ciiei  ait :  il  faut  observer  encore  que  la  saveur 
dcs  viandes  rbties  ou  uirillees  depend  ou  dn  goiit  propre  a  la  viande,  on  d'one 
decomposition  p.irtielie  rie  la  pean,  des  muscles,  et  de  la  graisse.  II  se  forme 
par  Taction  seule  du  leu  des  substances  sapides,  qui  n'existaieut  pas  dans  la 
viande  crue. 

"  Les?nbstancessont  I'acide prussique,  I'acide  zoonique,  un  peu  d' huile 
empyreumatlque ;  il  s'y  developpe  au^si  dn  stl  murln.  Tons  ces  corp« 
sont  stimulans,  legereiiient  acres;  ils  irritent  Ics  houppes  nerveuses  de  notre 
palais,  appellent  le  sue  salivaire,  et  reveillent  uotre  appeiit." 

CouRs  GasTROnomiqdes. — Paris,  I8I9,  p.  292. 


ROASTING.  97 

The  Fire,  that  is  but  just  sufficient  to  receive  the 
noble  Sirloin,  (No.  19.)  will  parch  up  a  lighter  joint. 

From  half  an  Hour,  to  an  Hour,  before  you  begin  to 
Roast,  prepare  the  Fire,  —  by  putting  a  few  coals  on, 
which  will  be  sufficiently  lighted  by  the  time  you  wish 
to  make  use  of  your  fire;  —  between  the  bars,  and  on 
the  top,  put  small  or  large  Coals,  according  to  the 
bulk  of  the  Joint,  and  the  time  the  fire  is  required  to 
be  strong ;  —  after  which,  throw  the  Cinders  (wetted)  at 
the  back. 

Never  put  Meat  down  to  a  burnt  up  fire,  if  you  can 
possibly  avoid  it; — but  should  the  fire  become  fierce, — 
place  the  Spit  at  a  considerable  distance,  and  allow 
a  little  more  time. 

Preserve  the  fat%  by  covering  it  with  paper,  for 
this  purpose,  called  "  Kitchen  Paper,"  and  tie  it  on  with 
fine  twine;  —  pins  and  skewers  can  by  no  means  be 
allowed,  they  are  so  many  taps,  to  let  out  the  Gravy: 
—  besides,  the  paper  often  starts  from  them  and  catches 
fire,  to  the  great  injury  of  the  meat. 

If  the  thing  to  be  roasted  be  thin  and  tender,  the  fire 
should  be  little  and  brisk;  —  when  you  have  a  large 
joint  to  roast,  make  np  a  sound,  strong  fire,  equally 
good,  in  every  part  of  the  grate  —  or  your  meat  cannot 
be  equally  roasted,  nor  have  that  uniform  colour  which 
constitutes  tlie  beauty  of  good  roasting. 

Give  the  Fire  a  good  stirring  before  you  lay  the  joint 
down -.—examine  it  from  time  to  time,  while  the  spit  is 
going  round;  — keep  it  clear  at  the  bottom,  and  take 
care  there  are  no  smoky  coals  in  the  front,  which  will 
spoil  the  look  and  taste  of  the  meat,  and  hinder  it  from 
roasting  evenly. 

When  the  joint  to  be  roasted,  is  thicker  at  one  end 
than  the  other,  place  the  spit  slanting,  with  the 
thickest  part  nearest  the  fire. 

Do  not  put  Meat  too  near  the  fire  at  first;  —  the 

•   If  there  is  more  Fat  than  you  think  will  be  eaten  uiih  the  lean — trim  it  off, 
it  will  make  an  excellent  Pudding.  (No.  551,  or  o5^.)  Or  clarify  it.  {So.  83.] 
F 


98:  ROASTING. 

larger  the  joint,  the  farther  it  must  be  kept  from  the  Fire : 
—  if  once  it  gets  scorched,  the  outside  will  become 
hard,  and  acquire  a  disagreeable  empyreumatic  taste ; 
and  the  fire  being  prevented  from  penetrating  into  it, 
the  meat  will  appear  done,  before  it  is  little  more  than 
half  done,  besides  losing  the  pale  brown  colour,  which 
it  is  the  Beauty  of  Roasted  meat  to  have. 

From  14  to  10  inches  is  the  usual  distance  at  which 
meat  is  put  from  the  grate,  when  first  put  down: — it  is 
extremely  difficult  to  ofter  any  thing  like  an  accurate 
general  rule  for  this,  —  it  depends  so  much  upon  the 
size  of  the  fire,  and  of  that  of  the  thing  to  be  roasted. 

Till  some  Culinary  Philosopher  shall  invent  a  Ther- 
mometer to  ascertain  the  heat  of  the  Fire,  —  and  a  gra- 
duated ^pit-Rack  to  regulate  the  distance  from  it,^the 
process  of  Roasting  is  attended  by  so  many  ever- 
varying  circumstances,  that  it  must  remain  among 
those  which  can  only  be  performed  well,  —  by  frequent 
practice  and  attentive  observation. 

"  Mr.  Watt,  for  his  Steam  Engines  where  Wood  fuel 
is  employed,  allows  three  times  the  weight  of  Wood,  that 
he  does  of  Newcastle  Coals — -and  a  bushel  of  Newcastle 
Coals,  which  weighs  |  of  a  Cwt.  is  reckoned  to  produce 
as  much  heat  as  a  Cwt.  of  Scottish  or  Glasgow  Coal." 

—  Buchanan  on  Economy  of  Fuel.   1810.  p.  82. 

If  you  wish  your  Jack  to  go  well,  keep  it  as  clean  as 
possible,  oil  it,  and  then  wipe  it;  if  the  oil  is  not  wiped 
off  again,  it  will  gather  dust ;  to  prevent  this,  as  soon 
as  you  have  done  roasting,  cover  it  up.  —  Never 
leave  the  winders  on  whilst  the  Jack  is  going  round, 
unless  you  do  it,  as  Swift  says,  "  that  it  may  fly  oflf, 
and  knock  those  troublesome  servants  on  the  head 
who  will  be  crowding  round  your  Kitchen  fire." 

Be  very  careful  to  place  the  Dripping-Pan  at  such 
a  distance  from  the  fire,  as  just  to  catch  the  drippings  : 

—  if  it  is  too  near,  the  ashes  will  fall  into  it,  and  spoil 
the  Drippings*  (which  we  shall  hereafter  show,  will 

*  Iliis  the  Good  Housewife  will  take  op  occasionally,  and  pass  througli  » 


ROASTING.  99 

occasionally  be  found  an  excellent  substitute  for  Butter 
or  Lard;  —  to  clarify  Drippings,  see  No.  83,  and  Pease 
and  Dripping  Soup,  (No.  229,)  {savoury  and  salubrious 
for  only  a  I'enny  per  Quart).  If  it  is  too  far  from 
the  fire  to  catch  them,  you  will  not  only  lose  your 
drippings,  but  the  Meat  will  be  blackened,  and  spoiled 
by  the  foetid  smoke,  which  will  arise  when  the  fat  falls 
on  the  live  cinders. 

A  large  Dripping  Pan  is  convenient  for  several  pur- 
poses—  it  should  not  be  less  than  28  inches  long-,  and 
20  inches  wide  —  and  have  a  covered  well  on  the  side 
from  the  Fire  to  collect  the  Drippings  —  this  will  pre- 
serve them  in  the  most  delicate  state  —  in  a  frying  pan 
of  the  above  size  you  may  set  fried  fish,  and  various 
dishes  to  keep  hot. 

This  is  one  of  Lloyd's  contrivances. 

The  time  Meat  vjill  take  Roasting,  will  vary  according 
to  the  time  it  has  been  kept,  and  the  temperature  of 
the  weather : — the  same  weight*  will  be  twenty  minutes, 
or  half  an  hour  longer  in  Cold  Weather^,  than  it  will  be 
in  warm  —  and  if  fresh  killed,  than  if  it  has  been  kept 
till  it  is  tender. 

A  good  Meat  Screen,  is  a  great  saver  of  Coals. 
It  should  be  on  wheels,  have  a  flat  top,  and  not  be  less 
than  about  three  feet  and  a  half  wide,  and  with  shelves 
in  it,  about  one  foot  deep  —  it  will  then  answer  all  the 
purposes  of  a  large  Dutch  oven, — Plate  Warmer, — Hot 
Hearth,  &c.  Some  are  made  with  a  Door  behind  — 
this  is  convenient — but  the  great  heat  they  are  exposed 
to  soon  shrinks  the  materials,  and  the  currents  of  air 
through  the  cracks  cannot  be  prevented  —  so  they  are 


sieve  into  a  stone  pan: — by  leaving  it  ail  in  the  Dripping-pan,  until  tlie  Meat 
is  taken  up,  it  not  only  becomes  very  strong,  but,  \vl3en  the  meat  is  rich  and 
yields  much  of  it,  it  is  apt  to  be  spilt  in  Basting. — To  clarify  Drippings, 
see  iS'o.  83. 

♦  Insist  upon  the  Butcher  fixing  a  Ticket  of  the  Weight  to  each  Joi?it. 

t  If  THE  Meat  is  frozen,  the  usunl  practice  is  to  put  it  into  Cold  Water 
till  it  is  thawed,  then  dry  ard  roast  it  as  usual : — but  we  recommend  jou  to 
bring  it  into  the  kitchen  the  night  before,  or  early  iu  the  morning  of  '.he  day 
you  want  to  roast  it,  and  the  warm  air  will  thaw  it  much  better. 

r2 


100  ROASTING. 

better  without  the  Door.  We  saw  one  at  Mr.  Lloyd's, 
furnishing  Ironmonger,  near  Norfolk  Street,  Strand, 
■which  had  on  the  top  of  it  —  a  very  convenient  Hot 
Closet — which  is  a  great  acquisition  in  Kitchens,  where 
the  Dinner  waits  after  it  is  dressed. 

Every  body  knows  the  advantage  of  Slovi  Boiling  — 
Slow  Roasting  is  equally  important. 

It  is  difficult  to  give  any  specific  Rule  ior  Time; 

—  but  if  your  Fire  is  made  as  before  directed,  —  your 
Meat  Skreen  sufficiently  large  to  guard  what  you  are 
dressing  from  currents  of  Air,  —  and  the  meat  is  not 
FuosTHD,  —  you  cannot  do  better,  than  follow  the  old 
general  rule  of  allowing  rather  7norc  than  a  Quarter  of 
an  hdvi  tu  the  Pound  ;  —  a  little  more  or  less,  according 
to  the  temperature  of  the  weather, —  and  in  proportion 
as  the  piece  is  thick  or  thin,  —  the  strength  of  the  Fire, 

—  the  nearness  of  the  Meat  to  it,  —  and  the  frequency 
with  which  you  baste  it;  the  more  it  is  basted;  the 
less  time  it  will  take,  as  it  keeps  the  Meat  soft  and 
mellow  on  the  outside,  and  the  Fire  acts  with  more 
force  upon  it. 

Rechon  the  Time,  not  to  the  hour  when  Dinner  is  or- 
dered—but to  the  moment  the  Roasts  will  be  wanted  — 
supposing  there  are  a  dozen  people  to  sip  Soup,  and 
eat  Fish  first,  you  may  allow  them  ten  or  fifteen  mi- 
nutes for  the  former,  and  about  as  long  for  the  latter, 
more  or  less,  according  to  the  temptations  the  "  Bon 
Gout"  of  these  preceding  courses  has  to  attract  their 
attention. 

ly/ien  the  Joint  is  halj  done,  —  remove  the  Spit  and 
Dripping  Pan  back,  and  stir  up  your  fire  thoroughly, 
that  it  may  burn  clear  and  bright  for  tlie  Browning:  — 
when  the  steam  from  the  Meat  draws  towards  the  fire*, 
it  is  a  sign  of  its  being  done  enough; — but  you  will  be 
the  best  judge  of  that,  from  the  time  it  has  been  down, 

•  When  the  St  am  begins  to  arise,  it  is  a  pro  f  that  the  >vhole  joint  is  tho- 
roughly sa'nratffl  with  heat;  any  unnecessary  evaporation,  is  a  waste  uf  the 
Lie.ot  uouribi.inviii  of  ihc  rue.it. 


ROASTING. 


101 


the  strength  of  the  Fire  you  have  used,  and  the  dis- 
tance your  Spit  has  been  from  it. 

Half  an  hour  before  your  meat  is  done,  make  some 
Gravy,  {nee  Receipt^  No.  326,)  and  just  before  you  take 
it  up,  put  it  nearer  the  fire  to  brown  it.  —  If  you 
wish  to  FROTH  it,  —  baste  it,  and  dredge  it  with  flour 
carefully,  you  cannot  do  this  delicately  7iicc,  without  a 
Dery  good  light ;  —  the  common  fault  seems  to  be  using' 
too  much  Flour ;  —  the  Meat  should  have  a  fine  light 
varnish  of  Froth, — not  the  appearance  of  being  covered 
with  a  paste  ;  —  ihose  u-ho  are  particular  about  the  Froth, 
use  Butter  instead  of  Dripping;  {see  Receipt  to  Roast  a 
Turkey^  No.  57;) 

'*  ApA  send  up  what  you  Roast,  with  relish-giving  Froth," 

says  Dr.  King,  and  present  such  an  agreeable  appear- 
ance to  the  Eye,  that  the  Palate  may  be  prepossessed 
in  its  favour  at  first  sight. 

A  Good  Cook,  is  as  anxiously  attentive  to  the  ap- 
pearance and  Colour  of  her  Roasts,  as  a  Court  Beauty 
is  to  her  Complexion  at  a  Birthday  Ball. 

Though  roasting  is  one  of  the  most  common,  and  is 
generally  <?onsidered  one  of  the  most  easy  and  simple 
processes  of  Cookery,  —  it  requires  more  unremitting 
attention  to  perform  it  perfectly  well,  than  it  does  to 
make  most  JIade  dishes. 

That  Made-dislies  are  the  most  difficult  preparations, 
deserves  to  be  reckoned  among  the  Culinary  Vulgar 
Eriors ; — in  Plain  PvOasting  and  Boiling,  it  is  not  easy 
to  repair  a  mistake  once  made ; — and  all  the  discretion 
and  attention  of  a  steady  careful  Cook,  must  be  unre- 
mittingly upon  the  alert*. 

*  A  celebrated  Fieiich  wiiter  has  given  us  the  following  observations  on 
Roasting: — 

"•  Iha  Art  of  IIoHsting  victuals  to  the  precise  degree,  is  one  of  the  most 
ditficult  in  this  wo;  Id,  and  you  may  find  half  a  thousand  good  Cooks  sooner 
than  one  perj'ict  Roaster:  (See  "  Almanach  des  GourmandSy"  vol.  i. 
p.  37j.  In  the  mansions  of  the  opulent  they  have,  besides  tlie  Master 
Ritchtuer, — a  Roaster,  (perfectly  independent  of  the  former)  who  is  exclu- 
eively  devoted  to  ihe  Spit. 

*'  AH  erudite  Gourmands  know  that  these  two  important  functions  cannot 


102 


ROASTING. 


A  diligent  attention  to  time,  —  the  distance  of  the 
Meat  from, —  and  judicious  management  of  the  Fire,  aad 
frequent  Bastings*, —  are  all  the  general  rules  we  can 
prescribe,  —  we  shall  deliver  particular  rules  for  parti- 
cular things,  as  the  several  articles  occur,  and  do  our 
utmost  endeavours  to  instruct  our  reader  as  completely 
as  words  can  describe  the  process,  and  teach 

"  The  inauagoincnt  of  cominoii  iliiii^?  so  well, 

"  That  what  was  thought  the  iiieaiitst  shall  excel: 

"  That  Cook  's  to  British  palates  most  complete, 

"  Whose  sav'ry  skill  gives  zcit  to  common  meat: 

"  For  what  arc  your  soops,— your  mgouts, — ami  your  sauce, 

"  Comparetl  to  the  fare  of  old  Knglanu, 

"  And  OLD  IL.vGLisH  Roast  JitEF!" 

%•  Take  Notice,  that  the  Time  given  in  the  J'ul- 
hwing  Receipts, —  is  calculated  fur  tho^e,  xvhu  like  Meat 
thoroughli/  Roasted.  (See  N.  B.  preceding  No.  19.) 

Some  good  Housewives  order  very  large  joints  to  be 
rather  under  done — as  they  then  make  a  better  Hash  or 
Broil. 

be  performed  by  one  artist ;  it  is  quite  impossible,  at  the  same  time,  to  super- 
intend the  operations  of  llic  Spit,  and  ihc  Stewpai.." — lurther  on,  the  same 
author  observes:  "No  certain  rules  can  be  given  for  Roasting,  the  perfection 
ol  it  depending  on  many  circumstances  which  arc  continually  changing;  the 
age,  and  size,  (especially  ilic  thicki.ess)  of  the  pieces,  the  quality  of  the  coals, 
the  temperature  of  the  atmosphere,  the  currents  of  air  in  the  kitchen,  the 
m^re  or  less  attention  of  the  roaster;  and,  lastly,  the  time  of  serving. — Sup- 
posing the  Dinner  ordered  to  be  on  table  at  a  certain  time,  if  the  Fi-h  and  Soup 
are  much  liked,  and  detained  longer  than  the  roaster  has  calculated;  or,  on 
the  contrary,  if  they  are  despatched  sooner  than  is  expected,  the  roasts  will  in 
one  case  be  burnt  up,  in  the  other  not  tlone  enough — two  misfortunes  equally 
ip  be  deplored.  The  first,  liowcver,  is  without  a  remedy ;  _;^t'C  minutes  oi> 
the  Spit,  more  or  less,  decides  the  goqdness  of  this  mode  cj'  Cookery  ; — it  is 
almost  impossible  to  seize  the  precise  instant  when  it  ought  to  be  eaten  ; 
^'hich  Epicures  in  roasts  express,  by  sajiog, '  It  is  done  to  a  turn,'  So  thai 
there  is  no  exac;geration  in  saying,  the  perfect  Roaster,  is  even  more  rate, 
Uian  the  professed  Cook. 

"  In  small  families,  where  the  Cook — is  also  the  Roaster, — it  is  almost  im- 
possible the  roasts  should  be  well  done; — the  Spit  claims  exclusive  attention, 
and  is  an  imperious  Mistress,  who  demands  the  ei;tire  devotion  of  her  slave. 
Eut  how  can  this  be?  When  the  Cook  is  obliged,  at  the  same  time,  to  attend 
her  Fish  and  Soup  kettles,  and  watch  her  Stewpans  and  all  their  accompani- 
ments;— it  is  morally  and  physically  im;)Ossible,  if  she  gives  that  delicate  and 
constant  attention  to  the  Roasts,  which  is  indispensably  requisite,  the  rest  of 
the  Dinner  iiiust  often  be  spoilt ;  and  most  Cooks  would  rather  lose  their  cha- 
racter as  a  Roaster,  than  neglect  the  made-dishes  and  '  entremets,'  bcc.  where 
they  think  they  can  display  their  Culinary  Science ,—X\\nn  sacrifice  these  to 
the  Roasts,  the  perfection  of  which,  will  only  prove  their  steady  Vigilance 
and  Patienoe." 

•  Our  Ancestors  were  very  particular  in  their  Bastings  andDredgings, 
as   will   be    seen  by  the  following   qootation    from   May's  Accomplished 


ROASTING.  103 

To  make  GRAVY  for  Roasts,  see  (No.  326.) 

N.  B.  ROASTS,  must  not  be  put  on,  — till  the  Soup 
and  Fish  are  taken  off  the  Table. 


Cook."  London,  l665,  p.  136. — "  The  rarest  ways  of  dressing  of  all  manner 
of  roast  meats,  either  flesh  or  fowl,  by  sea  or  land,  and  divers  ways  of  bread- 
ing or  dredging  meats  to  prevent  the  gravy  from  too  much  evaporating." 

Dredgings. 

1.  Flour  mixed  with  grated  bread. 

2.  Sweet  herbs  dried  and  powdered,  and  tnixed  with  grated  bread. 

3.  Lemon  peel  dried  and  pounded,  or  orange  peel  mixed  with  flour. 

4.  Sugar  finely  powdered,  and  mixed  with  pounded  cinnamon,  and  flour,  or 
grated  bread. 

5.  Fennel  seeds,  corianders,  cinnamon,  and  sugar,  finely  beaten,  and  mixed 
with  grated  bread  or  flour. 

6.  For  young  pigs,  grated  bread  or  flour  mixed  with  beaten  nutmeg,  ginger, 
pepper,  sugar,  and  yolks  of  eggs. 

f.  Sugar,  bread,  and  salt  mixed. 

Bastings. 

1.  Fresh  butter. 

2.  Clarified  suet. 

3.  Minced  sweet  herbs,  butter  and  claret,  especially  for  mutton  and  lamb. 

4.  ^V  ater  and  salt. 

5.  Cream  and  melted  butter,  especially  for  a  flayed  pig. 

6.  Yolks  of  eggs,  grated  biscuit,  and  juice  of  oranges. 


RUDIMENTS  OF  COOKERY. 


CHAPTER  III. 


FRYING. 

Fryixg  is  often  a  convenient  mode  of  Cookery,  —  it 
may  be  performed  by  a  fire  which  will  not  do  for  Roast- 
ing or  Broilinq:;  —  and  by  the  introduction  of  the  Pan 
between  the  Meat  and  the  Fire,  things  get  more  equally 
dressed. 

The  Dutch  Oven  or  Bonnet  is  another  very  con- 
venient utensil  for  small  things,  and  a  very  useful  sub- 
stitute for  the  Jack,  —  the  Gridiron,  —  or  Fryingpan. 

A  Fryingpan  should  be  about  four  inches  deep, 
with  a  pcrfatli/Jlat  and  thick  bottom,  12  inches  long,  and 
9  broad  —  with  perpendicular  sides,  and  must  be  half 
filled  with  Fat  —  Good  Frying  is  in  fact  —  Boiling 
in  Fat,  To  make  sure  that  the  Pan  is  quite  clean^  rub  a 
little  Fat  over  it  —  and  then  make  it  warm  and  wipe  it 
out  with  a  clean  cloth. 

Be  very  particular  in  Frying,  never  to  use  any  Oil, — 
Butter, —  l.ard,  —  or  Drippings,  —  but  what  is  quite 
clean,  fresh,  and  free  from  salt.  Any  thing  dirty  spoils 
the  look ;  —  any  thing  bad  tasted  or  stale  spoils  the 
flavour  ;  —  and  salt  prevents  its  Browning. 

Fine  Olive  Oil,  is  the  most  delicate  for  frying;  —  but 
to  have  the  best  oil  is  very  expensive,  and  bad  oil 
spoils  every  thing  that  is  dressed  with  it. 

For  general  purposes,  and  especially  for  Fish,  clean 

fresh  Lard,  is  not  near  so  expensive  as  oil  or  clarified 

Butter,  and  does  almost  as  well,  except  for  Cutlets  and 

Collops.  —  Butler  often  burns  before  you  are  aware  of 


FRYING.  105 

it,  and  what  you  fry  will  get  a  dark  and  dirty  ap- 
pearance. 

Cooks  in  large  kitchens,  where  there  is  a  great  deal 
of  frying,  commonly  use  Mutton  or  Beef  Suet,  clarified, 
(see  No.  84);  (if  from  the  kidney,  all  the  better). 

Dripping,  if  nicely  clean  and  fresh,  is  almost  as  good 
as  any  thing-,  —  if  not  clean,  it  may  be  easily  clarified ; 
see  (No.  83).  Whatever  Fat  you  use  —  after  you  have 
done  frying,  let  it  remain  in  the  Pan  for  a  few  mi- 
nutes, and  then  pour  it  through  a  sieve  into  a  clean 
basin — it  will  do  three  or  four  times  as  well  as  it  did  atjirsty 
i.  e.  if  it  has  not  burned — but  Mem. —  the  Fat  you  have 
fried  Fish  in  must  not  be  used  for  any  other  purpose. 

To  know  when  the  Fat  is  of  a  proper  heat,  accord- 
ing to  what  you  are  to  fry,  is  the  great  secret  in  frying. 

To  fry  Fish, — Parsley, —  Potatoes,  or  any  thing 
that  is  watery,  your  Fire  must  be  xery  clear,  and  the  Fat 
quite  hot,  —  which  you  may  be  pretty  sure  of,  when  it 
has  done  hissing,  and  is  still.  —  We  cannot  insist  too 
strongly  on  this  point :  —  if  the  Fat  is  not  very  hot,  you 
cannot  fry  Fish  either  to  a  good  colour,  or  firm  uiul  crisp. 

To  be  quite  certain,  — throw  a  little  bit  of  Bread  into 
the  pan  ;  if  it  fries  crisp,  the  Fat  is  ready  :  if  it  burns 
the  bread,  it  is  too  hot. 

The  Fire  under  the  pan  must  le  clear  and  sharp,  other- 
wise the  fat  is  so  long  before  it  becomes  ready,  and  de- 
mands such  attendance  to  prevent  the  a,ccident  of  its 
catching  fire*,  the  patience  of  cooks  is  exhausted,  and 
they  frequently,  from  ignorance,  or  impatience,  throw 
in  what  they  are  going  to  fry,  before  the  fat  is  half  hot 
enough. — Whatever  is  so  fried,  will  be  pale  and  sodden, 
and  offend  the  Palate  and  Stomach,  not  less  than 
the  Eye. 


*  If  this  unfortunately  liappeus,  be  not  in  the  least  alarmed, —  but  immedi- 
ately wet  a  basket  of  Ashes  and  throw  them  down  the  Chimney,  and  wet  a 
Blanket,  and  hold  it  close  all  round  the  Fire-place,  —  as  soon  as  the  curient 
of  air  is  stopped,  —  the  tire  will  be  extinguished:  with  a  charcoal 
sTov  K  there  is  no  danger,  as  the  diameter  of  the  Pan  exceeds  that  of  the  flte, 

f  5 


106  FRYING. 

Have  a  good  light  to  fry  by,  —  that  you  may  see  wheiir 
you  have  got  the  right  colour :  —  a  Lmnp  fixed  on  a 
stem  with  a  loaded  foot,  which  has  an  arm  that  will 
lengthen  out,  and  slide  up  and  down  like  a  reading 
candlestick,  is  a  mo^sf  useful  appendage  to  Kitchen  Fire- 
places, which  are  very  seldom  light  enough  for  the 
nicer  operations  of  Cookery. 

After  all,  if  you  do  not  thoroughiy  drain  the  fat  from 
what  you  hait fried,  —  especially  from  those  things  that 
are  full  dressed  in  Bread-crumbs  *,  or  Binuit  Poudcr,  &c. 
—  your  Cooking  will  do  you  no  credit. 

The  Dryness  of  Fish  depends  much  upon  its  having 
been  fried  in  fat  of  a  due  degree  of  heat,  it  is  then 
crisp  and  dry  in  a  few  minutes  after  it  is  taken  out 
of  the  Pan  —  when  it  is  not,  lay  it  on  a  soft  cloth 
before  the  fire,  turning  it  occasionally,  till  it  is ;  — 
this  will  sometimes  take  15  minutes: — therefore  always 
fry  Fish  as  long  as  this  before  you  want  them  —  for 
fear  you  may  find  this  necessary. 

To  FRY  Fisii,  see  Receipt  to  fry  Soles,  (No.  145.) 
which  is  the  only  circumstantial  account  of  the  process 
that  has  yet  been  priuted.  —  If  the  Cook  will  study  it 
with  a  little  attention,  she  must  soon  become  an  ac- 
complished Frier. 

Frying,  though  one  of  the  most  common  of  culi- 
nary operations,  —  is  one  that  is  least  commonly  per- 
formed perfectly  well. 

•  When  yon  want  a  great  many  BRE.v»>-CRi.Mns,  divide  your  Loaf (wliicit 
should  be  two  days  old,)  into  three  equal  parts — take  the  middle  or  cramb 
piece,  ihe  top  and  bottom  will  do  for  table — in  the  usual  uay  of  cuttm^, 
the  crust  is  uasted. 

Oatmeal  is  a  very  satisfactory,  and  an  extremely  economical  'Jubstitute  for 
Bread  Crumbs.    See  (No.  145) 


RUDIMENTS  OF  COOKERY. 


CHAPTER  IV. 


BROILING. 

Clean'liness  is  extremely  essential  in  this  mode  of 
cookery. 

Keep  your  Gridiron  quite  clean  between  the  bars, 
and  bright  on  the  top;  — when  it  is  hot,  —  wipe  it  well 
with  a  linen  cloth ;  just  before  you  use  it,  rub  the  bars 
with  clean  mutton  suet,  to  prevent  the  Meat  from 
being  marked  by  the  gridiron. 

Take  care  to  prepare  your  Fire  in  time,  so  that  it 
may  burn  quite  clear;  a  brisk  and  dear  fire  is  indis- 
pensable;— or  you  cannot  give  your  meat  that  browning 
which  constitutes  the  perfection  of  this  mode  of  cookery, 
and  gives  a  relish  to  food  it  cannot  receive  any  other 
way. 

Be  very  attentive  to  watch  the  moment  any  thing  is 
done ;  —  never  hasten  any  thing  that  is  broiling,  lest 
you  make  smoke  and  spoil  it. 

Let  the  bars  of  the  Gridiron  be  all  hot  through,  but 
yet  not  burning  hot  upon  the  surface; — this  is  the  per- 
fect and  fine  condition  of  the  Gridiron. 

As  the  Bars  keep  away  as  much  heat  as  their  breadth 
covers,  it  is  absolutely  necessary  they  should  be 
thoroughly  hot  before  the  thing  to  be  cooked  be  laid 
on  them. 

The  Bars  of  Gridirons  should  be  made  concave,  and 
terminate  in  a  trough  to  catch  the  Gravy  and  keep  the 
Fat  from  dropping  into  the  fire  and  making  a  smoke, 
which  will  spoil  the  Broil. 


108  BROILING. 

Upright  Gridirons  are  the  best,  as  they  can 
be  used  ut  any  fire,  without  fear  of  smoke ;  and  the 
gravy  is  preserved  in  the  trough  under  them. 

N.B.  Broils  must  be  brought  to  table  as  Hut  as 
possible  :  set  a  Dish  to  heat,  when  you  put  your  Chops 
on  the  Gridiron  —  from  whence  to  the  Mouth  their 
progress  must  be  as  quick  as  possible. 

jr/ien  the  Fire  is  not  clear  — \\\c  business  of  the 
Gridiron  may  be  done  by  the  Dutch  Oxtn  or  Bonnit. 


RUDIMENTS  OF  COOKERY 


CHAPTER  V. 


VEGETABLES. 


The  Marketing  Tables  at  the  end  of  this  Work, 
show  the  Seasons  of  V^egttabhs,  and  point  out  the  time 
when  they  are  Best  and  Cheapest. 

There  is  nothing  in  which  the  difference  bttwctn  an 
Elegant  and  an  Ordinary  table  is  more  seen^  than  in  the 
dressing  of  I'egetables,  more  especially  of  Greens :  — 
they  may  be  equally  as  fine  at  first,  at  one  place  as  at 
another; — but  their  look  and  taste  are  afterwards 
very  different,  entirely  from  the  careless  way  in  which 
they  have  been  cooked. 

They  are  in  greatest  Perfection,  iihtn  in  greatest  Phnti/y 
i.  €.  when  in  full  season. 

By  Season,  —  I  do  not  mean  those  early  days,  that 
luxury  in  the  buyers^  and  avarice  in  the  sellers  about 
London,  force  the  various  vegetables  :  but  that  time  of 
the  year  in  which  by  nature  and  common  culture,  and 
the  mere  operation  of  the  Sun  and  Climate,  they  are 
in  most  plenty  and  perfection. 

Potatoes  and  Peas  —  are  seldom  worth  eating  before 
Midsummer.  — Unripe  Vegetables,  are  as  insipid  and 
unwholesome  as  Unripe  Fruits. 

As  to  the  quality  of  Vegetables,  the  middle  size  are 
preferred  to  the  largest,  or  the  smallest;  —  they  are 
more  tender,  juicy,  and  full  of  flavour,  just  before  they 
are  quite  full  grown :  Freshness  is  their  chief  value 
and  excellence,  and  I  should  as  soon  think  of  roasting 
an  Animal  alive,  —  as  of  boiling  a  Vegetable  after  it  is 
dead. 


110  VEGETABLES. 

The  Eye  easily  discovers  if  they  have  been  kept  too 
long;  —  they  soon  lose  their  Beauty  in  all  respects. 

Roots,  Greens,  Salads,  &c.,  and  the  various  pro- 
ductions of  the  Garden,  when  first  gathered,  are 
plump  and  firm,  and  have  a  fragrant  freshness  no  art 
can  give  them  again,  when  they  have  lost  it  by  long 
keeping ;  —  though  it  will  refresh  them  a  little  to  put 
them  into  cold  spring  water  for  some  time  before  they 
are  dressed. 

To  boil  them  in  soft  xvater  will  preserve  the  colour 
l>est  of  such  as  are  Green  ;  if  you  have  only  hard  water, 
put  to  it  a  teaspoonful  of  Carbonate  of  Putaih. 

Take  care  to  uash  and  cleanse  them  thoroughly  from 
dust,  dirt,  and  insects  : -^  Mi^  requires  great  attention: 
—  pick  oft  all  the  outside  leaves,  trim  them  nicely,  and 
if  not  quite  fresh  gathered  and  have  become  flaccid  —  it 
is  absolutely  necessary  to  restore  their  crispness  before 
cooking  them,  or  they  will  be  tough  and  unpleasant  — 
lay  them  in  a  pan  of  clean  water,  witii  a  handful  of 
salt  in  it,  for  an  hour  before  you  dress  them. 

"  Most  Vegetables  being  more  or  less  succulent, 
their  full  proportion  of  fluids  is  necessary  for  their  re- 
taining that  state  of  crispness  and  plumpness  which 
they  have  when  growing. —  On  being  cut  or  gathered, 
the  exhalation  from  their  surface  continues,  while, 
from  the  open  vessels  of  the  cut  surface,  there  is  often 
great  exudation  or  evaporation,  and  thus  their  natural 
moisture  is  diminished,  the  tender  leaves  become  flac- 
cid, and  the  thicker  masses  or  roots  lose  their  plump- 
ness.—  This  is  not  only  less  pleasant  to  the  Eye,  but 
is  a  real  injur\'  to  the  nutritious  powers  of  the  vege- 
table :  for  in  this  flaccid  and  shrivelled  state  its  fibres 
are  less  easily  divided  in  chewing,  and  the  water  which 
exists  in  vegetable  substances,  in  the  form  of  their 
respective  natural  juices,  is  directly  nutritious.  The 
first  care  in  the  preservation  of  succulent  vegetables, 
therefore,  is  to  prevent  them  from  losing  their  natural 
moisture."  —  Sup.  to  Edinb.  Enci/clop.  vol.  iv.  p.  335. 


VEGETABLES.  Ill 

They  should  always  be  boiled  in  a  saucepan  by 
themselves,  and  have  plenty  of  water :  if  Meat  is 
boiled  with  them  in  the  same  pot,  they  will  spoil  the 
look  and  taste  of  each  other. 

If  you  wish  to  have  Vegetables  delicately  clean,  put 
on  your  Pot,  make  it  boil,  put  a  little  salt  in  it —  and 
skim  it  perfectly  clean  before  you  put  in  the  Greens, 
&c.  —  which  should  not  be  put  in  till  the  water  boils 
briskly  :  tlie  quicker  they  boil,  the  greener  they  will 
be:  —  when  the  Vegetables  sink,  they  are  generally 
done  enough,  if  the  water  has  been  kept  constantly 
boiling.  Take  them  up  immtdintely^  or  they  mil  lose 
their  colour  and  goodness.  Drain  the  water  from  them 
thoroughly  before  you  send  them  to  table. 

This  branch  of  Cookery,  requires  the  most  vigilant 
attention. 

If  Vegetables  are  a  minute  or  two  too  long  over  the 
Fire,  —  they  lose  all  their  Beauty  and  Flavour. 

If  not  thoroughly  boiled  te?ider,  they  are  tremendously 
Indigestible,  and  much  more  troublesome  during  their 
residence  in  the  Stomach,  than  underdone  Meats*. 

To  preserve,  or  give  colour  in  Cookery,  many  good 
dishes  are  spoiled ;  but  the  rational  Epicure,  who  makes 
nourishment  the  main  end  of  eating,  will  be  content 
to  sacrifice  the  shadow,  to  enjoy  the  substance.  Vide 
Obs.  to  (No.  322.) 

Once  for  all,  take  care  your  vegetables  are  fresh;  — 
for  as  -the  Fishmonger  often  suffers  for  the  sins  of  the 
Cook,  so  the  Cook  often  gets  undeservedly  blamed 
instead  of  the  Green-grocer. 

Vegetables  in  this  metropolis,  are  often  kept  so  long, 
that  no  art  can  make  them  either  look  or  eat  well. 


•  "  Cauliflowers  and  other  Vegetables  are  often  boiled  only  crisp,  to 
preserve  their  Beauty.  For  the  look  alone  they  had  better  not  be  boiled  at 
all,  and  almost  as  well  for  the  use,  as  ii;  this  crude  state  they  arc  scarcely  di- 
gestible by  the  strongest  stomach.  On  the  other  hand,  when  over-boiled, 
they  become  vapid,  and  in  a  state  similar  to  decay,  in  which  they  afford  no 
sweet  purifying  Juices  to  the  body,  but  load  it  with  a  mass  of  mere  feculent 
matter." — Domestic  Management,  12mo.  1813,  p.  69. 


11*2  VEGETABLES. 

"  Succulent  Vegetables  are  best  preserved  in  a  cool 
shady  and  damp  place.  Potatoes, — Turnips,— Carrots, 
and  similar  Roots  intended  to  be  stored  up,  should 
never  be  cleaned  from  the  earth  adhering  to  them  — 
and  must  be  protected  from  the  action  of  the  air,  and 
frost,  by  layiuLi:  them  in  heaps,  burying  them  in 
sand  or  earth,  die.  or  covering  them  with  straw  or 
mats. 

"  The  action  of  Frost  destroys  the  life  of  the  Vege- 
table, and  it  speedily  rots." —  Sup.  to  Edinb.  E/uycluptdia, 
vol.  iv.  p.  335. 

N.B.  When  Greens,  6:c.  are  quite  fnsh  gathered, 
they  will  not  require  so  much  boiling,  by  at  least  a  third 
of  the  time  they  take,  when  tliey  have  been  gathered 
the  usual  time  those  are  that  are  brought  to  public 
markets. 

Mr.  Appert  has  published  his  simple  and  unex- 
pensive  process  of  preserving  fresh,  both  animal  and 
vegetable  foods,  from  the  season  of  produce,  throu^ih  the 
season  of  scarcity,  in  their  full  Havour  and  excellence, 
merely  by  a[)plying  heat  in  a  due  degree  to  the  several 
substances,  after  having  deprived  them  of  all  contact 
with  the  external  air. 

There  is  not  a  Mistress  of  a  Family  who  is  ricli 
enough  to  lay  by  a  stock  of  these  Articles,  and  not  too 
rich  to  despise  Economy,  who  will  not  be  benefited  by 
the  perusal  of  Mr.  Appert's  Book,  12:no.  1812,  or  pur- 
chase La  CiiiMiE  Du  Gout,  2  tom.  Paris,  1819. 


HUDIMENTS  OF  COOKERY. 


CHAPTER  VI. 


FISH. 

The  Marketing  Tables  at  the  end  of  this  Work 
show  when  each  kind  of  Fish  is  Best  and  Cheapest. 

This  department  of  the  business  of  the  Kitchen 
requires  considerable  experience,  and  depends  more 
upon  practice  than  any  other; — a  very  Jhv  momentSy 
more  or  less,  will  thoroughly  spoil  Fish*;  which,  to  be 
eaten  in  perfection,  —  must  never  be  put  on  the  Table, 
till  the  Soup  is  taken  off. 

So  many  circumstances  operate  on  this  occasion,  it 
is  almost  impossible  to  write  general  rules. 

There  are  decidedly  different  opinions,  whether  Fish 
should  be  put  into  cold, —  tepid,  —  or  boiling  water. 


•  Whea  the  Cook  has  large  dinners  to  prepare,  aud  the  time  of  serving  un- 
certain, she  will  get  more  credit  by  FRiEn,  (see  No.  145.)  or  stewed,  (see  No. 
164.)  than  by  boiled  Fish.  It  is  also  cheaper,  and  much  sooner  carved, 
(see  No.  14.5.) 

Mr.  Uae,  pa^e  238  of  his  Cookery —  advises,  "  Tf  you  are  obiiged  to  wait 
after  the  Fish  is  done,  do  not  let  it  remain  in  the  water,  but  keep  the  water 
boiling  —  and  put  the  fish  over  it,  and  cover  it  with  a  damp  clotli  —  when  the 
dinner  is  called  for,  dip  the  fish  agnin  in  the  water  —  and  serve  it  up." 

The  only  circumstantial  instructions  yet  printed  for  Frying  Fish,  the 
Reader  will  find  in  (No.  145.):  if  this  be  carefully  and  nicely  aiteiided  to, 
you  will  have  delicious  food,  and  let  the  Fish-Eater  remember  the  Epitaph 
of  the  Musician  at  Marseilles  — 


m 


X2: 


-& 


which  being  read  according  to  the  French  gamut  and  pronuncialion  ■ 
—  Sole  —  La  —  Mis  —  La. 


is  La 


114  FISH. 

We  believe  for  some  of  the  fame  the  Dutch  Cooks 
have  acquired,  they  are  a  little  indebted  to  their  situa- 
tion, affording  them  a  plentiful  supply  of  Fresh  Fish 
for  little  more  than  the  trouble  of  catching  it : —  and 
that  the  superior  excellence  of  tlie  fish  in  Holland, 
is  because  none  are  used,  unless  they  are  brought 
alive  into  the  Kitchen,  (Mackerel  excepted,  which  die 
the  moment  tiiey  are  taken  out  of  the  water.)  The 
Dutch  are  as  nice  about  this,  as  Seneca  says,  the  Ro- 
mans* were ;  who,  complaining  of  the  luxury  of  the 
times,  says,  "  they  are  come  to  that  daintiness,  that 
they  will  not  eat  a  Fish,  unless  upon  the  same  day  that 
it  is  taken,  that  it  may  taste  of  the  sea,  as  they  ex- 
press it." 

On  the  Dutch  flat  coast,  the  Fish  are  taken  with 
nets  ;  — on  our  rocky  coast,  they  are  mostly  caught  by 
bait  and  hook,  which  instantly  kills  them.  —  Fish  are 
brought  alive  by  land,  to  the  Dutch  markets,  in  water- 
casks  with  air-holes  in  the  top. —  Salmon,  and  other 
fish,  are  thus  preserved  in  rivers,  in  a  well  hole,  in  the 
fishing-boat. 

Fish  of  every  kind  are  best  some  time  before 
they  begin  to  spawn  —  and  are  unfit  for  food  for  some 
time  after  they  have  spawned. 

7/ie  mofit  convenient  Utensil  to  boil  Fish  in,  is  a 
TuREOT  Kettle,  —  this  should  be  24  inches  long, 
22  wide,  and  9  deep.  —  It  is  an  excellent  vessel  to  boil 
a  Ham  in,  &-c.  &c. 

Tlie  good  folks  of  this  Metropolis  are  so  often  dis- 
appointed, by  having  Fish  which  have  been  kept  too 
long, — that  they  are  apt  to  run  into  the  other  extreme, 


•  They  had  Salt  Water  preserves  for  feeding  diflferent  kinds  of  Sea  fish  ; 
those  in  ilie  ponds  of  Lucullus,  at  his  death,  sold  for  25,()00/.  sterling.  The 
prolific  po^^e^  of  Fish  is  woiiderful:  — the  followiug  calculations  aie  from 
Petit,  Bloch,  and  Leuwenhuek  :  — 

Eggs. 
A  Salmon  of  CO  pounds  weight  contained........         27,850 

A  middling  sized  Tike 148,000 

A  Mackerel., 546,681 

A  Cod , , , 9,344,000 

See  Cours  Gastronomiques ,  )8mo.  1806,  p.  241. 


risH.  11^ 

and  suppose  that  Fish  will  not  dress  well,  unless  it  is 
absolutely  alive.  This  is  true  of  Lobsters,  &c.  (No. 
1 76.)  and  may  be  of  Fresh-water  fish,  but  certainly  not 
of  some  Sea  fish. 

Several  respectable  Fishmongers  and  experienced 
Cooks  have  assured  the  Editor,  that  they  are  often  in 
danger  of  losing  their  credit,  by  fish  too  fresh,  and 
especially  Turbot  and  Cod,  which,  like  Meat,  require  a 
certain  time  before  they  are  in  the  best  condition  to  be 
dressed:  —  they  recommend  them  to  be  put  into  Cold 
Water,  Salted  in  proportion  of  about  a  quarter  of  a 
pound  of  salt  to  a  gallon  of  water,  —  Sea  IVater  is  best 
to  boil  Sea  fish  in, — and  let  them  boil  slowly  till  done ; 
the  sign  of  which  is,  that  the  skin  of  the  fish  rises  up, 
and  the  Eyes  turn  white. 

It  is  the  business  of  the  Fishmonger  to  clean  them, 
&c.  but  the  careful  Cook  will  always  wash  them 
again. 

Garnish,  with  slices  of  Lemoriy  —  finely  scraped 
Horseradish,  — fried  Oysters,  (No.  183.)  —  Smelts,  (No. 
173.)  —  or  Whitings,  (No.  153.)  or  Strips  of  Soles  as 
directed  in  No.  145. 

The  Liver,  —  Roc,  —  and  Chitterlings,  —  should  be 
placed  so  that  the  Carver  may  observe  them  and 
invite  the  Guests  to  partake  of  them. 

N.B.  Fish,  like  Meat,  requires  more  cooking  in  cold 
than  in  warm  weather  ; — if  it  becomes  frozen*,  it  must 
be  thawed  by  the  means  we  have  directed  for  Meat, 
in  the  6th  page  of  the  2d  Chapter  of  the  Rudiments  of 
Cookery.  To  go  to  Market  for  fish,  see  Observa- 
tions, after  (No.  182.)  and  the  Marketing  Tables,  at  the 
end  of  this  Work. 

FISH  SAUCES. 

The  MELTED  Butter  (No.  256.)  for  Fish,  should  he 
thick  enough  to  adhere  to  the  Fish,    and,  therefore, 

*  Fish  is  very  frequently  sent  home  frozen  by  the  Fishmonger,  to  whom  an 
Ice-house  is  now  as  i;ecessary  an  appendage  (tc  preserve  Fish)— as  it  is  to  a 
Confectioner. 


116  Tisn. 

must  be  of  the  thickness  of  light  Batter,  as  it  is  to  be 
diluted  with —  Fssence  of  Anchovy.  (No.  433.) 

Soy,  (No.  436.)  Mushroom  Catnup,  (No.  439.) 
Cayenne,  (No.  404.)  or  Chilli  Vinegar,  (No.  405  ) 
Lemons  or  Lemon  Juice,  or  Artijicial  Ltmoa  Juicc^ 
see  (No.  407*.)  &c.  which  are  expected  at  all  well 
served  Tables. 

Cooks,  who  are  jealous  of  the  reputation  of  their 
Taste,  and  Housekeepers  uho  laluc  their  Uealtli,  ui/l 
prepare  thae  articles  at  home; — there  are  quite  as  many 
reasons  why  they  should,  as  there  are  for  the  preference 
usually  given  to  Hume  baked  Bread  and  Home-breued 
Beer*,  &c.  see  Accum  on  Adulterations  of  Bread, 
Beer,  Wine,  Tea,  Coffee,  Vinegar,  Mustard, 
Pepper,  &c.  "  Indeed  it  would  be  difficult  to  men- 
tion a  single  article  of  food  which  is  not  to  be  met 
with  in  an  adulterated  state;  and  there  are  some 
which  are  scarcely  ever  to  be  procured  genuine." 
12mo.  1820,  page  *3,  '2nd  Ldition. 

N.B.  The  Jjiirr  of  the  Fish,  pounded  and  mixed 
with  Parsley  and  Butter,  with  a  little  Lemon  Juice, 
&c.  is  an  elegant  and  inoffensive  relisli  to  Fish.  See 
(No.  288.)  Mushroom  Sauce  E.itempure,  (No.  307), 
the  Soup  of  Mock  Turtle,  (No.  247  ,  will  make  an 
excellent  Fish  Sauce. 

On  the  comparatively  nutritive  qualities  of  Fish, 
see  N.B.  to  (No.  181.) 


•  See  Accum  o.n  Brewing — ICino.  1820 — and  "  Ilojiii  Brewld  Ale," 
by  a  Housekeeper,  Robinson,  1804,  in  page  18:  our  Uoiisikeeper  tells  us, 
that  "  a  poor  widow  in  his  uei'^hbxui  hood,  has  filled  up  a  Brewery  for  the 
sum  of  eighteenpence  sterling!  A  bntiei-tub  (price  nine-pence)  is  her  masb- 

tub:  three  half  tubs  of  smaller  size,  (at  threepence  each)  are  her  coolers 

with  these  she  brews  half  a  buihcl  of  malt  at  a  time,  and  declares  Ihat  she  finds 
her  Home  Brewed  Ale  "  very  coinj'ortahle  indeed." — See  also  Rawlinso.n 
on  Brewi.vg  Malt  LiQUOR_/br  Domestic  use  — printed  for  Johnson,  InU 
Edition,  18u7,  price  is. 


RUDIMENTS  OF  COOKERY. 


CHAPTER  VII. 

BROTHS  AND  SOUPS. 

The  Cook  must  pay  continual  attention  to  the  condi- 
tion of  her  Stewpans  *  and  Soup-kettles,  &c.  —  which 
should  be  examined  every  time  they  are  used.  Tlie  pru- 
dent Huvsewife  uill  carefuUij  examine  the  condition  of  them 
herself  at  least  once  a  month.  Their  covers  also  must  be 
kept  perfectly  clean  and  well  tinned, — and  the  Stewpans 
not  only  on  the  inside,  but  about  a  couple  of  inches  on 
the  outside  :  —  many  mischiefs  arise  from  their  g:etting 
out  of  repair,  —  and  if  not  kept  nicely  tinned^  all  your 
good  work  xiill  be  in  tain ;  the  Broths  and  Soups  will 
look  ^reen  and  dirty,  —  taste  bitter  and  poisonous,  — 
and  will  be  spoiled  both  for  the  Eye  and  Palate,  and 
your  credit  will  be  lost. 

The  Health,  and  even  Life  of  the  family,  depends 
upon  this,  and  the  Cook  may  be  sure,  her  Employers 
had  rather  pay  the  Tinman's  bill  than  the  Doctor's ;  — 
therefore,  attention  to  this  cannot  fail  to  engage  the 
regard  of  the  Mistress,  between  whom  and  the  Cook, 
—  it  will  be  my  utmost  endeavour  to  promote  perfect 
Harmony. 

If  a  serxant  has  the  7ni  fortune  to  scorch  or  blister  the 
tinning  of  her  Pan-f,  which  will  happen  sometimes  to  the 
most  careful  Cook, — 1  advise  her,  by  all  means,  imme- 
diately to  acquaint  her  employers,  who  will  thank  her 


•  V\*e  prefer  the  form  of  a  Stewpan,  to  the  Soup-Pot,— the  former  is  more 
eonvenient  to  skim;  the  most  useful  size  is  12  inches  diameier  by  6  inches 
deep:  this  we  would  have  of  Silver, — or  Iron, — or  Copper  lined  (not  plated) 
with  Silver. 

+  This  may  be  always  avoided  by  Browning  your  meat  in  the  Frying- 
pan — it  is  the  browning  of  the  meat  that  destroys  the  Stew  pan. 


118  BROTHS  AND   SOUPS. 

for  candidly  mentioning  such  an  accident;  and  cen- 
sure her  deservc'Jly  if  she  conceal  it. 

Take  care  to  be  properly  provided  with  Sieves  and 
Tammy  cloths, —  Spoons,  and  Ladles,  —  make  it  a 
rule  -without  an  exception,  never  to  use  them  till  they  are 
well  cleaned  and  thoroughly  dried, — nor  any  Stew- 
pans,  &c.,  without  first  washing  them  out  with  boiling 
water,  and  rubbing  them  well  with  a  dry  cloth  and  a 
little  bran,  to  clean  them  from  grease,  sand,  &c.  or  any 
bad  smell  they  may  have  got  since  they  were  last 
used  :  never  neglect  this. 

Though  we  do  not  suppose  our  Cook  to  be  such  a 
naughty  Slut,  as  to  wilfully  neglect  her  Buoth  Pots, 
&c.  yet  we  may  recommend  her  to  wash  them  imme- 
diately, and  take  care  they  are  thoroughly  dried  before 
the  fire,  before  they  are  put  by,  and  to  keep  them  in  a 
dry  place,  for  damp  will  rust  and  destroy  them  very 
soon  :  —  attend  to  this  the  first  moment  you  can  spare 
after  the  dinner  is  sent  up. 

Never  put  by  any  Soup,  Gravy,  &c.,  in  a  metal 
utensil ;  in  which,  never  keep  any  thing  longer  than  is 
absolutely  necessary  for  the  purposes  of  Cookery, — 
the  acid,  vegetables,  and  fat,  &c.  employed  in  making 
them  —  are  capable  of  dissolving  them;  therefore  stone 
or  earthen  vessels  should  be  used  for  this  purpose. 

Stewpans  and  Soup-pots,  with  thick  and  round 
bottoms,  (such  as  saucepans  are  made  with)  will  wear 
twice  as  long,  and  are  cleaned  with  half  the  trouble,  as 
those  whose  sides  are  soldered  to  the  bottom,  of  which 
Sand  and  Grease  get  into  the  joined  part,  and  it  is  next  to 
an  impossibility,  to  dislodge  it.  The  Editor  claims  the 
credit  of  having  first  suggested  the  importance  of  this 
construction  of  these  utensils. 

Take  care  that  the  Lids  fit  as  close  as  possible,  that 
the  Broth,  Soup,  and  Sauces,  &c.  may  not  waste  by 
evaporation*.     They  are  good  for  nothing,  unless  they 

•  "  Fil-on  jamais  de  bon  bouillon  — dans  une  marmite  decouvcrtel   Quelle 


BROTHS  AND  SOUPS.  119 

lit  tight  enough  to  keep  the  Steam  in,  and  the  Smoke 
out. 

Stewpans  and  saucepans  should  be  always  bright  on 
the  upper  rim,  where  the  fire  does  not  burn  them :  but 
to  scower  them  all  over,  is  not  only  giving  the  Cook- 
needless  trouble,  but  wearing  out  the  vessels. 

Cultivate  habits  of  regularity  and  cleanliness,  &c.  in 
all  your  business,  —  which  you  will  then  get  through 
easily  and  comfortably.  —  I  do  not  mean  the  restless 
spirit  of  Mulidusta,  "  the  Tidy  One"  who  is  always 
frisking  about,  in  a  v/hirlpool  of  bustle  and  confusion ; 
and  is  always  dirty,  —  under  pretence  of  being  always: 
cleaning. 

Lean  juicy  Beef,  —  Mutton,  —  or  Veal,  —  form  the 
basis  of  Broth :  —  procure  those  pieces  which  afford 
the  most  and  the  richest  succulence,  and  as  fresh 
killed  as  possible*.  See  The  Marketing  Tables  at 
the  end  of  this  work. 

Stale  Meat  will  make  your  broth  grouty  and  bad 
tasted,  and  Fat  meat  is  only  wasted.  This  only  ap- 
plies to  those  Broths  which  are  required  to  be  perfectly 
clear:  we  shall  show  hereafter,  in  (No.  229.)  that  Fat 
ajid  Clarified  Drippings  may  be  so  combined  with 
Vegetable  Mucilage,  as  to  aflord,  at  the  small  cost  of 
ONE  Penny  per  Quart,  a  nourishing,  and  palatable 
Soup,  fully  adequate  to  satisfy  Appetite,  and  support 
strength  :  —  this  will  open  a  new  source  to  those  bene- 

difference  de  gout,  d'odeur,  et  de  substance  entre  irne  tranche  de  Boeuf  cuite  a 
fea  lent,  dans  uu  valsseau  fcrme,  ou  un  morceau  de  Bceuf  cuit  ^gros  bouillons, 
dans  une  marmite  enti^rement  onverte!  L'avantage  en  est  si  consequent,  que 
j'ai  souvent  reussi  h  faire  de  meilleur  bouillon,  en  quantite  egale,  avec  moi- 
ti^  moins  de  viande,  dans  une  marmite  bien  fermee,  qu'avec  le  double  dans 
un  vaisseau  oiivert.  D'oii  provient  done  cette  difference  etonnante?  C'esl 
que  dans  un  vaisseau  decouvert,  la  plus  grande  partie  du  sue  des  viandes  et  dn 
boaillon  se  dissipent  en  vapeurs,  tandis  que  dans  un  vaisseau  ferme,  ces  exha- 
lations nutritives,  toujours  ccndensees,  sont  dans  nue  distillation  {)erpetuellej 
qui,  relorabant  dans  le  vase  comme  la  rosee,  concentre  la  totalite  de  icur 
sacs,  et  conserve  toutes  leurs  substances  nourici^res." 

•  In  general,  it  has  been  considered  the  best  Economy  to  use  the  cheapest 
and  most  inferior  meats  for  Soup,  &c.  and  to  boil  it  down  till  it  is  entirely- 
destroyed,  and  hardly  worth  pnttinginto  the  Ilog-tub.  This  is  a  false  Frugality: 
buy  good  fieces  o/  Meat,  and  only  steiv  them  till  they  are  d&ne  enough 
to  be  eaten. 


120 


BPOTIIS   AN  D   SOUPS. 


volent  housekeepers,  who  are  disposed  to  relieve  the 
Poor,  —  and  will  show  the  industrious  classes  how 
much  they  have  it  in  their  power  to  assist  themselves, 
and  rescue  them  from  being;  objects  of  Charity  depend- 
ent on  tlie  precarious  bounty  of  others,  —  by  teaching 
them  how  they  may  obtain  a  cheap,  abundant,  salu- 
brious, and  agreeable  ahment  for  themselves  and 
families. 

This  Soup  lias  the  advantag:e  of  bcinp:  very  easily 
and  very  soon  made,  with  no  more  fuel  than  is  neces- 
sary to  warm  a  room  —  those  who  have  not  tasted  it, 
cannot  imao;ine  what  a  salubriojjs,  savoury  and  satisfy- 
iniT  iMtal  is  produced  by  the  judicious  comljination  of 
cheap  homely  in^^redients. 

Scotch  B.vRLi.Y  Broth,  (No.  204)  will  furnish  a 
G(m(l  I)tn/,ii  i.i  Soup  and  Mcat  for  Five  jkiicp p^r  Hrod, 
Peask  Soup  (No.2'21),  will  cost  only  Sixpence  per  ilitart^ 
Ox  Tail  Si)LP(\o.  240)  or  the  same  Portable  Soup, 
(No.  252)  for  liie-pence  per  Quart,  and  (No.  224)  an 
excellent  Guavy  So  up  for  Four-pence  halfpenny  per 
Quar/.  Di'CK  GiBLET  Soup,  (No.  244)  for  Three-pence 
per  Qurirt,  and  Fowls'  Head  Soup  in  the  same  manner 
Jar  i(i/i  /ess.  (No.  239)  will  give  you  a  good  and 
PLENTIFUL  Dinner  for  Six  people  for  Two  Shillings 
and  Tuo  pence.  See  also  Shin  of  Beff  stew:  d,  (No. 
493;  and  Ala  mode  Beef  (.No.  502j. 


BUOTH    HERBS,  SOUP    ROOTS,    AND   SEASONINGS. 


Scotch  barley,  (No.  204.) 

Pearl  barley, 

Flour, 

Oatmeal,  (No.  572.) 

Bread, 

Raspings, 

Pea.s, 


Bt-ans, 

Rice, 

Vermicelli, 

Maccaroni, 

Isinglass, 

Potatoe  mucilage,  (448.) 

Mushrooms*,  (No.  439.) 


•  iMubHRooM  Catsup,  made  as  (No.  4.^9,)  or  (No.  440,)  will  answrrafl 
tl«e  purpose  o(  .MnslirooiuB  iu  soup  or  sauce,  and  no  siore-room  ibuuid  be 
Milhout  a  siuck  uf  it. 


BROTHS  AND  SOUPS. 


121 


Champignons, 

Parsnips,  (No.  213.) 

Carrots,  (No.  212.) 

Beet  roots, 

Turnips,  (No.  208.) 

Garlick, 

Shallots,  see  (No.  402.) 

Onions*, 

Leeks, 

Cucumberf, 

Celery,  (No.  214.) 

Celery  seedt, 

Cress  seed,  see  (No.  397. 1|) 

Parsleyll,  see  N.  B.  to  (No. 

261.) 
Common  Thyme  ||, 
Lemon  Thyme  ||, 


Orange  Thyme  1|, 
Knotted  Marjoram  1|,  (No. 

417.) 
Sage  11, 

Mint,  (No.  398.) 
Winter  Savoury  H, 
Sweet  Basil  11,  (No.  397.) 
Bay  leaves, 
Tomatoe, 

Tarragon,  (No.  396.) 
Chervil, 

Burnet,  (No.  399.) 
Allspice  §,  (No.  412.) 
Cinnamon^,  (No.  416.*) 
Ginger§,  (No.  411.) 
Nutmeg^, 
Clove,  (No.  414.) 


•  All  Cooks  agree  in  this  opinion, 
No  savoury  dish  withoict  an  Omon. 

Sliced  Onionx  fried,  see  (No.  £99,)  and  note  iiuder  (No.  517,)  vvitli  some 
butter  and  flour,  liil  they  are  browned,  (<uid  rubbed  through  h  sieve,)  are  ex- 
cellent to  heighten  the  colour  and  flavour  of  brown  soups  and  sauces,  and 
form  the  basis  of  most  of  the  Relishes  furnished  by  the  *'  Restaurateurs" — 
as  we  51  rss  from  the  odour  which  ascends  from  their  Kitchens,  and  salutes 
our  olfactory  nerves  ''  en  passant  " 

The  older  and  drier  the  Onion,  the  stronger  its  flavour,  and  the  Cook  will 
regulate  the  quantity  she  uses  accurdingly. 

t  Burnet  has  exactly  the  same  flavour  as  Cucumber, — sac  Burnet  Vinegar, 
(No.  399.) 

1  The  concentration  of  flavour  in  Celery  and  Cress  Seed  is  such,  that 
half  a  drachm  of  it,  {finely  pou?ided)  or  double  the  quantity  if  not  ground  or 
pounded,  costing  only  one  third  of  a  Farthing,  wWi  impregnate  half  a  gallon 
of  soup  with  almost  as  much  relish  as  two  or  three  heads  of  the  fresh  vegetable, 
weighing  seven  ounces,  and  costing  Two-pence.  Ihis  valuible  acquisition  to 
the  .Soup-pot  deserves  to  be  univers.dly  known.  See  also  (No.  409,)  l^ssence 
of  Celery.  Ihis  is  the  most  frugal  Kelish  we  have  to  introduce  to  the  Eco- 
nomist— but  that  our  judgment  in  Palatics  may  not  be  called  in  q'lestion  by 
our  fellow  mortals,  who,  as  the  Craniologists  say,  happen  to  have  the  Organ 
of  Taste  stronger  than  the  Organ  of  Accumulutiie>>ess,  we  must  confess, 
that,  with  the  flavour,  it  docs  not  impart  the  delicate  sweetness,  &c.  of  the 
fresh  Vegetable:  and  when  used,  a  bit  of  .Sugar  should  accompany  it. 

(I  S(?e  (No.  410)  and  (xVo.  4C0)  and  (No.  459.)  Fiesli  green  Basil  is  seldom 
to  be  procured.  When  dried,  much  of  its  fine  flavour  is  lost,  which  is  fully 
extracted  by  pouring  wine  on  the  fiesh  leaves,  (see  397-) 

To  procure  and  preserve  the  flavour  of  sweet  and  savodry  H£RBs, 
celery,  &c.  these  must  be  dried,  &c.  at  home,  (see  No.  417*  and  46l.) 

$  See  (No.  421)  and  (No.  457.) 

G 


122  BR0TH3  AND    SOUPS. 

Mace,  Lemon-juice*, 

Black  pepper,                        I  Seville  orange  juice  f, 

Lemon-peel,  (No.  407  and  Kssence  of  Anchovy,  see 

408.)  (No.  433.) 
White  pepper, 

'1  he  above  Materials  —  Wine  and  Mushroom  Catsup, 
(No.  439),  combined  in  various  ])roportions, — will  nmke 
an  endless  variety  t  of  excellent  Broths  and  Soups,  quite 
as  pleasant  to  the  Palate,  and  as  useful  and  agreeable 
to  the  Stomach,  as  consuming  Pheasants  and  Par- 
tridges, and  the  long  list  of  inflammatory,  piquante,  and 
rare  and  costly  articles,  recommended  by  former 
Cookery-book  makers,  —  whose  elaborately  com- 
pounded Soups,  are  like  their  Made  Dishes ;  —  iii 
which,  though  variety  is  aimed  at,  every  thing  has  the 
same  Taste,  —  and  nothing  its  uun. 

The  general  fault  ojuur  English   Soups,  seems  to 


•  If  yon  have  not  fresh  orange  or  Lemon  Juice,  or  Coxwell's  crystalllKed 
Ixinou  Acid,  the  artificial  Lttnun  Juice  (No.  407)  i»  a  good  lubstilute 
for  it. 

t  The  juice  of  the  Seville  Oh4NOE  is  to  be  preferred  to  that  of  the 
Lemon,— the  Flavonr  is  finer  and  the  Acid  milder. 

I  The  erudite  editor  of  the  "  Almanack  des  Gourmands,"  voL  il.  p.  30, 
tells  119,  that  ten  fulio  volumes  would  not  contain  the  Receipts  of  all  the  Soups 
that  have  been  invented  in  that  Grand  School  of  Good  Ealing,— the  Parisian 
Kitchen. 

We  add  the  following  Directions  for  SouP-MAKlNO  from  the  celebrated 
French  Chemist,  Parme.ntier: — 

Rigles  giniraUs  pour  la  Preparation  des  Bouillons  Alimentaires. 

1.  viande  saine,  et  convenablenient  sai{;n^e. 

2.  Vaisseaux  de  tii  re,  de  preference  a  ceux  de  m^tal,  parce  que  les  premiers 
sont  moins  condutteurs  de  la  chaleur,  et  qu'une  fois  echautles,  un  peu  de 
cendre  chaude  entrtticnt  IVbullition  Ug^re  que  Ton  desire. 

3.  Eau  en  qnaniitr  double  dn  poids  a  celle  de  la  viande  employee. 

4.  Sutlisaiitu  quaulile  de  »el  commun  pour  faciliter  la  separation  de  I'albu- 
miiie,  ain?i  que  sa  coagulation  sous  forme  d'tcnme. 

5.  Temptrature  capable  de  porter  le  melange  a  rebollitiou  pendant  tout  k 
temps  que  I'l  cume  se  rassemblera  ii  la  surlace  du  liquide,  et  qu'on  aura  sola 
d'l-n  separer  exactemtnt. 

6.  Temptrature  plus  basse  aprds  I'op^-raiion  precedente,  et  toujonrs  cou- 
stante,  afin  que  le  liquide  ne  tasse  que  fremir  legerement,  pour  doiwier  le 
temps  aux  substances  nutritives,  colorantes  et  extractives,  contenues  dans  la 
viande,  de  s'uiiir  el  de  se  combiner  avec  I'eau,  dans  I'ordic  qui  convieiil  a  i«ui 
jolubilite.— I'AR  JiE.\ri£R,  Code  Pharmaceutiqut,  1811,  p.  444. 


BROTHS   AND  SOUPS.  '123 

be  the  employment  of  an  excess  of  SpicE;  and  too  small  a 
proportion  o/" Roots  and  Herbs*. 

Besides  the  Ingredients  I  have  enumerated,  many 
Culinary  scribes  indiscriminately  cram  into  almost 
every  Dish  (in  such  inordinate  Quantities  — one  would 
suppose  they  were  working  for  the  Asbestos  palate 
of  an  Indian  Fire-Eater)  Anchovies, —  Garlickf?  —  Bay 
leaves,  and  that  hot  fiery  spice  CayenneX  pepper;  this 
v/hich  the  French  call  (not  undeservedly)  Piment  enrage^ 
(No.  404,)  has  somehow  or  other  —  unaccountably 
—  acquired  a  character  for  being  xery  wholesome^  — 
whilst  the  milder  Peppers  and  Spices,  are  cried  down, 
as  destroying  the  sensibility  of  the  Palate,  and  Stomach, 
&c.,  and  being  the  source  of  a  thousand  mischiefs. — 
We  should  just  as  soon  recommend  Alcohol  as  being 
less  intoxicating  than  IVine. 

The  best  thing  that  has  been  said  in  praise  of 
Peppeus  is,  '*  that  with  all  kinds  of  Vegetables,  as 
"  also  with  Soups  (especially  vegetable  soups)  and 
*'  Fish,  either  Black  or  Cayenne  tcpper  may  be  taken 
"  freely  :  they  are  the  most  useful  stimulants  to  Old 
"  Stomachs,  and  often  supersede  the  cravings  for 
"  strong  drinks;  or  diminish  the  quantity  otherwise 
"  required."      See    Sir    A.    Carlisle    on   Old   Age^ 


•  "  Point  de  Legumes,  point  de  Cuiiiiiiere"  is  a  favourite  culinary 
adage  of  the  French  kitchen;  and  deserves  to  be  so :  a  better  soup  may  be 
tna<le  with  a  couple  of  pounds  of  Meat  and  plenty  of  Vegetables,  than  our 
common  Cooks  will  n)ake  you  with  four  times  that  quantity  of  meat;  all  for 
want  of  knowing  the  uses  of  Soup  roots,  and  Sv/eet  and  Savoury  herbs. 

t  Many  a  i^ood  dish  is  spoiled,  by  the  cook  not  knowing  the  proper  use 
of  this,  which  is  to  give  a  flavour,  and  not  to  be  predominant  over  the  other 
ingredients :  a  morsel  mashed  with  the  point  of  a  knife,  and  stirred  in,  is 
enough.     See  (Mo.  4OC.) 

X  Foreigners  have  strange  notions  of  English  Taste,  on  which  one  of  their 
Culinary  Professors  has  made  the  following  comment:  "  J  he  organ  of  Taste 
in  these  I&landkrs  is  very  ditferent  from  our  Delicate  Palates — and  saTice 
that  would  excoriate  the  palate  of  a  Frenchman,  would  be  hardly  piquante 
enough  to  make  any  impression  on  that  of  an  i.nglishrnan ; — thus,  they 
prefer  Port  to  Claret,"  &c.  As  far  as  concerns  our  Drinking,  we  wish  there 
was  not  quite  so  much  truth  in  Monsieur's  remarks:  but  the  <  haracicristic 
«>f  the  French  and  English  kitchen  is,  Sauce  without  Substance — and 
Substance  witliout  Sauce. 

To  make  Cayenne  of  English  Chillies,  of  infinitely  finer  flavour  than  the 
Indian,  see  (No.  404.) 

G   2 


124  BROTHS   AND  SOUPS. 

London,  1817.  A  certain  portion  of  Condiment  is 
occasionally  serviceable  to  excite  and  keep  up  the 
languid  action  of  feeble  and  advanced  Life;  — we  must 
increase  the  stimulus  of  our  aliment  as  the  inirritability 
of  our  system  increases.  —  We  leave  those  tcho  hie  these 
thifigs,  to  use  them  as  they  like ;  their  flavours  can  be 
very  extemporaneously  produced  by  Chilly-juice,  or 
essence  of  Cayenne  (\o.  40.5),  Eshallot  wine  (No.  40^), 
and  Essence  of  Anchovy  (No.  433). 

There  is  no  French  Dinner  without  Soup,  which  is  re- 
garded as  an  indispensable  Oicrture ;  -  it  is  commonly 
followed  by  "  le  Coup  d'Apris^'  a  Glass  of  pure  Wine, 
which  they  consider  so  wholesome  after  Soup,  that  their 
Proverb  says,  the  Physician  thereby  loses  a  Fee;  — 
whether  the  glass  of  Wine  be  so  much  more  advan- 
tageous for  the  Patient  than  it  is  for  his  Doctor,  we 
know  not,  but  believe  it  an  excellent  plan  to  begin  the 
Banquet  with  a  basin  of  good  Soup  —  which,  by  mode- 
rating the  Appetite  for  solid  Animal  food  —  is  certainly 
a  salutifcrous  custom.  —  Between  the  Roasts  and  the 
Entremets  —  they  introduce  "  /e  Coup  du  Milieu''  —  or 
a  small  glass  of  Jamaica  Rum,  or  Essence  of'  Punch, 
see  (No.  471);  or  Cuuac^ao  (No.  474). 

The  introduction  of  Liqueurs  is  by  no  means  a 
modern  custom ;  our  ancestors  were  very  fond  of  a 
highly  s^:;;ccd  stimulus  of  this  sort,  commonly  called 
Ipocrasse,  which  generally  made  a  part  of  the  last 
course  —  or  was  taken  immediately  after  dinner. 

The  Crafte  to  make  Ypocras. 

"  Take  a  quarte  of  red  wyne,  an  ounce  of  syTiamon, 
and  halfe  an  unce  of  gynger ;  a  quarter  of  an  ounce  of 
greyne-s  (probably  of  paradise)  and  long  peper.  and 
halfe  a  pounde  of  sugar;  and  brose  {bruise)  all  this 
{not  too  small),  and  then  put  them  in  a  bage  {bag)  of 
wullen  clothe,  made  therefore,  with  the  Wyne ;  and 
lete  it  hange  over  a  vessel,  till  the  wynee  be  run 
thorowe." —  An  extract  from  Arnold's  Chronicle. 


BROTHS  AND  SOUPS.  125 

It  is  a  Custom  which  almost  universally  prevails  in 
the  Northern  parts  of  Europe,  to  present  a  Dram  or 
glass  of  Liqueur,  before  sitting  down  to  Dinner:  —  this 
answers  the  double  purpose  of  a  whet  to  the  Appetite, 
and  an  announcement  that  Dinner  is  on  the  point  of 
being  served  up.  — Along  with  the  Dram,  is  presented 
on  a  waiter,  little  square  pieces  of  Cheese,  slices  of 
cold  Tongue,  and  dried  Tongue,  and  dried  Toast  ac- 
companied with  fresh  Caiiar. 

We  again  caution  the  Cook  to  avoid  Over- Seasoning, 
especially  with  predominant  flavours,  which,  however 
agreeable  they  may  be  to  some,  are  more  extremely 
disagreeable  to  others,  see  page  59. 

Zest  (No.  255),  Soy  (No.  436),  —  Cavice  —  Coratch 

—  Anchovy   (No.   433),  —  Curry  powder  (No.   455), 

—  Savory  Ragout  Powder  (No.  457),  —  Soup  Herb 
Powder  —  (No.  459)  —  and  (460),  —  Browning  (No. 
322),  —  Catsups  (No.  432),  —  Pickle  liquor  —  Beer  — 
Wine,  and  Sweet  Herbs,  and  Savory  Spice  (No.  460), 
are  very  convenient  auxiliaries  to  finish  Soups,  &c. 

The  proportion  of  Wixe  (formerly  Sack,  —  then 
Claret,  —  now  Madeira  or  Port)  should  not  exceed  a 
large  W' ine-glassful  to  a  Quart  of  Soup  :  —  this  is  as 
much  as  can  be  admitted,  without  the  vinous  flavour 
becoming  remarkably  predominant ;  —  though  not  only 
much  larger  quantities  of  Wine,  (of  which  Claret  is  in- 
comparably the  best,  because  it  contains  less  spirit  and 
more  flavour,  and  English  palates  are  least  acquainted 
with  it);  but  even  veritable  Eau  de  Vie  is  ordered  in 
many  books,  and  used  by  many  (especially  Tavern 
Cooks) — so  much  are  their  Soups  overloaded  with  relish, 
that  if  you  will  eat  enough  of  them  they  will  certainly 
make  you  Drunk,  if  they  don't  make  you  Sick — all 
this,  frequently  arises  from  an  old  Cook  measuring  the 
excitability  of  the  Eaters'  palates  by  his  own,  —  which 
may  be  so  blunted  by  incessant  Tasting,  that  to  awaken 
it,  —  requires  Wine  instead  of  water,  and  Cayenne  and 
Garlick,  for  Black  pepper  and  Onion. 


126  BROTHS  AND   SOUPS. 

Old  Cooks  are  as  fond  of  Spice — as  Children  are 
of  Sugar,  and  season  SOUP,  which  is  intended  to 
constitute  a  principal  part  of  a  Meal,  —  as  highly 
as  SAUCE,  of  which  only  a  spoonful  may  be  Relish 
enough  for  a  plate  of  insipid  Viands.  See  Obs.  to 
(No.  355.)  —  However,  we  fancy  these  large  quan- 
tities of  Wine,  &c.  are  oftener  ordered  in  Cookery 
Books  than  used  in  the  Kitchen: — practical  Cooks 
have  the  Health  of  their  employers  too  much  at  heart, 
—  and  love  "  Same  a  la  Langae''  too  well,  to  overwine 
their  Soup,  &c. 

Truffles  and  Morels*  are  also  set  down  as  a 
part  of  most  receipts.  —  These,  in  their  Green  state, 
have  a  very  rich,  high  flavour,  and  are  delicious  addi- 
tions to  some  dishes,  or  sent  up  as  a  stew  by  them- 
selves, when  they  are  fresh  and  Hne ;  but  in  this  state 
they  are  not  served  up  half  a  dozen  times  in  a  year,  at 
the  first  tables  in  the  kingdom  :  —  when  dried,  they  be- 
come mere  "  chip.s  vi  pottage,'^  and  serve  only  to  soak  up 
good  Gravy,  —  from  which,  they  take  more  Taste  — 
than  they  give. 

The  Art  0/  composing  a  rich  Soup,  is  so  to  proportion 
the  several  ingredients  one  to  another,  that  no  parti- 
cular Taste  be  stronger  than  the  rest ;  — but  lo  produce 
such  a  fine  harmonious  relish,  that  the  whole  is  de- 
lightful ;  —  this  requires  that  judicious  combination  of 
the  materials  which  constitutes  the  "  Jief-d'ainre'"  oi 
Culinary  Science. 

In  the  first  place,  take  care  that  the  Roots  and  Herbs 
be  perfectly  well  cleaned  ;  —  proportion  the  Water  to 
the  quantity  of  Meat,  and  other  ingredients,  —  gene- 
rally a  pound  of  meat  to  a  quart  of  water,  for  Soups ; 
and"^  double  that  quantity  for  Gravies.  If  they  Stt-iv 
gently,  little  more  water  need  be  put  in  at  first,  than  is 
expected  at  the  end  ;  —  for  when  the  Pot  is  covered 
quite  close  and  tiie  fire  gentle,  very  little  is  wasted. 

•  We  tried  to  ni^ke  Catsup  of  these  by  treating  them  like  Musbr>.oru» 
(No.  439),  but  did  iiol  succeed. 


BROTHS   AND   SOUPS.  127 

Gentle  Stev/ing  is  incomparably  the  best,  —  the 
Meat  is  more  tender,  and  the  Soup  better  flavoured. 

It  is  of  the  first  importance,  that  the  Cover  of  a  Soup 
Kettle  should  fit  very  close, —  or  the  broth  will  evaporate 
^"before  you  are  aware  of  it.  The  most  essential  parts 
are  soon  evaporated  by  Quick  Boiling  —  without  any 
benefit,  except  to  fatten  the  fortunate  Cook  who  inhales 
them.  —  An  evident  proof  that  these  Exhalations* 
possess  the  most  restorative  qualities,  is,  that  the  Cook 
— who  is  in  general  the  least  Eater — is,  as  generally, 
the  Fattest  person  in  the  Family  —  from,  continually 
being  surrounded  by  the  Quintessence  of  all  the  food 
she  dresses, —  whereof,  she  sends  to  her  Master  only 
the  fibres  and  calcinations  —  who  is  consequently  Thin 

—  Gouty  —  and  the  Victim  of  Diseases  arising  from 
insufficient  nourishment. 

It  is  not  only  \\iejihrts  of  the  meat  which  nourish  us 

—  but  the  Juices  they  contain  —  and  these  are  not  only 
extracted  but  exhaled,  if  it  be  boiled  fast  in  an  open 
vessel  —  a  succulent  soup  can  never  be  made  but  in  a 
well  closed  vessel,  which  preserves  the  nutritive  parts  by 
preventing  their  dissipation.  —  This  is  a  fact  of  which 
every  intelligent  person  will  soon  perceive  the  im- 
portance. 

Place  your  Soup-pot  over  a  moderate  jire,  Zihich  mil 
make  the  water  hut,  without  causing  it  to  boil — for  at  (east 
ha/fan  Hour ;  —  if  the  water  boils  immediately,  —it  will 
not  penetrate  the  meat,  and  cleanse  it  from  the  clotted 
blood,  and  other  matters  which  ought  to  go  off  in 
skura  ;  the   meat  will  be  hardened  all  over  by  violent 

*  "A  poor  man  beine  v.ry  hu.  gry,  staid  so  lon^  in  a  Cook's  shop,  -who 
was  difhing  up  meat,  that  hi?  stomach  was  satisfied  with  only  the  smell  thereof. 
The  Chi.ieiic  Cook  demanded  of  him  to  pay  for  his  breakfast:  the  poor  man 
<ienie(i  having  had  any,  asid  the  controversy  was  referred  to  the  deciding 
of  tlie  i.est  man  that  should  pass  by,  who  chanced  to  be  the  most  notorious 
Idiot  in  the  whole  city:  he,  oa  the  relation  of  the  matter,  determined  that 
the  poor  man's  money  should  be  put  betwixt  two  empty  dishes,  and  the  cook 
should  be  recompensed  with  the  jinglii.g  of  the  poor  man's  money,  as  he 
was  satistied  with  the  smell  uf  the  Cook's  m.iat."  This  is  affirmed  by  credible 
•writers  as  no  fable,  but  an  undoubted  truth. —Fcller's  Holy  State,  lib.  iii. 
c.  \<i.  p.  2u. 


128  BROTHS  AND   SOUPS. 

Heat,  —  will  shrink  up  as  if  it  was  scorched  —  and 
give  hardly  any  Gravy;  —  on  the  contrary, —  by  keep- 
ing tlie  Water  a  certain  time  heating  without  boil'ng — 
the  Meat  swells  —  becomes  tender  —  its  fibres  are  di- 
lated —  and  it  yields  a  quantity  of  Skuniy  which  must 
be  taken  off  as  soon  as  it  appears. 

It  is  not  till  after  a  good  Half  Hour's  hot  infusion, 
that  we  may  mend  the  Fire,  and  make  the  Pot  boil  — 
still  continue  to  remove  t/ic  Skum,  and  when  no  more 
appears,  put  in  the  Vegetables,  &c.  and  a  little  salt. 
These  will  cause  more  Skum  to  rise  —  which  must  be 
taken  ofl' immediately  —  then  cover  the  pot  very  closely, 
and  place  it  at  a  proper  distance  from  the  fire,  where  it 
will  boil  very  gently  and  equally,  and  by  no  means  fast. 

By  quick  and  strong  Boiling,  the  volatile  and  finest 
parts  of  the  ingredients  are  evaporated,  and  fly  off  with 
the  steam,  and  the  coarser  parts  are  rendered  soluble; 

—  so  you  lose  the  good,  and  get  the  bad. 
Soups  will  generally  take   T/irce  to  Six  hours. 
Prepare  your  Broths  and  Soups  the  Evening  before 

you  uant  t/iem.  This  will  give  you  more  time  to  at- 
tend to  the  rest  of  your  Dinner  the  next  day;  —  and 
when  the  Soup  is  cold,  the  Fat  may  be  much  more 
easily  and  completely  removed  from  the  surface  of  it; 

—  when  you  decant  it,  take  care  not  to  disturb  the 
settlings  at  the  bottom  of  the  vessel,  which  are  so  fine, 
that  they  will  escape  through  a  Sieve,  or  even  through 
a  Tammis,  which  is  the  best  strainer,  —  the  Soups  ap- 
pear smoother  and  finer — and  it  is  much  easier  cleaned 
than  any  sieve.  If  you  strain  it  while  it  is  Hot,  pass  it 
through  a  clean  Tammis  or  Napkin  previously  soaked 
in  cold  water  ;  the  coldness  of  this  will  coagulate  the 
Fat,  and  only  suffer  the  pure  Broth  to  pass  through. 

The  full  flavour  of  the  Ingredients  can  only  be  ex- 
tracted by  very  long  and  slow  simmering  ;  — -  during 
which,  take  care  to  prevent  Evaporation  by  covering  the 
Pot  as  close  as  possible  :  —  the  best  Stewpot  is  a 
Digester. 


BROTHS  AND  SOUPS.  129 

Clear  Soups,  must  be  perfectly  transparent, — Thick- 
ened Soups,  about  the  consistence  of  rich  Cream, — 
and  remember  that  Thickened  Soups  require  nearly  double 
the  quantity  of  Seasoning. — The  Piquance  of  Spice,  &c.  is 
as  much  blunted  by  the  Flour  and  Butter, — as  the  Spirit 
of  Rum  is  by  the  addition  of  Sugar  and  Acid — so  they 
are  less  salubrious,  without  being  more  savoury  —  from 
the  additional  quantity  of  Spice,  &c.  that  is  smuggled 
into  the  Stomach. 

To     THICKEN      AND     GIVE      BoDY     TO     SoU  PS     AND 

Sauces,  th^  follovvinp;  materials  are  used- — they  must 
be  gradually  mixed  with  the  Soup,  till  thoroughly  incor- 
porated with  it;  and  it  should  have,  at  least,  half  an 
hour's  gentle  simmering  after :  if  it  is  at  all  lumpy,  pass 
it  through  a  Tammis  or  a  fine  Sieve.  —  Bread  raspings, 
—  Bread,  —  Isinglass,  —  Potatoe  mucilage,  (No.  448) 
fat  skimmings  and  Flour,  see  (No.  248) — or  Flour  and 
Butter  —  or  Flour ;  Barley,  see  (No.  204),  Rice,  or  Oat- 
meal and  water  rubbed  well  together,  see  (No.  257),  in 
which  this  subject  is  fully  explained. 

To  give  that  Glutinous  quality  so  much  admired  in 
Mock  Turtle,  see  (No.  198),  and^^ote  under  (No.  247), 
(No.  252),  and  N.  B.  to  (No.  48 1 .) 

To  their  very  rich  Gravies,  &c.  the  French  add  the 
white  meat  of  Pr.rtridges,  Pigeons,  or  Fowls,  pounded 
to  a  pulp,  and  rubbed  through  a  sieve  ;  —  a  piece  of 
Beef,  which  has  been  boiled  to  make  Broth,  pounded 
in  the  like  manner,  v/ith  a  bit  of  butter  and  flour,  (see 
Obs.  to  (No.  485*)  and  (No.  503),  and  gradually  incor- 
porated with  the  Gravy  or  Soup,  will  be  found  a  satis- 
factory substitute  for  tliese  more  expensive  articles. 

Meat  from  which  Broth  has  been  made,  (No.  185*)  and 
(No.  252),  and  all  its  juice  has  been  extracted,  is  then 
excellently  well  prepared  for  potting,  see  (No.  503), 
— and  is  quite  as  good,  or  better  than  that  which  has 
been  baked  till  it  is  dry* ;  indeed  if  it  be  pounded,  and 

•  If  the  Gravy  be  not  completely  drained  from  it,  the  article  potted  wiH 
very  soon  turn  sour. 

G  5 


130 


BROTTIS  AND   SOTPS. 


seasoned  in  the  usual  manner,  it  will  be  an  elegant  and 
savoury  lAinchcon — or  Supper,  —  and  costs  notlting- 
but  the  trouble  of  preparing  it,  which  is  very  little,  and 
a  Relish  is  procured,  for  Sandwiches,  &c.,  (No.  504) 
—  of  what  heretofore  has  been,  by  the  poorest  House- 
keeper, considered  the  perquisite  nf  the  Cat. 

Keep  SU771C  spare  Bridh,  lest  your  Soup  liquor  waste 
in  boiling,  and  get  too  thick,  and  for  Gravy  for  your 
Made  Dishes  —  various  Sauces,  &c.  for  many  of 
which  it  is  a  much  better  basis  than  Melted  Butter. 

The  Soup  of  Mock  Turtle, and  the  other  thickened 
Soups  (No.  247),  will  supply  you  with  a  thick  Gravy 
Sauce  for  Poultry—  Fish — kasiouts,  &c. ;  and  by  a  little 
management  of  this  sort,  you  may  generally  contrive 
to  have  plenty  of  Ciood  Gravies  and  Good  Sauces  with 
very  little  trouble  or  expense.  See  also  Portable 
Soup,  (No.  252.) 

Ij' Soup  is  to'j  thin  or  too  ucak, —  take  off  the  cover 
of  your  soup-pot,  and  let  it  boil  till  some  of  the  watery 
part  of  it  has  evaporated,  —  or  else,  add  some  of  the 
Thickening  materials  we  have  before  mentioned ;  and 
have  at  hand  some  plain  Browning:  see  (No.  322;, 
and  the  Obs.  thereon. — This  simple  preparation  is  much 
better  than  any  of  the  compounds  bearing  that  name, 
as  it  colours  Sauce  or  Soup,  without  much  interfering 
with  its  flavour,  and  is  a  much  better  way  of  Colouring 
them  than  burning  the  surface  of  the  Meat. 

When  Soups  and  Gravies  are  kept  from  day  to  day, 
in  Hot  -weather,  they  should  be  wanned  up  every  day, 
and  put  into  fresh  scalded  tureens,  or  pans,  and  placed 
in  a  cool  cellar; — in  Temperate  xceather,  every  other  day 
may  be  enough. 

We  hope  we  have  now  put  the  common  Cook  into  pos- 
session of  the  whole  arcana  of  Soupmaking,  —  without 
much  trouble  to  herself,  or  expense  to  her  employers  ; 
—  and  that  it  will  not  be  said,  in  future,  —  that  an 
Englishman  only  knows  how  to  make  Soup  in  his  Sto- 
mach;—  by  swilling  down  a  large  quantity  of  Ale,  or 


BROTHS  AND   SOUPS.  131 

Porter,  to  quench  the  thirst  occasioned  by  the  Meat 
he  eats  :  —  John  Bull  may  now  make  his  Soup  "  se- 
cundum  artem'*  and  save  his  principal  viscera  a  great 
deal  of  trouble. 

%*  In  the  following  Pieceipts  we  hare  directed  the 
Spices*  and  Flavouring  to  be  added  at  the  usual  time  ;  — 
but  it  would  greatly  diminish  the  expense^  and  improve  the 
Soups f  if  the  Agents  employed  to  give  them  a  Zest,  were  not 
put  in  above  fifteen  minutes  before  the  finish, — and  half  the 
quantity  of  spice,  SfC.  would  do. — A  strong  Heat  soon  dis- 
sipates the  spirit  of  the  Wine,  and  evaporates  the  aroma  and 
flavour  of  the  Spices  and  Herbs, — which  are  volatile  in  the 
heat  of  Boiling  water. 

In  ordering  the  proportions  of  meat,  —  butter, — 
WINE,  &c.  —  the  proper  quantity  is  set  down,  and  less  will 
not  do :  —  we  have  carried  Economy  quite  as  far  as  pos- 
sible without  "  spoiling  the  Broth  for  a  halfpenny  worth 
ofSaltr 

I  conclude  these  remarks,  with  observing,  that  some 
persons  imagine  that  Soup  tends  to  relax  the  Stomach 
—  so  far  from  being  prejudicial,  we  consider  the  mo- 
derate use  of  such  liquid  nourishment,  to  be  highly 
salutary.  —  Does  not  our  food  and  drink,  even  though 
cold,  become  in  a  few  minutes  a  kind  of  warm  Soup  in 
the  stomach ;  —  and,  therefore,  Soup,  if  not  eaten  too 
hot,  or  in  too  great  a  quantity,  and  of  proper  quality, 
is  attended  with  great  advantages,  especially  to  those 
who  drink  but  little. 

Warm  Fluids  in  the  form  of  Soup,  unite  with  our 
juices  much  sooner,  and  better,  than  those  that  are 
coid  and  raw — on  this  account.  Restorative  Soup  is 
the  best  Food  for  those  who  are  enfeebled  by  Disease 
or  Dissipation,  and  for  old  people,  whose  Teeth  and 
Digestive  organs  are  impaired. 

"  Half  subtiliz'd  to  Chyle— the  liquid  food 
P^eadiest  obeys  th'  assimilating  powers." 

•  These  Economijts  recommend  to  be  pounded ;  they  certainly  go  farther, 
as  they  call  it; — but  we  think  they  go  too  far, — for  they  go  through  ttiC 
sieve,  and  make  the  soup  grouty. 


132 


BROTHS   AND   SOUPS. 


After  catching  Cold, —  in  Nervous  headachs, — Cliolics, 
Indigestions,  and  dirt'crent  kinds  of  Cramp  and  Spasms 
in  the  Stomach,  —  warm  Broth  is  of  excellent  service. 

After  intemperate  feasting-,  to  give  the  Stomach  a 
holiday,  for  a  day  or  two,  by  a  diet  on  Mutton  Broth, 
(No.  564)  or  (No.  572),  or  Vegetable  Soup,  (No.  218), 
&c.  is  the  best  way  to  restore  its  Tone.  See  Peptic  Pre- 
cepts.  *'  The  stretching  any  power  to  its  utmost  ex- 
tent, weakens  it.  If  the  Stomach  be  every  day  obliged 
to  do  as  much  as  it  can,  it  will  every  day  be  able  to  do 
less.  A  wise  traveller  will  never  force  his  horse  to 
perform  as  much  as  he  can,  in  one  day,  upon  a  long 
journey." — I'aihcr  Feyjoo's  llulcs,  p.  85. 

To  WARM  Soups,  &c.  (No.  485.) 

N.B.  With  the  port.aiilf,  J^oup,  (No.  252),  a  pint 
of  Broth  mav  be  made  in  five  minutes  for  Three  Pence. 


RUDIMENTS  OF  COOKERY. 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 


"  The  Spirit  of  each  dish,  and  Zest  of  all, 
Is  -what  ingenious  Cooks  the  liel'isfi  call ; 
For  though  the  market  sencis  in  loads  of  food, 
They  all  are  tasteless,  till  that  makes  them  good." 

King's  Art  oj'Cookerij. 


*'  Ex  pariis,  componere  magna" 

It  is  of  as  much  importance  that  the  Cook  should  know 
how  to  make  a  boat  of  good  Gravy  for  her  Poultry,  &c. 
as  that  it  should  be  sent  up  of  proper  complexion,  and 
nicely  frothed. 

In  this  Chapter  we  shall  endeavour  to  introduce  to 
her  all  the  Materials*  vv'hich  give  flavour  in  Sauce, 
v^'hich  is  the  Essence  of  Soup,  and  intended  to  contain 
more  relish  in  a  Tcaspoonful,  than  the  former  does  in  a 
Tablespoonjul.  And  we  hope  to  deserve  as  much 
praise  from  the  Economist,  —  as  v/e  do  from  the  Bon 
Vivar.t ; — as  we  have  taken  great  pains  to  introduce  to 
him — the  methods,  of  making  Substitutes  for  those 
ingredients,  which  are  always  expensive,  and  often  not 
to  be  had  at  all.  These,  those  who  have  large  families, 
and  limited  incomes,  will  no  doubt  be  glad  to  avail 
themselves  of. 


*  See  in  pages  IIQ — 20 — and  21,  a  Catalogue  of  the  Ingredient? 
now  used  in  Soups,  Sauces,  &cc. 


134  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

The  reader  may  rest  assured,  that  whether  he  con- 
sults this  Book  to  diminish  the  expense,  or  increase 
the  pleasures  of  Hospitality,  —  he  will  find  all  the  in- 
formation that  was  to  be  obtained  up  to  1821,  com- 
municated in  the  most  unreserved  and  intelligible 
manner. 

A  great  deal  of  the  Elegance  of  Cookery,  —  depends 
upon  the  Accompaniments  to  each  dish  being  appro- 
priate, and  well  adapted  to  it. 

We  can  assure  our  readers,  no  attention  has  been 
wanting  on  our  part  to  render  this  department  of  the 
work  worthy  their  perusal:  —  each  Receipt,  —  is  the 
faithful  narrative  of  actual  and  repeated  experiments, — 
and  has  received  the  most  deliberate  consideration 
before  it  was  here  presented  to  them.  —  It  is  given  in 
the  most  circumstantial  manner,  and  not  in  the  tech- 
nical, and  mysterious  language  former  writers  on  these 
subjects  seem  to  have  preferred:  —  by  v.hich  their 
directions  are  useless  and  unintelligible  to  all  who  have 
not  regularly  served  an  apprenticeship  at  the  Stove. 

Thus,  instead  of  accurately  enumerating  the  Quan- 
tities, and  explaining  the  process  of  each  Composition, 

—  they  order  a  ladleful  of  Stock,  —  a  pint  of  Conwnmif, 

—  and  a  spoonful  of  Cul/is  ;  —  as  if  a  Private  Family 
Cook  had  always  at  hand  a  soup-kettle  full  of  Stuck,  a 
store  of  Consomme,  and  the  larder  o{ Albion  House—  and 
the  Spoons  and  Vcmiyuortha  were  the  same  in  all  ages. 

It  will  be  to  very  little  purpose  I  have  taken  so  much 
pains  to  teach  how  to  manage  Roasts  and  Boils,—  if  a 
Cook  cannot,  or  will  not  make  the  several  Sauces  that 
are  usually  sent  up  with  them. 

The  most  homely  fare  may  be  made  relishing,  and 
the  most  excellent  and  independent,  improved  by  a 
well  made  Sauce*,  —  as  the  most  perfect  Picture  may 
bv  being  well  varnished. 


•  "  It  is  the  doty  of  a  good  Sance,"  says  the  editor  of  the  Almanack  des 
Caurmaiids,  (vol.  v.  page  6,)  "  to  insinuate  itself,  all   roand  and   about  the 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  135 

We  have,  therefore,  endeavoured  to  give  the  plainest 
directions  —  how  to  produce  v^ith  the  least  trouble  and 
expense*  possible,  —  all  the  various  compositions  the 
English  kitchen  affords  for  the  amusenvent  of  honest 
John  Bull, —  and  hope  to  present  not  only  a  whole- 
some, but  palatable  variety  to  suit  all  tastes,  and  all 
pockets :  so  that  a  Cook  may  give  satisfaction  in  all 
families  :  the  more  combinations  of  this  sort  she  is 
acquainted  with,  the  better  she  will  comprehend  the 
management  of  every  one  of  them. 

We  have  rejected  some  Outlandish  Farragoes — from  a 
conviction  they  were  by  no  means  adapted  to  an  English 
palate,  —  if  they  have  been  received  into  some  English 
books,  for  the  sake  of  swelling  the  volumef,  we  believe 
they  will  never  be  received  by  an  Englishman's  sto- 
mach, unless  for  the  reason  they  were  admitted  into 
the  Cookery  book ;  i.  e.  because  he  has  nothing  else 
to  put  into  it. 


"  maxillary  glands,  and  impetjceptibly  awaken  iiito  activity  each  ramitica- 
"  tion  of  the  Organs  of  Taste:  if  not  sutficiently  savoury,  it  cannot  produce 
"  this  effect,  and  if  too  piquante,  it  will  paralyze,  instead  of  exciting,  tlxse 
"  delicious  tiiillations  of  tongue,  and  vibrations  of  Palate,  that  only  the 
"  raost  accomplished  Philosophers  of  the  Mouth  can  produce  on  the  highly 
"  educated  palates  of  thrice  happy  <Jrands  Goiirmands." 

*  To  save  Time  and  Trouble  is  the  most  valuable  frugaliiy;  —  rfiul  if  the 
mistress  of  a  family  will  cou  lescend  to  devote  a  little  time  to  the  prolitable 
and  pleasant  employment  of  preparing  some  of  the  Store  Sauces,  espr- 
cially  Nos.  322,  402,  404,  413,  429,  433,  439,  454  ;  these,  both  Epicures  ami 
Economists  will  avail  themselves  of  the  advantage  now  given  them,  of 
preparing  at  home. 

By  the  hdlp  of  these,  many  Dishes  may  be  dressed  in  half  the  usual  Time, 
—  and  with  half  the  J'ronble  and  Expense,  —  and  flavoured  and  finished  with 
much  more  certainty,  than  by  the  common  methods. 

A  small  poition  of  the  lime  which  young  Ladies  sacrifice  to  tortoring  the 
strings  of  their  Piano-Forte ,  employed  in  obtaining  Domestic  Accomplish- 
ments—  might  not  make  them  worse  wives,  or  less  agreeable  Compaiiiuiis  to 
their  Husbands.    This  was  the  opinion  200  years  ago. 

"  To  speak  then  of  the  Knowledges  which  belong  unto  our  British  House- 
wife—  1  hold  the  most  principal,  to  be  a  perfect  skill  in  Cookeey  :  Shce 
that  is  utterly  ignorant  therein,  may  not  by  the  Lawes  of  strict  Justice, 
challenge  the  freedom  of  Marriage —  becavne  indeede  Shee  can  perform  but 
half  her  vow  —  Shee  may  love  and  obey,  but  she  cannot  cherish  and  keepe 
her  Husband."  —  G.  Markh\m's  English  Houseicife,  4to.  l637,  p.  62. 

We  hope  our  fair  Readers  will  forgive  us,  for  telling  them,  that  Economy  in 
a  Wife,  —  is  the  most  certain  Charm  to  ensure  the  Affection  and  Industry 
of  a  Husband. 

t  Were  these  Books  reduced  to  their  Quintessence,  many  a  bulky  author 
would  make  his  appearance  in  a  Penny  Paper ,  — Set  Spectator,  No.  124. 
Obs,  on  the  Art  of  Book-making,  &c. 


136  GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES. 

However  "  ks  pompeuses  Bagatelles  de  la  Cuisine  Mas- 
(juce'  may  tickle  the  fancy  of  dejni-connoi^setirs,  who, 
leaving;  the  substance,  to  pursue  the  shadow,  — prefer 
■wonderful  and  whimsical  metamorphoses,  and  things 
extravagantly  expensive  to  those  which  are  intrin- 
sically excellent, — in  whose  mouth  —  Mutto.v  can 
hardly  hope  for  a  welconie,  unless  accompanied  by 
Venison  Sance—  or  a  Rabbit  any  chance  for  a  race  down 
the  Red  Lane,  without  assuming  the  form  of  a  Frog 
or  a  Spider ; — or  Pouk  ,  without  being  either  '*  Goosijied" 
or  "  Lnmhijied''  (see  No.  51),  and  Game  and  Poultry 
in  the  shape  of  Craxvfish  or  Hedgehogs. 

These  Travesties  rather  show  the  patience  than  the 
science  of  the  Cook, —  and  the  bad  taste  of  those  who 
prefer  such  Baby  tricks*  to  old  English  nourishing  and 
substantial  plain  Cookery. 

We  could  have  made  this  the  bifrf^ost  Pookf  with 
half  the  trouble  it  has  taken  me  to  make  it  the  best ; — 
Concentration  and  Perspicuity  have  been  my  aim. 

As  much  pains  have  been  taken  in  describing,  in  the 
most  intelligible  manner,  how  to  make  in  the  easiest, 
most  agreeable,  and  economical  way,  those  Common 
Sauces  that  dai/jj  conlribiitt  to  the  comfort  of  the  Middle 
ranks  of  Societv ;  —  as,  in  directing  the  preparation. 
of  those  extravagant  and  elaborate  double  relishes, 
the  most  ingenious  and  accomplished  '*  Oficers  of  the 
Mouth"  have  invented  for  the  amusement  of  profound 
Palaticians,  and  thorough  bred  Grands  Gourmands  of 
the  first  magnitude:  — these  we  have  so  reduced  the 
trouble  and  expense  of  making,  as  to  bring  them  within 
the  reach  of  moderate  fortunes  ;  still  preserving  all  that 
is  valuable  of  their  taste  and  qualities;  so  ordering 
them,  that  tiiey  may  delight  the  Talatc,  without  dis- 

•  "  More  for  Shou-  atid  Sport  than  for  Bellt-Timeer,  and  abont  which 
ibc  Good  IIus?ri/e  never  tronbles  her  head." — See  Joan  Cromwell's 
Kitchen,  ]6mo.  i664,  p.  3?. 

+  I  intend  here  to  otter  to  all  such  as  please  to  peruse  it,  "  a  plain  EoOK, 
which  i3  ail  and  every  part  of  it  Book,  and  nothing  but  solid  book  from 
beginning  to  end." — Vide  Trefacc  to  Dr.  Fuller's  "  Introductio  ad 
Prudentiam,"     Loudon,  12mo.  1721. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  137 

ordering  the  Stomach;  by  leaving  out  those  inflam- 
matory ingredients  which  are  only  fit  for  an  "  iron 
throat,  and  adamantine  bowels/'  and  those  costly  ma- 
terials, which  no  rational  being  would  destroy,  for  the 
wanton  purpose  of  merely  giving  a  fine  name  to  the 
compositions  they  enter  into,  to  whose  excellence  they 
contribute  nothing  else  ;  —  for  instance,  consuming  Txoo 
Partridges  to  make  sauce  for  One; — half  a  pint  of 
Game  Gravy,  (No.  329)  will  be  infinitely  more  accept- 
able to  the  unsophisticated  appetite  of  Englishmen,  for 
whose  proper  and  rational  recreation  we  sat  down  to 
compose  these  Receipts : — whose  approbation,  we  have 
done  our  utmost  to  deserve,  by  devoting  much  time  to 
the  business  of  the  Kitchen;  and  by  repeating  the 
various  processes  that  we  thought  admitted  of  the 
smallest  improvement. 

We  shall  be  fully  gratified :  if  our  Book  is  not  bought 
up  with  quite  so  much  avidity  by  those  high  bred  Epi- 
cures, who  are  unhappily  —  so  much  more  nice  than 
wise,  —  that  they  cannot  eat  any  thing  dressed  by  an 
English  Cook,  —  and  vote  it  barbarously  unrefined  and 
intolerably  ungenteel,  to  endure  the  sight  of  the  best 
bill  of  fare  that  can  be  contrived,  if  written  hi  the  Vul- 
gar tongue  of  Old  England*. 

Let  your  Sauces  each  display  a  decided  character ; 
send  up  your  plain  Sauces  {Oyster^  Lobster,  8fC.)  as 
pure  as  possible;  —  they  should  only  taste  of  t lie  materiah 
from  "which  they  take  their  name. 

The  imagination  of  most  Cooks,  is  so  incessantly  on 
the  hunt  for  a  Relish,  —  that  they  seem  to  think,  they 
can  not  make  sauce  sufficiently  savoury,  without  put- 


•  Though  some  of  these  people  seem  at  last  to  lia%'e  found  out, —  that  an 
Englishman's  head  may  be  as  full  of  gravy  as  a  Frenchtaau's,  —  and  willing 
to  give  the  preference  to  native  talent,  retain  an  English  man  or  woman  as 
prime  minister  of  their  kitchen  ;  still  they  seem  ashamed  to  confess  it,  and 
commonly  insist  as  a  "  sine  quel  iion,"  ihai  their  English  domestics  should 
understand  the  "  parlezvous ;"  and  notwithstanding  ihey  are  perfectly 
initiated  in  all  the  minutiae  of  the  Philosophy  of  the  mouth,  con?i;ier  them 
ineligible,  if  they  cannot  scribble  a  hill  of/are  in  pretty  good  bad  i'reTic/i. 


138  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

ting  into  it,  every  thing  that  ever  was  eaten;  —  and 
supposing  every  addition  must  be  an  improvement, 
they  frequently  overpower  the  natural  flavour  of  their 
PLAIN  SAUCES,  by  Overloading  them  with  salt  and 
spices,  &c.: — but,  remember,  these  will  be  deterio- 
rated by  any  addition,  save  only  just  salt  enough  to 
awaken  the  Palate — the  Lover  of"  Piquance'  and  Com- 
pound Flavours,  may  have  recourse  to  "  the  Magazine 
of  Taste,"  {^0.463.) 

On  the  contrary,  of  Compound  Sauces --the  ingre- 
dients should  be  so  nicely  proportioned,  that  no  one  be 
predominant;  — so  that,  from  the  equal  union  of  the 
combined  flavours,  such  a  fine  mellow  mixture  is  pro- 
duced, whose  very  novelty  cannot  fail  of  being  accept- 
able to  the  persevering  Gourmand,  if  it  has  not  pre- 
tensions to  a  permanent  place  at  his  table. 

An  ingenious  Cook  will  form  as  endless  a  variety  of 
these  compositions  as  a  Musician  with  his  seven*  notes, 
• —  or  a  Painter  with  his  colours ;  —  no  part  of  her 
business  offers  so  fair  and  frequent  an  opportunity  to 
display  her  abilities,  —  Spices,  Herbs,  &c.  are  often 
very  absurdly  and  injudiciously  jumbled  together. 

Why  have  Clove  and  Allspice,  —  or  Mace  and  Nut- 
meg in  the  same  sauce,  —  or  Marjorum,  —  Tliynie, — 
and  Savory;  —  or  Onions,  —  Leeks,  —  Eshallots  —  and 
Garlick: — one  will  very  w^ll  supply  the  place  of  the 
other,  —  and  the  frii!2:al  Cook  may  save  something 
considerable  by  attending  to  this,  to  the  advantage  of 
her  employers,  and  her  own  time  and  trouble.  —  You 
might  as  well,  to  make  Soup,  order  one  quart  of  water 
from  the  Thames,  another  from  the  New  River,  a  third 
from  Ilampslead,  and  a  fourth  from  Chelsea,  with  a  cer- 
tain portion  of  Spring  and  P\.'iin  Water. 

In  many  of  our  Receipts,  we  have  fallen  in  with  the 


•  The  principal  Agents  now  employed  to  flavour  Soups  and  Sauci  s,  arc 
Mlshruoms  (No.  139),  Onions  (No.  420),  Anchovy  (No. -133),  Lemon 
Juice  and  Pekl,  or  Vinegar,  Wine,  (especially  good  Claret),  Sweet 
Herbs,  and  Savoury  Spice? — Nos.  420,  21,  22,  and  457,  59,  60. 


GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES,  43& 

fashion  of  ordering  a  mixture  of  Spices,  &c.  which  the 
above  hint  will  enable  the  culinary  student  to  correct. 

'*  Pharmacy  is  now  much  more  simple, — Cookery 
may  be  made  so  too.  A  Prescription  which  is  now 
compounded  with  five  ingredients,  had  formerly  fifty  in 
it — and  people  begin  to  understand,  that  the  Materia 
Medica  is  little  more  than  a  collection  of  Evacuants, 
and  Stimuli." —  BosweWs  Life  of  Johnson. 

The  Ragouts  of  the  last  Cejitury  had  infinitely  more 
ingredients  than  we  use  now  —  the  praise  given  to 
Will.  Rabisha  for  his  Cookery,  12mo.  1673,  is 

"  To  fry  and  fricasee,  his  way's  most  neat. 
For  he  compounds  a  thousaad  sorts  ot  meat." 

To  become  a  perfect  Mistress  of  the  art  of  cleverly 
extracting  and  combining  Flavours*,  besides  the  gift 
of  a  good  Taste,  requires  all  the  experience  and  skill 
of  the  most  accomplished  Professor,  and  especiallv, — 
an  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  Palate  she  is  work- 
ing for. 

Send  your  Sauces  to  table  as  Hot  as  possible. 

Nothing  need  be  more  unsightly,  than  the  Surface 
of  a  Sauce  in  a  frozen  state,  or  garnished  with  grease 
on  the  top; — the  best  way  to  get  rid  of  this,  is  to  pass 
it  through  a  Tammis  or  Napkin  previously  soaked  in 
cold  water,  the  coldness  of  the  napkin  will  coagulate 
the  Fat,  and  only  suffer  the  pure  gravy  to  pass  through; 
—  if  any  particles  of  Fat  remain,  take  them  off  by  ap- 
plying filtering  paper,  as  blotting  paper  is  applied  to 
Ink. 

Let  your  Sauces  boil  up  after  you  put  in  Wine, 
Anchovy,  or  Thickening,  that  their  flavours  may  be 
well  blended  with  the  other  ingredients  f  ;  and  keep  in 
mind,  that  the  "  chej-doeuvre'  of  Cookehy,  —  is  to 
entertain  the  Mouth  without  offending  the  Stomach. 

*  If  your  palate  becomes  dull  by  repeatedly  tasting,  the  best  way  to  refresh 
it,  is  to  wash  your  mouth  well  with  milk. 

t  Before  you  put  Eggs  or  Cream  into  a  Sauce,  hcve  all  your  other 
ingredients  well  boiled,  and  tiie  sauce  or  eonp  of  proper  thickness,  — because 


140  GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES. 

N.B.  Although  I  have  endeavoured  to  give  the  par- 
ticular quantity  of  each  ingredient  used  in  the  following 
Sauces,  as  they  are  generally  made,  —  still  the  Cook's 
judgment  must  direct  her  to  lessen  or  increase  either 
of  the  ingredients,  —  according  to  the  taste  of  those 
she  works  tor,  and  will  always  be  on  the  alert  to 
ascertain  what  are  the  favourite  Accompaniments  desired 
with  each  dish.     See  Adxice  to  Cooks,  page  59. 

When  you  open  a  bottle  of  Catsup,  (No.  439), 
Essence  of  Anchoxy,  (No.  433),  Szc.  throw  away  the 
old  cork,  and  stop  it  closely  with  a  new  cork  that 
will  fit  it  very  tight.  Use  only  the  best  superfine  Vel- 
vet taper  corks. 

Economy  in  Corks  is  very  unwise, — in  order  to  save 
a  mere  trifle,  in  the  price  of  the  cork,  you  run  the  risk 
of  losing  the  valuable  article  it  is  intended  to  preserve. 
— It  is  a  J'ulgar  Error,  that  a  bottle  must  be  well 
stopped,  when  the  cork  is  forced  down  even  with  the 
mouth  of  it,  —  this  is  a  sure  sign  that  the  Cork  is  too 
small,  and  it  should  be  re-drawn  and  a  lars:er  one 
put  in. 

TO   MAKE   BOTTJ.E  CEMENT. 

Half  a  pound  of  black  rosin,  same  quantity  of  red 
sealing  wax,  quarter  oz.  bees  wax,  melted  in  an  earthen 
or  iron  pot;  when  it  froths  up,  before  all  is  melted  and 
likely  to  boil  over,  stir  it  with  a  tallow  candle,  which 
will  settle  the  froth  till  all  is  melted  and  fit  for  use. 
Red  wax,  lOd.  per  lb.  may  be  bought  at  Mr.  Dew's, 
Blackmore  Street,  C  lare  Market. 

N.B.  'I'his  cement  is  of  very  great  use  in  preserving 
things  that  you  wish  to  keep  a  long  time,  which  without 
its  help  would  soon  spoil,  from  the  clumsy  and  in- 
effectual manner  the  Bottles  are  corked. 


neither  eggs  nor  cream  will  contribute  to  thicken  it.  —  After  you  have  put 
them  in,~(lo  not  set  the  sitwpan  on  the  siove  Hgain, —  but  hold  it  over  the 
fire,  and  shake  it  round  one  way  till  the  sauce  is  ready. 


RUDIMENTS  OF  COOKERY. 


CHAPTER  IX. 

MADE  DISHES. 


Undeu  this  general  head  we  range  our  Receipts  for 
Hashes,  —  Stews,-— and  Ragouts*,  &c.;  of  these 
there  are  a  great  multitude,  affording  the  ingenious 
Cook  an  inexhaustible  store  of  variety  :  —  in  the  French 
kitchen  they  count  upwards  of  600,  and  are  daily 
inventing  new  ones. 

We  have  very  few  general  observations  to  make, 
after  what  we  have  already  said  in  the  two  preceding 
Chapters  on — Sauces,  —  Soups,  &c.,  which  apply  to 
the  present  chapter,  as  they  form  the  principal  part 
of  tlie  accompaniment  of  most  of  these  dishes.  In  fact, 
Made  Dishes  are  nothing  more  than  Meat,  —  Poultry 
(No.  530),  or  Fish  (No.  146,  158,  or  164),  stewed  very 
gently  till  they  are  tender,  with  a  thickened  Sauce 
poured  over  them. 

Be  careful  to  trim  of  all  the  Skin, — Gristle,  SfC.  that  will 
not  be  eaten,  and  shape  handsomely  and  of  even  thickness, 
the  "curious  articles  which  compose  your  Made  Dishes, — 
this  is  sadly  neglected  by  common  Cooks,  —  only  Stew 
them  till  they  are  just  tender,  and  not  do  them  to  rags. — 
I'herefore,  what  you  prepare  the  Day  before  it  is  to  be 
eaten,  do  not  do  quite  enough  the  first  day. 


•  Sauce  for  Kagouts,  &c.,  slioiikl  be  tliickened  till  it  is  of  the  consistence 
of  good  rich  Cream,  that  it  may  adhere  to  whatever  it  is  poured  over. 
When  you  have  a  large  dinner  to  dress,  keep  ready  mixed  some  fine  sifted 
Flour  and  water  well  rubbed  together  till  quite  smooth,  and  about  as  thick  as 
Butter.     See  (Xo.  2570 


142  MADE   DISHES. 

We  have  given  Receipts  for  the  most  easy  and  simple 
way  to  make  Hashes,  &c.  Those  who  are  well  skilled 
in  Culinary  arts,  can  dress  up  things  in  this  wav, 
so  as  to  be  as  agreeable  as  they  were  the  first  time 
they  were  cooked;  — but  Hashing  is  a  very  bad  mode 
of  Cuokeri/y  —  if  Meat  is  done  enough  the  first  time  it 
is  dressed, —  a  second  dressing  will  divest  it  of  all  its 
nutritive  juices,  —  and  if  it  can  be  smuggled  into  the 
stomach  by  bribing::  the  Palate  with  pifjua/ite  Sauce,  — it 
is  at  the  hazard  of  an  Indigestion,  &c. 

I  promise  those  who  do  me  the  lionour  to  put  my 
Receipts  into  practice,  that  they  will  find  that  the  most 
nutritious  and  tnily  elegant  dishes,  are  neither  the  most 
ditficult  to  dress,  —  the  most  expensive,  —  or  the  most 
iudigestible  ;  —  in  those  compositions,  Experience  will 
go  far  to  diminish  Expense; -- M  tat  that  is  too  old  or 
too  tough  for  Roasting,  SfC,  muy  by  gentle  sttuing  be 
rendered  saioury  and  digestible  —  if  some  of  our  Receipts 
do  differ  a  little  from  those  in  former  Cookery  Books, 
let  it  be  remembered  we  have  advanced  nothing  in  this 
work  that  has  not  been  tried,  and  experience  has  proved 
correct. 

N.B.  See  (No.  483)  an  Ingenious  and  Economical 
System  of  Fui:nch  Cookery,  written  at  the  request 
of  the  Kditor  by  a  very  accomplished  English  Lady, 
which  will  teach  you  how  to  supply  your  Table  with 
elegant  little  Made  Dishes,  &c.  at  a's  little  expense  as 
Plain  Cookery. 


THE 

COOK'S  ORACLE. 


N.B.  Read  the  Marketing  Tables  at  the  end  of  the  Volume., 


BOILING. 

READ    THE    FIRST    CHAPTER  OF    THE     RUDIMENTS    0? 
COOKERY. 

Leg  of  Mutton.^^0.  1.) 

Cur  oft'  the  Shank  Bone,  and  trim  the  Knuckle, — put  it 
into  lukewarm  water  for  ten  minutes,  wash  it  clean, 
cover  it  with  cold  water,  and  let  it  simmer  -very  gently, 
and  skim  it  carefully.  —  A  Leg  of  nine  pounds  will  take 
two  and  a  lialf  or  three  hours,  if  you  like  it  thoroughly 
done,  especially  in  very  Cold  weather. 

For  the  Accompaniments  see  the  following-  Receipt. 

N.  B.  The  Tit  Bits  with  an  Epicure,  are  the 
"  Knuckle"  the  kernel,  called  the  "  Pope's  Eye,"  and 
the  "  Gentlcmans"  or  "  Crawp  Bonc.y''  or  as  it  is  called 
in  Kent,  the  "  Caw  Caw,"  —  four  of  these,  and  a 
Bounder — furnish  the  little  Masters  and  Mistresses  of 
Kent  with  the  most  favourite  set  of  playthings. 

A  Leg  of  Mutton  stewed  very  slowly,  as  we  have 
directed  the  Beef  to  be,  (No.  493,)  will  be  as  agreeable 
to  an  English  palate  as  the  famous  "  Gigot  ^  de  sept 
heures"  of  the  French  Kitchen. 


*  The  Gigoi  is  the  leg  with  part  of  ihe  luia. 


144  BOILING. 

When  Mutton  is  very  large,  you  may  divide 
it,  and  roast  the  Fillet,  i.  e.  the  large  end,  — and  boil  the 
Knuckle  end,  — and  you  may  also  cut  some  fine  Cutlets 
off  the  thick  end  of  the  Leg, — and  so  have  Two  or  Three 
good  Hot  Dinners. 

The  Liguur  the  Mutton  is  boiled  in  you  may  convert 
into  Good  Sour  in  Fiie  Minutes,  see  N.  B.  No.  218, 
and  Scotch  Barley  Broth,  No.  204. — Tiius  managed,  a 
Leg  of  Mutton  is  a  most  Kconomical  Joint. 

Neck  of  Mutton.— (No.  2.) 

Put  four  or  five  pounds  of  the  best  end  of  a  Neck, 
(that  has  been  kept  a  few  days)  into  as  much  cold  soj't 
water  as  will  cover  it,  and  about  two  inches  over,  let  it 
simmer  xrry  slowly  for  two  hours  ;  —  it  will  look  most 
delicate  if  you  do  not  take  oti'  the  Skin  till  it  has  been 
boiled. 

For  Sauce,  that  elegant  and  innocent  relish,  Parsley 
and  Butter  (No.  261),  or  Eshallot  (No.  294  or  5), 
or  Caper  sauce  (No.  274,)  Mock  Caper  sauce  (No.  275,) 
and  Onion  Sauce  (No.  298),  Turnips  (No.  130),  or 
Spinage  (No.  121),  arc  the  usual  Accompaniments  to 
Boiled  Mutton. 

Lamb.  — (No.  3.) 

A  Leg  of  five  pounds  should  simmer  very  gently 
for  about  Two  Hours,  from  the  time  it  is  put  on,  in  cold 
water.  —  After  the  general  rules  for  boiling,  in  the 
first  chapter  of  the  Rudiments  of  Cookery,  we  have 
nothing  to  add,  only  to  send  up  with  it,  Spinage, 
(No.  122),  Rrocoli  (No.  126),  Cauliflower  (No.  125), 
&c.,  and  for  Sauce  (No.  261). 

Veal.— (No.  4.) 

This  is  expected  to  come  to  table  looking  very  deJi- 
cately  clean, — it  is  so  easily  discoloured,  you  must  be 
careful  to  have  clean  water,  —  a  clean  vessel,  —  and 
constantly  catch  the  scum  as  soon  and  as  long  as  it 


BOILING.  145 

rises,  and  attend  to  the  directions  before  given  in  the 
first  Chapter  of  the  Rudiments  of  Cookery.  Send 
up  Bacon  (No.  13),  Fried  Sausages  (No.  87),  or 
pickled  Pork,  Greens, (No.  118,  and  following  Nos.)  and 
Parsley  and  Butter  (No.  261),  Onion  Sauce  (No.  298). 
N.  B.  For  Receipts  to  Cook  Veal,  see  from 
(No.  512)  to  (No.  521). 

Beef  Bouilli,  —  {^o.  5), 

In  plain  i\nglish,  is  understood  to  mean  Boiled  Beef; 
— but  its  culinary  acceptation,  in  the  French  kitchen,  is 
fresh  beef  dressed  without  boiling,  and  only  very  gently 
simmered  by  a  slow  fire. 

English  Cooks  have  seldom  any  notion,  that  good 
Soup  can  be  made  without  destroying  a  great  deal  of 
Meat*  : — however,  by  a  judicious  regulation  of  the  Fire, 
and  a  vigilant  attendance  on  the  Soup  kettle,  this  may 
be  accomplished  —  and  you  shall  have  a  tureen  of 
such  Sonp  as  will  satisfy  the  most  fastidious  Palate, 

—  and  the  Meat  make  its  appearance  at  table,  at  the 
same  time,  in  possession  of  a  full  portion  of  nutritious 
succulence. 

This  requires  nothing  more  than  to  Stew  the  meat 
rery  slowly,  (instead  of  keeping  the  pot  boiling  a  gallop,  as 
common  Cooks  too  commonly  do) — and  to  take  it  up  as  soon 
as  it  is  done  enough.     See  '*  Soup  and  Bouilh^"  (No.  238,) 

*  *'  Ce  n'est  pas  la  qiiantite  de  viande  qui  fait  seule  le  bon  bouillon, 
mais  la  maniere  doiit  le  potanfeu  e.<t  conduit.  Ou'.est-ce  que  le  bouillon? 
Une  dLCoction  de  viande  couteuaut  de  I'extractif  aniniai  qui  la  colore,  (cet 
extractif,  nomme  par  le  cel^bre  Ihenaid  osmazome,  coiitient  aussi  toute  la 
partie  savoureuse  I'e  la  viande),  du  sel,  mais  surtout  de  la  gelatine.  Pour 
que  la  viande  cede  a,  I'eau  ces  priucipes  il  faut  que  celled  la  penetrc  avec 
une  Itmperatiire  graduee,  dilate  les  fibres  musculaires,  et  dissolve  la  gelatine 
qui  y  est  iulerposee :  mais  dans  cesraenies  muscles  il  y  a  aussi  de  I'aldumine 
(malieie  analogue  au  blanc  d'ceuf,  et  qui  forme  I'^cume  du  pot).  Ceft'e 
albumine  se  coagule,  et  se  durcit  a  la  temperature  de  quatre  vingt  degres. 
Si  done  vous  poussez  rapidemcnt  votre  pot-au  feu  au  point  de  la  faire  bouillir 
avant  que  la  viande  soit  dilutee  et  penetree  par  I'eau,  qu'arrive-t -il?  L'albu- 
mine  se  coagule  dans  la  viande  raeme,  et  empeche  la  gelatine  d'en  sortir ;  — 
vous  avez  un  Bouillon  faible,  et  un  Bouilli  <lur;  mais,  au  contraire,  si  vous 
avez  menage  le  feu  de  manidre  que  la  viande  ait  eu  le  temps  d'etre  penetree, 
Valbumine  s'eleve  en  ecume,  la  gilat'me  se  dissout,  le  Bouillon  est  savou- 
reux,  nourrissant,  et  le  Bouilli  tendre. — Voila  toute  la  theorie  du  pot-au-feu." 

—  Cours  Gastrononuque,  1809,  P-  291. 

U 


146  BOILING. 

"  Shin  of  Beef  Steu-ed^'i^o.  493,)''  Scotch  Barley  Broth;' 
(No.  204,)  and  page  119. 

Meat  cooked  in  this  manner,  affords  much  more 
nourishment  than  it  does  dressed  in  the  common 
way, — is  easy  of  di<restion  in  proportion  as  it  is  tender, 
— and  an  invigorating-  substantial  diet,  especially  valu- 
able to  the  Poor,  whose  laborious  employments  require 
support. 

If  they  could  get  good  Eating  put  within  their  reach, 
they  would  often  go  to  the  Butcher's  shop,  when  they 
now  run  to  the  Public  house. 

Among  tlie  variety  of  Schemes  that  have  been  suggested 

for     BETTERING    THE     CONDITION     OE    OUR    F.NGLISH 

Poor,  a  more  useful  or  extensive  Charity  cannot  be 
devised,  than  that  of  instructing  them  in  Economical 
and  Comforta/dt  Cookery. 

"  The  Poor  in  Scotland,  and  on  the  Continent, 
manage  much  better.  Oatmeal  Porridge  (No  205  and 
572)  and  Milk  constitute  the  Breakfast  and  Supper 
of  those  patterns  of  Industry,  Frugality,  and  Tem- 
perance, the  Scottish  Peasantry. 

"  When  they  can  afford  Meat,  they  form  with  it 
a  large  quantity  of  Barley  Broth  (No.  204)  with  a 
variety  of  Vegetables,  by  boiling  the  whole  a  long 
time,  enough  to  serve  the  Fajuily  for  several  days. 

"  When  they  cannot  afford  .Meat,  they  make  Broth 
of  Barley  and  other  Vegetables,  with  a  lump  of  Butter, 
(see  No.  229),  all  of  which  they  boil  for  many  hours, 
and  this  with  Oat  Cakes  forms  their  dinner.  —  The 
Hon.  John  Cochrane's  Seaman  s  Guide ^  p.  34. 

The  Cheapest  method  of  fnaking  a  Nourishing 
Soup  —  is  least  known  to  those  who  have  most  need 
of  it  —  it  will  enable  those  who  have  small  Incomes  and 
large  Families  —  to  make  the  most  of  whatever  they 
possess,  without  pinching  their  Children  of  that  whole- 
some nourishment  which  is  necessary,  for  the  purpose 
of  rearing  them  up  to  maturity  in  Health  and  Strength.  ^ 

l^ie   Labouring   Classes   seldom  purchase  what  are 


BOILING. 


147 


called  the  coarser  pieces  of  Meat,  because  they  do  not 
know  how  to  dress  them,  but  lay  out  their  money  in 
pieces  for  Roasting,  &c.,  of  which  the  Bones,  &c. 
enhance  the  price  of  the  actual  Meat  to  nearly  a 
shilling  per  pound,  —  and  the  Diminution  of  weight 
by  roasting  amounts  to  32  per  cent. — This,  for  the  sake 
of  saving  time,  trouble,  and  fire,  is  generally  sent 
to  an  oven  to  be  Baked,  —  the  nourishing  parts  are 
evaporated  and  dried  up,  —  its  Weight  is  dinmiished 
nearly  one-third, — and  all  that  a  poor  man  can  afford 
to  purchase  with  his  Week's  earnings,  perhaps  does 
not  half  satisfy  the  appetites  of  himself  and  family 
for  a  couple  of  Days. 

If  a  hard-working  Man  cannot  get  a  comfortable 
meal  at  home,  he  soon  finds  the  way  to  the  Public 
house,  —  the  poor  Woman  contents  herself  with  Tea 
and  Bread  and  Butter, —  and  the  Children  are  little 
better  than  starved. 

Our  neighbours  the  French  are  so  justly  famous  for 
their  skill  in  the  affairs  of  the  Kitchen,  that  the  adage 
says,  "  as  many  Frenchmen  as  many  Cooks;"  sur- 
rounded as  they  are  by  a  profusion  of  the  most 
delicious  Wines  and  most  seducing  Liqueurs,  offering 
every  temptation  and  facility  to  render  drunkenness 
delightful,  yet  a  tippling  Frenchman  is  a  "  Rara  Avis ;" 
—  they  know  how  so  easily  and  completely  to  keep 
Life  in  repair  by  good  Eating,  that  they  require  little 
or  no  adjustment  from  Drinking. 

This  accounts  for  that  "  toujours  Gai,"  and  happy 
equilibrium  of  spirits,  which  they  enjoy  with  more 
regularity  than  any  people:  —  '1  heir  Stomachs  being 
unimpaired  by  spirituous  liquors,  embrace  and  digest 
vigorously  the  food  they  sagaciously  prepare  for  it,  and 
render  easily  assimilable  by  cooking  it  sufficiently^ — 
wisely  contriving  to  get  the  difficult  part  of  the  work 
of  the  Stomach  done  by  Fire  and  Water, 
h2 


148  BOILING 


To  SALT  Meat.— (No.  6.) 

In  the  Sunmier  Season  especially.  Meat  is  frequently 
spoiled  by  the  Cook  forgetting  to  take  out  the  Kernels': 
one  in  the  udder  of  a  round  of  Beef,  —  in  the  fat  in  the 
middle  of  the  Round, — those  about  the  thick  end  of 
the  Flank,  &c. ;  if  these  are  not  taken  out,  all  the  Salt 
in  the  \vorld  will  not  keep  the  Meat. 

The  Art  or  Salting  Meat,  is  to  rub  in  the  Salt 
thoroughly  and  evenly  into  every  part,  and  to  fill  all 
the  holes  full  of  Salt  where  the  kernels  were  taken  out, 
— and  where  the  Butcher's  skewers  were. 

A  Round  of  Beef  of  25  pounds  will  take  a  pound 
and  a  half  of  Salt  to  be  rubbed  in  all  at  first,  and 
requires  to  be  turned  and  rubbed  every  day  with  the 
Brine:  it  will  be  ready  for  dressing  in  four  or  five 
days*,  if  you  do  not  wish  it  very  salt. 

In  Summer,  the  sooner  Meat  is  salted  after  it  is 
killed  the  better,  and  care  must  be  taken  to  defend 
it  from  the  tlies. 

In  IVinter,  it  will  eat  the  shorter  and  tenderer,  if 
kept  a  few  days  (according  to  the  temperature  of  the 
weather)  before  it  is  salted. 

In  Frosty  ueut/ier,  take  care  the  Meat  is  not  frozen, 
and  warm  the  Salt  in  a  Frying-pan.  The  extremes  of 
Heatf  and  Cold  are  equally  unfavourable  for  the  pro- 
cess of  Salting — in  the  former  the  meat  changes  before 
the  salt  can  affect  it,— in  the  latter  it  is  so  hardened, 
and  its  juices  are  so  congealed,  that  the  salt  cannot 
penetrate  it. 

If  you  uuh  it  Red,  rub  it  first  with  Saltpetre,  in  the 
proportion  of  half  an  ounce  and  the  like  quantity  of 


•  Ij'not  to  he  cut  till  Cold,  two  days  longer  salting  will  not  only  improve 
its  flavour,  but  the  Meat  will  keep  belter. 

tin  the  West  Indies  they  can  scarcely  cure  Beef  with  pickle,  but  easily 
preserve  it  by  cutting  it  into  thin  slic«  s  and  dipping  them  in  Sea  Water, 
and  then  drying  them  quickly  in  the  Sun  ;  to  which  they  give  the  name  of. 
Jerked  £ef/.— BROWNRHic  on  Salt,  8vo.  p.  762.J 


BOILING.  149 

moist  sugar  to  a  pound  of  common  Salt,  see  Savoury 
Salt  Beef  (No.  496.) 

You  may  impregnate  Meat  with  a  very  agreeable 
Vegetable  Flavour,  by  pounding  some  Sweet  Herbs 
(No.  459)  and  an  Onion  with  the  Salt:  you  may  make  it 
still  more  relishing  by  adding  a  little  Zest  (No.  255), 
or  Savoury  Spice j  (No.  457.) 


To  Pickle  Meat, 

"  Six  pounds  of  Salt,  one  pound  of  Sugar,  and  four 
ounces  of  Saltpetre,  boiled  with  four  gallons  of  water 
skimmed,  and  allowed  to  cool,  forms  a  very  strong 
pickle,  which  will  preserve  any  Meat  completely  im- 
mersed in  it.  To  effect  this,  which  is  essential,  either 
a  heavy  board  or  a  flat  stone  must  be  laid  upon  the 
meat.  The  same  pickle  may  be  used  repeatedly,  pro- 
vided it  be  boiled  up  occasionally  with  additional  salt 
to  restore  its  strength,  diminished  by  the  combination 
of  part  of  the  salt  with  the  meat,  and  by  the  dilution 
of  the  pickle  by  the  juices  of  the  meat  extracted.  By 
boiling,  the  Albumeii  which  would  cause  the  pickle  to 
spoil,  is  coagulated  and  rises  in  the  form  of  scum,  which 
must  be  carefully  removed." — See  Supplement  to  En- 
cyclop,  Britan.  vol.  iv.  p.  340. 

An  H-bone  of  10  or  12  pounds  weight  will  require 
about  three  quarters  of  a  pound  of  Salt  and  an  ounce 
of  Moist  Sugar  to  be  well  rubbed  into  it; — it  will  be 
ready  in  four  or  five  days,  if  turned  and  rubbed  every 
day. 

The  Time  Meat  requires  Salting,  depends  upon  the 
Weight  of  it,  — how  much  Salt  is  used,  — if  it  be  rubbed 
in  with  a  heavy  hand,  it  will  be  ready  much  sooner 
than  if  only  lightly  rubbed. 

N.  B.  Dry  the  Salt  and  rub  it  with  the  Sugar  in  a 
mortar. 

Pork   requires  a  longer  time  to  cure  (in  proportion 


150  BOILING. 

to  its  weight)  than  Beef:  a  Leg  of  Pork  shou]d  he  in 
salt  eight  or  ten  days;   turn  it  and  rub  it  every  day. 

Salt  meat  should  be  ucll  ivashed  before  it  is  Boiled, — 
especially  if  it  has  been  in  salt  long, — that  the  Liquor 
in  which  the  meat  is  boiled,  may  not  be  too  salt  to 
make  Soup  of,  (No.  218,  &c.)  and  (No.  555.) 

If  it  has  been  in  salt  a  long  time,  and  you  think  it 
will  be  too  salt,  wash  it  well  in  cold  water,  and  soak 
it  in  lukewarm  water  for  a  couple  of  hours: — if  it  is 
rery  Salt,  lay  it  in  water  the  night  before  you  intend  to 
dress  it. 

A  Round  of  Suited  Beef— (No.  7.) 

As  this  is  too  large  for  a  moderate  family,  we  shall 
write  directions  for  the  dressing  half  a  round  :  get  the 
Tongue  side. 

Skewer  it  up  tight  and  round,  and  tie  a  fillet  of  broad 
tape  lound  it,  to  keep  the  skewers  in  their  places. 

Put  it  into  plenty  of  cold  water,  and  carefully  catch 
the  scum  as  soon  as  it  rises; — let  it  boil  till  all  the 
scum  is  removed,  and  then  put  the  boiler  on  one  side 
of  the  fire,  to  keep  simmering  slowly  till  it  is  done. 

Half  a  round  of  lolbs.  will  take  about  three  hours 
— if  it  weighs  more,  give  it  more  time. 

When  you  take  it  up,  if  any  stray  scum,  &c.  sticks 
to  it,  that  has  escaped  the  vigilance  of  your  skimmer, 
wash  it  olf  with  a  Paste  Brush — garnish  the  dishes  with 
Carrots  and  Turnips: — send  up  Carrots,  (No.  129), 
Turnips,  (No.  1 30),  and  Parsnips,  or  Greens,  (No.  1 1  B)» 
&c.  on  separate  dishes.  Pease  pudding,  (No.  555,) 
and  Mv  Pudding,  (No.  551),  are  all  very  proper 
Accompaniments. 

N.  B.  The  Outside  Slices,  which  are  generally  too 
much  salted  and  too  much  boiled,  will  make  a  very 
good  relish  as  J 'ut ted  Beef,  (No.  503.)  For  using  up 
the  remains  of  a  Joint  of  Boiled  Beef,  see  also  Bubble 
and  Squeak,  (No.  505.) 


BOILING.  151 

H-Bo?ieofBeef,(No,  8), 

Is  to  be  managed  in  exactly  the  same  manner  as  the 
Round,  but  will  be  sooner  boiled,  as  it  is  not  so  solid  : 
an  H-bone  of  201bs.  will  be  enough  in  about  three 
hours  and  a  half, — of  lOIbs.  in  two  hours.  Be  sure  the 
boiler  is  big  enough  to  allow  it  plenty  of  water-room ; 
let  it  be  well  covered  with  water,  set  the  pot  on  one 
side  of  the  fire  to  boil  gently ;  if  it  boils  quick  at  first, 
no  art  can  make  it  tender  after ;  the  slower  it  boils,  the 
better  it  will  look,  and  the  tenderer  it  will  be.  The  same 
accompanying  vegetables,  as  in  the  preceding  Receipt. 
Dress  plenty  of  Carrots,  as  cold  Carrots  are  a  general 
favourite  v/ith  cold  Beef. 

Mem. — The  Epicures  say  that  the  soft  Fat  like  mar- 
row, which  lies  on  the  back,  is  delicious  when  Hot, 
and  the  hard  Fat  about  the  upper  corner  is  best  when 
Cold. 

To  make  perfectly  good  Pease  Soup  in  Ten 
Minutes,  of  the  Liquor  in  which  the  Beef  has  been  boiled, 
see  N.B.  to(No.  218.) 

Obs. — In  "  Mrs.  Mason's  Ladies' Assistant"  this  joint 
IS  called  Haunch-bone ;  in  ■'  Henderson's  Cookery," jEt/ge- 
bone ;  in  '*  Domestic  Management,"  Aitch-bone;  in 
''  Reynolds'  Cookery,"  Ischebone ;  m  "  Mrs.  Lydia 
Fisher's  Prudent  Housewife,"  A c h-bone ;  in  '*  Mrs. 
M^Iver's  Cookery,  Hook-bone.  We  have  also  seen  it 
spelt  Each-hone,  and  Ridge-horvQ,  and  we  have  also 
heard  it  called  Natch-Bone. 

N.  B.  Read  the  note  under  (No.  7),  and  to  make 
perfectly  good  Pease  Soup  of  the  Pot-Liquor,  in 
Ten  Minutes,  see  Obs,  to  (No.  218),  (No.  229),  and 
(No.  555.) 

Ribs  of  Beef  salted  and  rolled— (No.  9.) 

Briskets,  and  the  various  other  pieces,  are  dressed 
in  the  same  way.  "  JFoxv  Wow'  sauce,  (No.  328),  is  an 
agreeable  Companion. 


152 


BOILING. 


Haifa  Calfs  Head.— (No.  10.) 


Cut  it  in  two,  and  take  out  the  Brains; — wash  the 
liead  well  in  several  waters,  and  soak  it  in  warm  water 
for  ten  minutes  before  you  dress  it.  Put  the  Head  into 
a  Saucepan  with  plenty  of  cold  water  :  when  it  is 
comin<5  to  a  boil,  and  the  scum  rises,  carefully  remove 
it.  Half  a  Calf's-Head  {xi'iihout  the  .skin)  will  take 
from  an  hour  and  a  quarter  to  two  hours,  according  to 
its  size:  uith  the  Skin  on  about  an  hour  longer: — it 
must  be  .steucd  ten/  gcntii/  till  it  is  tender ;  it  is  then 
extremely  nutritive,  and  easy  of  digestion. 

Put  eight  or  ten  Sage  leaves  (some  Cooks  use 
Parsley  instead,  or  equal  parts  of  each,)  into  a  small 
saucepan, — boil  them  tender  (about  half  an  hour\  then 
<'hop  them  very  fine,  and  set  them  ready  on  a  plate. 

\\  ash  the  Brains  well  in  two  waters,  put  them  into 
a  large  Basin  of  cold  water,  with  a  little  salt  in  it,  and 
let  them  soak  for  an  hour>— then  pour  away  the  cold, 
and  cover  them  with  hot  water,  and  when  you  have 
cleaned  and  skinned  tliem,  put  them  into  a  Stewpan 
with  plenty  of  cold  water, — when  it  boils,  take  the 
scum  oft"  very  carefully— and  boil  gently  for  10  or  15 
minutes, — now  chop  them,  (not  very  fine),  put  them  into 
a  saucepan  with  the  Sage  leaves  and  a  couple  of  table- 
spoonsful  of  thin  melted  butter  and  a  little  salt,  (to  this 
some  Cooks  add  a  little  Lemon  juice,  Mushroom  catsup, 
and  Cayenne),  stir  them  well  together,  and  as  soon  as 
they  are  well  warmed  (take  care  they  don't  burn)  skin 
the  Tongue — trim  off  the  roots,  and  put  it  in  the 
middle  of  a  dish,  and  the  Brains  round  it.  Or,  chop  the 
Brains  with  a  Shallot,  a  little  Parsley,  and  four  hard 
boiled  Eggs,  and  put  them  into  a  quarter  of  a  pint  of 
Bechamel,  or  White  Sauce,  (No.  2  of  364).  A  Calf's 
Cheek  is  usually  attended  by  a  Pig's  cheek,  a  knuckle 
of  Ham  or  Bacon,  (No.  13),  or  (No.  526),  or  pickled 
Pork,  (No.  11),  and  Greens,  Brocoli,  Cauliflowers^  or 


BOILING.  163 

Peas,  and  always  by  Parsley  and  Butter,  see  (No.  261), 
or  (No.  311),  or  (No.  343.) 

If  you  like  it  full  dressed,  score  it  superficially, 
—  beat  up  the  yolk  of  an  Egg,  and  rub  it  over  the 
head  witb  a  feather; — powder  it  with  a  seasoning-  of 
finely  minced  (or  dried  and  powdered)  winter  Savory  or 
Lemon-thyme,  (or  sage),  Parsley,  Pepper,  and  Salt,  and 
bread  crumbs,  and  give  it  a  brown  with  a  salamander, 
or  in  a  tin  Dutch  oven  :  when  it  begins  to  dry,  sprinkle 
a  little  melted  butter  over  it  with  a  paste  brush.  You 
may  Garnish  the  Dish  with  Broiled  Rashers  of  Bacon, 
(No.  526,  or  527.) 

Ohs. — Calfs  head  is  one  of  the  most  delicate  and 
favourite  dishes  in  the  list  of  boiled  meats  ; — but  no- 
thing is  more  insipid  v/hen  cold  :  and  nothing  makes 
so  nice  a  Hash ;  therefore,  don't  forget  to  save  a  quart 
of  the  Liquor  it  was  boiled  in,  to  make  Sauce,  &c.  for 
the  Hash,  see  also  (No.  520.)  Cut  the  head  and 
tongue  into  slices,  and  slice  some  of  the  Bacon  that 
was  dressed  to  eat  with  the  head,  and  lay  them  ready 
on  a  plate. 

Take  the  bones  and  the  trimmings  of  the  Head,  a 
bundle  of  Sweet  Herbs,  an  Onion,  a  roll  of  Lemon 
Peel,  and  a  blade  of  bruised  Mace:  put  these  into 
a  saucepan,  v/ith  the  quart  of  liquor  you  have  saved, 
and  let  it  boil  gently  for  an  hour,  pour  it  through  a 
sieve  into  a  basin — washout  yourstewpan — add  a  table- 
spoonful  of  flour  to  the  Brains,  and  Parsley  and  Butter 
you  have  left,  and  pour  it  to  the  gravy  you  have  made 
with  the  bones  and  trim.mings;  let  it  boil  up  for  ten 
minutes,  and  then  strain  it  through  a  hair  sieve:  sea- 
son it  with  a  tablespoonful  of  white  Wine,  or  of  Catsup, 
(No.  439),  or  Sauce  superlative,  (No.  429) :  give  it  a 
boil  up,  skim  it,  and  then  put  in  the  Brains  and  the 
slices  of  Head  and  Bacon;  as  soon  as  they  are  tho- 
roughly warm,  {it  must  not  boil),  the  hash  is  ready. 
Some  Cooks — Egg  bread  crumb  and  fry  the  finest 
pieces  of  the  head— and  lay  them  round  the  hash. 

N.  B.  You  may  garnish  the  edges  of  the  dish  with 
H  5 


154  TiOlLlNG. 

slires   of  Bacon  toasted  in  a  Dutch  oven,  see  (Nos(. 
5'2(}  and  .'V27 .,  slices  of  Lemon,  and  Fried  Bread. 
To  make  Gravy  for  Hashes,  &c.  see  (No.  360.) 

PicklrdPork—i'So.  11), 

Rcqiilrcs  more  time  than  any  meat.  When  you 
cook  a  Le^jj,  wash  and  scrape  it  as  clean  as  possible ; 
wh»?n  dtlicateiy  dressed,  it  is  a  favourite  dish  with  al- 
most every  body;  take  rare  it  dacs  not  Boil  fast ;  if  it 
does,  the  Knuckle  will  break  to  j)ieces,  before  the  thick 
part  of  the  meat  is  warm  through:  a  LKG  of  seven 
pounds  takes  nearly  three  hours  very  S/oxv  simwcring. 
Skim  your  pot  very  carefully,  and  when  you  take  the 
meat  out  of  the  Boiler  —  scrape  it  clean. 

Some  sa;:;acious  Cooks  (who  remember,  to  how  many 
more  nature  has  given  Kyes.  than  she  has  given  Tongues 
and  Ihuins),  when  Pork  is  boiled,  score  it  in  Diamonds, 
and  take  out  every  other  square  —  and  thus,  present  a 
retainer  to  the  Eye  to  plead  for  them  to  the  palate  —  a 
kg  of  nice  Pork,  nicely  salted,  and  nicely  boiled, 
is  as  favourite  a  cold  relish  as  cold  Ham  —  especially 
if,  instead  of  cutting  into  the  middle  when  hot,  and 
so  letting  out  its  juices  —  you  cut  it  at  the  Knuckle  — 
slices  broiled,  as  (No.  487),  are  a  good  Luncheon, 
or  Supper. — To  make  Pease  Pudding,  and  Pease 
?;oup  EXTEMPORE,  SCO  N.  B.  to  (Nos.  218  and  555.) 

If  not  done  enough,  nothing  is  more  disagreeable; 
—  if  too  much  — it  not  only  loses  its  colour  and  Havour, 
^ut  its  substance  becomes  soft,  like  a  jelly. 

It  must  never  appear  at  table  without  a  good  Pease 
Fudding,  (see  No.  555),  and  if  you  please,  Parsnips, 
(No.  128),  or  Carrots,  (No.  129),  Turnips  and  Greens, 
or  Mashed  Potatoes,  &c.  (No.  106.) 

OLs.  Remember  not  to  forget  the  Mustard  Pot, 
(No.  369,  No.  370,  and  No.  427). 

Pctit-Tues,  or  Sucking  Pigs  Fa7.— (No.  12.) 

Put  a  thin  slice  of  Bacon  at  the  bottom  of  a  stewpan 
with  some  broth,  a  blade  of  mace,  a  few  peppercorns, 


BOILING.  155 

and  a  bit  of  thyme :  —  boil  the  feet  till  they  are  quite 
tender:  this  will  take  full  twenty  minutes  :  —  but  the 
heart,  liver,  and  lights,  will  be  done  enough  in  ten, 
when  they  are  to  be  taken  out,  and  minced  fine. 

Put  them  all  together  into  a  Stewpan  with  some 
Gravy,  thicken  it  with  a  little  butter  rolled  in  flour, 
season  it  with  a  little  pepper  and  salt,  and  set  it  over 
a  gentle  fire,  to  simmer  for  five  minutes,  frequently 
shaking  them  about. 

While  this  is  doing,  have  a  thin  slice  of  Bread 
toasted  very  lightly,  divide  it  into  Sippets,  and  lay 
them  round  the  dish :  pour  the  mince  and  sauce 
into  the  middle  of  it,  and  split  the  feet  and  lay  them 
round  it. 

N.  B.  Pettitoes  are  sometimes  boiled  and  dipped  in 
batter,  and  fried  a  light  brown. 

Obs.  —  If  you  have  no  Gravy  in  the  water  you  stew 
the  pettitoes  in,  put  an  Onion,  a  sprig  of  Lemon  thyme, 
or  sweet  Marjoram,  with  a  blade  of  bruised  Mace, 
a  few  black  Peppers,  and  a  large  teaspoonful  of  Mush- 
room catsup,  (No.  439),  and  you  will  have  a  very 
tolerable  substitute  for  Gravy.  A  bit  of  (No.  252)  will 
be  a  very  great  improvement  to  it. 

Bacon.  — {^0.  13.) 

Cover  a  pound  of  nice  streaked  Bacon  (as  the 
Hampshire  housewives  say  —  that  "  has  been  starved 
one  day  and  fed  another,")  with  cold  water,  —  let 
it  boil  gently  for  three  quarters  of  an  hour;  take  it  up, 
scrape  the  underside  well,  and  cut  off  the  rind:  grate 
a  crust  of  bread  not  only  on  the  top  but  all  over  it, 
as  directed  for  the  Ham  in  the  following  receipt,  and 
put  it  before  the  fire  for  a  few  minutes  ;  it  must  not  be 
there  too  long,  or  it  will  dry  it  and  spoil  it. 

Ttco  pounds  will  require  about  an  hour  and  a  half;  ac- 
cording to  its  thickness,  —  the  hock  or  gammon  being 
very  thick,  will  take  more. 

Obs.  See  (Nos.  526  and  527):  when  onli/  a  little 
Bacon  is  ivantcd,  these  are  the  best  ways  of  dressing  it. 


156  BOILING, 

The  boiling  of  Bacon,  is  a  very  J^implc  subject  to 
comment  upon,  but  our  main  object  is  to  teach  com- 
mon Cooks  the  art  of  dressing-  common  food,  in  the 
best  manner:  Bacon  is  son'.etimes  as  salt  as  salt  can 
make  it;  therefore,  before  it  is  boiled,  it  must  be  soaked 
in  warm  water  for  an  hour  or  two,  changing  the  water 
once;  then  pare  off  the  rusty  and  smoked  part,  trim  it 
nicely  on  the  underside,  and  scrape  the  rind  as  clean 
as  possible. 

Mem.  Bacon'  is  an  extravagant  article  in  Ilaiisc- 
lieejiing,  —  there  is  often  tWice  as  much  dressed  as 
need  be,-- when  it  is  sent  to  table  tis  an  accompani- 
ment to  boiled  Poultry  or  Veal,  a  pound  and  a  half  is 
plenty  for  a  dozen  people.  A  good  Oeiman  Sausage 
is  a  very  economical  substitute  for  Bacon,  —  or  fried 
Vork  Sumages,  (No.  87.) 

///3w,  — (No.  14), 

Though  of  the  Bacon  kind,  has  been  so  altered  and 
hardened  in  the  particular  way  of  curing,  that  it 
requires  still  more  care. 

Ham  is  generally  i40t  half  soaked,— as  salt  as  Brine, 
— and  hard  as  Flint:  and  it  would  puzzle  the  Stomach 
of  an  Ostrich  to  digest  it. 

Meji.  The  Salt,  Seasoning,  and  Smoke,  which  pre- 
serve it  before  it  is  eaten,  prevent  its  solution  after  — 
and  unless  it  be  very  long,  and  very  gently  stewed, 
the  strongest  Stomacli  will  have  a  tough  Job  to  ex- 
tract any  nourishment  from  it.  If  it  is  a  lery  dry 
Wcdphaiia  Ham,  it  nnist  be  soaked,  according  to  its 
age  and  thickness,  from  12  to  24  hours;— for  a  Green 
Yorkshire  or  Westmoreland  Ham,  from  4  to  8  hours 
will  be  sufficient.  Luke  warm  water  will  soften  it 
much  sooner  than  cold  —  when  sufficiently  soaked, 
trim  it  nicely  on  the  under  side  —  and  pare  oft"  all  the 
rusty  and  smoked  parts  till  it  looks  delicately  clean. 

Give  it  plenty  of  water  room,  and  put  it  in  while  the 
water  is  cold, — let  it  be  well  scummed,  and  keep  it  sim- 
mering gently  :  a  middling  sized  ham  of  fifteen  pounds- 


BOILING.  157 

will  be  enough  in  about  four  or  five  hours,  according  to 
its  thickness.  If  not  to  he  cut  till  Cold,  it  will  cut  the 
shorter  and  tenderer  for  being  boiled  still  longer. 

Pull  oft^  the  Skin  carefully,  and  preserve  it  as  whole 
as  possible,  it  will  form  an  excellent  covering  to  keep 
the  Ham  moist : — when  you  have  removed  the  skin,  rub 
some  Bread  Raspings  through  a  Hair-sieve,  or  grate  a 
crust  of  Bread,  put  it  into  the  perforated  cover  of  the 
Dredging  box,  and  shake  it  over  it,  or  glaze  it;  trim 
the  Knuckle  with  a  fringe  of  cut  writing  paper.  You 
may  garnish  with  Spinage,  or  Turnips,  &c. 

Obs. — To  Pot  Ham  (No.  509),  is  a  much  more  use- 
ful and  economical  way  of  disposing  of  the  remains 
of  the  joint,  than  makino;  Essence  of  it,  (No.  352). 
To  make  Soup  of  the  Liquor  it  is  boiled  in,  see  N.B.  to 
(No.  555). 

Tongue.  —  (No.  15.) 

A  Tongue  is  so  hard,  whether  prepared  by  drying 
or  pickling,  that  it  requires  much  more  cooking  than  a 
Ham:  —  nothing,  of  its  weight,  takes  so  long  to  dress 
it  properly. 

A  tongue  that  has  been  salted  and  dried,  should  be 
put  to  soak  {if  it  is  Old  and  very  hard,  24  hours  before 
it  is  wanted,)  in  plenty  of  water;  —  a  Green  one  fresh 
from  the  pickle  requires  soaking  only  a  few  hours; 
—  put  your  Tongue  into  plenty  of  Cold  water,  let 
it  be  an  hour  gradually  warming,  and  give  it  from 
three  and  a  half,  to  four  hours  very  slow  sinunering, 
according  to  the  size,  &c. 

Obs.  —  When  you  choose  a  Tongue,  endeavour  to 
learn  hov7  long  it  has  been  dried  or  pickled,  — pick 
out  the  plumpest,  and  that  which  has  the  smoothest 
skin,  which  denotes  its  being  young,  and  of  course  it  is 
more  likely  to  be  tender. 

The  Roots,  &c.  make  an  excellent  Relish  potted, 
like  (No.  509.)  —  or  Pease  Soup  (No.  218.) 

N.  B.  Our  correspondent,   who   wished  us    in    this 


158  BOILING. 

Edition  to  give  a  receipt  to  Roast  a  Tongue,  will  find 
an  answer  in  (No.  82.) 

Turkeys  J  Fowls,  SjC.  —  (Xo.  16), 

Are  all  Boiled  exactly  in  the  same  manner,  only 
allowing  time,  according  to  their  size.  For  the  67m//- 
ing,  &c.  (Nos.  374,  375,  and  377,)  some  of  it  made 
into  Balls,  and  boiled  or  tried,  make  a  nice  garnish,  and 
are  handy  to  help  —  and  you  can  then  reserve  some  of 
the  inside  stuffing  to  eat  with  the  Cold  fowl,  or  enrich 
the  Hash,  (Nos.  530  and  533.) 

A  Chicken  will  take  about 20  minutes. 

A  Fowl 40 

A  fine  large  Five-toed  Fowl  or  Capon  about  an 
hour. 

A  small  Turkey,  an  hour  and  a  half. 

A  large  one  two  hours  or  more. 

Chickens  or  Fowls  should  be  killed  at  least  one  or 
two  days  before  they  are  to  be  dressed.  Turkeys  (espe- 
cially large  ones)  should  not  be  dressed  till  they  have 
been  killed  three  or  four  days  at  least—///  Cu/d  ITcat/ier 
six  or  eight,  —  or  they  will  neither  be  White,  nor 
Tender*. 

Turkeys,  and  hrge  Fowls,  should  have  the  strings 
or  sinews  of  the  thighs  drawn  out. 

Truss  them  tcith  the  legs  outuarJs  —  ihej/  are  much 
€a$ier  caned. 

Fouls  for  Boiling  should  be  chosen  as  white  as  pos- 
sible :  if  their  complexion  is  not  so  fair  as  you  wish  — 
veil  them  in  (No.  2  of  No.  361);  those  which  have 
black  legs  should  be  roasted.  The  best  use  of  the 
Liver  is  to  make  Sauce,  (No.  287.) 

Poultry  must  be  well  washed  in  warm  water — i/ienj 
dirty  from   the   singeing,   &c.   rub  them   with  a  little 


•  Baker  in  his  Chronicle  tells  os  the  Turkey  did  not  reach  England  lill 
A.  D.  15C4,  about  the  15th  of  Hcury  the  8th  :  ht  says, 

"    Jurkies,  carps,  hoppes,  piccaiell,  and  beere. 
Came  into  England  all  iu  one  year," 


BOILING.  159 

white  Soap — thoroughly  rinse  it  off — then  dredge 
them  well  with  flour. 

Make  a  good  and  clear  fire ;  set  on  a  clean  pot, 
with  pure  and  clean  water,  enough  to  well  cover  the 
Turkey,  &c. ;  the  slower  it  boils,  the  whiter  and  plumper 
it  will  be. — When  there  rises  any  scum,  remove  it ;  the 
common  method  (of  some  who  are  more  nice  than 
wise)  is  to  wrap  them  up  in  a  cloth,  to  prevent  the 
scum  attaching  to  them;  which,  if  it  does,  by  your 
neglecting  to  skim  the  pot,  there  is  no  getting  it  ofF 
afterwards,  and  the  Poulterer  is  blamed  for  the  fault 
of  the  Cook. 

If  there  be  Water  enough,  and  it  is  attentively 
scummed,  the  Fowl  will  both  look  and  eat  much  better 
this  way,  than  when  it  has  been  covered  up  in  the 
cleanest  cloth;  and  the  colour  and  flavour  of  your 
Poultry  will  be  preserved  in  the  most  delicate  per- 
fection, 

Obs.  —  Turkey  deserves  to  be  accompanied  by 
Tongue,  (No.  15),  or  Ham,  (No.  14);  if  these  are  not 
come-at-able,  don't  forget  Pickled  Pork,  (No.  J 1),  or 
Bacu?i  and  greens,  (Nos.  83,  526,  and  527),  or  Pork 
Sausages,  (No.  87),  Parsley  and  Butter,  (No.  261); 
don't  pour  it  over,  but  send  it  up  in  a  boat;  Liver, 
(No.  287),  Egg,  (No.  267,)  or  Oyster  sauce,  (No.  278.) 
To  warm  cold  Turkey,  &c.  (No.  533),  and  following. 

To  Grill  the  Gizzard  and  Rump,  see  (No.  538).  Save 
a  quart  of  the  liquor  the  Turkey  was  boiled  in  —  this, 
with  the  bones  and  trimmings,  &c.  will  make  good 
Broth  for  a  Hash,  &c. 

Rabbits.— {^0.  17.) 

Truss  your  Rabbits  short,  lay  them  in  a  Basin  of 
warm  water  for  ten  minutes,  —  then  put  them  into 
plenty  of  water,  and  boil  them  about  half  an  hour; 
if  Large  ones,  three  quarters ;  if  very  Old,  an  hour : 
smother  them  with  plenty  of  White  Onion  sauce,  (No. 


160  BOILING. 

298),  mince  the  Liver,  and  lay  it  round  the  dish,  or 
make  Liver  sauce  (No.  287),  and  send  it  up  in  a  boat. 

0/;.y. — Ask  those  you  are  going  to  make  Liver  sauce 
for,  if  they  hke  pkiin  Liver  sauce,  or  I^iver  and  Pars- 
ley, or  Liver  and  Lemon  sauce,  see  (Nos.  287  and 
288.) 

N.  B.  It  will  save  much  trouble  to  the  Carver,  if  the 
Rabbits  be  cut  up  in  the  Kitchen — into  pieces  fit  to  help 
at  table,  and  the  Head  divided  —  and  one  half  laid  at 
each  end  —  and  slices  of  Lemon  —  and  the  Liver  chop- 
ped very  finely,  laid  on  the  sides  of  the  Dish. 

Tripe*.  — {1^0.  18.) 

Take  care  to  have  j)cs/i  Tripe,  cleanse  it  well  from 
the  fat,  and  cut  it  into  pieces  about  two  inches  broad 
and  four  long ;  put  it  into  a  stewpan  and  cover  it  with 
milk  and  water,  and  let  it  boil  gently  till  it  is  tender. 

If  the  I'ripe  has  been  prepared  as  it  usually  is  at  the 
Tripe  shops,  it  will  be  enough  in  about  an  hour;  (this 
depends  upon  how  long  it  has  been  previously  boiled 
at  the  Tripe  shop);  ifcntirclij  ///?r//Ti-.vt7/  — it  will  require 
two  or  three  hours  —  this  also  depends  much  on  the 
Age  and  Quality  of  it. 

Make  some  Omox  sauci:  in  the  same  manner  as 
you  do  for  Rabbits,  (No.  298),  or  boil  (slowly  by  them^ 
selves)  some  Spanish,  or  the  whitest  common  Onions 
you  can  get ;  —  peel  them  before  you  boil  them  ;  when 
they  are  tender,  which  a  middling  sized  Onion  will  be 
in  about  three  quarters  of  an  hour,  drain  them  in  a  hair 
sieve,  take  off  the  top  skins  till  they  look  nice  and 
white,  and  put  them  with  the  '1  ripe  into  a  tureen  or 
soup-dish,  and  take  off  the  fat  if  any  floats  on  the 
surface. 

Ohs.  —  Rashers  of  Bacon,  (Nos.  526  and  527),  or 


•  "  IloMERE  rapporte,  que  dans  un  regal  inagiiifiqne  prtparti  poiir  /IcIiiUe, 
on  seivit  des  tripes  do  bceuf,  et  que  cela  s'ttait  toujours  observe  anx  \Vevk% 
DKs  HLRU5," — (Jottrs  Gas(roitomiqu€,p.  155. 


BOILING.  161 

Fried  Sausages,  (No.  87),  are  a  very  good  accompani- 
ment to  boiled  Tripe,  Cow  heels,  (No.  198),  or  Calfs 
feet,  see  Mr.  Kelly's  Sauce,  (No.  311*'),  or  Parsley 
and  Butter,  (No.  261),  or  Caper  Sauce,  (No.  274),  with 
a  little  Vinegar  and  Mustard  added  to  them — or  Salad 
Mixture,  (No.  372  or  453.) 

CoivHeel.  —  {^o,  l8*.) 

This,  in  the  hands  of  a  skilful  Cook  —  will  furnish 
several  good  ivleals  —  when  boiled  tender,  see  (No. 
198),  cut  it  into  handsome  pieces,  Egg  and  Bread 
crumb  them,  and  Fry  them  a  light  brown  —  and  lay 
them  round  a  dish,  and  put  in  the  middle  of  it  sliced 
Onions  fried,  or  the  accompaniments  ordered  for  Tripe. 
The  Liquor  they  were  boiled  in  v.ill  make  Soups,  (No. 
229),  (No.  240*),  or  (No.  555.) 

N.  B.  We  give  no  Receipts  to  boil  Venison,  Geese, 
Ducks,  Pheasants,  Woodcocks,  and  Peacocks, 
&c. — as  our  aim  has  been  to  make  a  useful  Book — not 
a  Big  one,  see  (No.  82.) 


THE 

COOK^S  ORACLE. 


ROASTING. 


\.B.  If  the  Time  we  have  allowed  for  Roasting,  appears  rather  longer 
than  what  is  stattd  informer  works,  we  can  only  saif,  ive  have  written 
from  actual  Ixptritnents, — and  that  the  difference  may  be  accounted  for, 
l>lt  common  Coo.ks  generally  being  fond  of  too  fierce  aftre,  putting  things 
too  near  to  it. 

Our  calculations  arc  made  for  a  Temperature  of  about  50  degrees  of 
Fahrenheit. 

Slow  Ko\ stint,  is  as  advantageous  as  Slow  Boiling,  of  which  every 
budv  uiidtrstaiids  thr  imiinrt.tncc. 

The  IVuriiier  the  weather,  and  the  staler  killed  the  Meat  is  — the  less 
time  it  it  ill  require  /.■  roust  it. 

Alt  at  that  is  very  J  at  —  rcijnires  more  time  than  we  have  stated. 

B£KF  is  ill  j'roper  siasvn  throughout  the  uhnlc  year  ;  but  as  Butchers 
generally  calculate  uj>on  its  benig  a  Smulay's  Dinner,  you  can  seldom 
depend  upon  its  being  tei.dcr  on  any  other  day. 


Sir-Loin  of  Beef.  —  (No.  19.) 

The  Noble  Sir-Loin*  of  about  fifteen  pounds,  (if  much 
thicker,  the  outside  will  be  done  too  much  before  the 
inside  is  enoug;h,)  will  require  to  be  before  the  fire 
about  three  and  a  half  or  four  hours :  take  care  to  spit 


•  This  Joint  is  said  to  owe  its  name  to  King  Charles  the  Second,  who 
dining  upon  :i  Loin  of  Beef,  and  being  particularly  pleased  with  it,  asked  the 
name  of  the  Joint;  said  for  its  merit  it  should  be  knighted,  and  henceforth 
called  Sir-Loin. 

"  Oui   second  Charles  of  fame  facele. 
On  loin  of  Beef  did  dine; 
l!e  held  his  sword,  pleas'd,  o'er  the  meat. 
Arise,  thou  lam'd  Sir-Loin." 

Ballad  of  the  New  Sir  John  Barleycorn, 
The  ballad  of  "  The  dates  of  Calais"  calls  it 

'•  Kenown'd  6ir-Loin,  oft  limes  decreed 
The  theme  of  English  Ballad; 
On  thee  our  kings  oft  deign  to  feed, 

Unknown  to  Frenchman's  palate; 
Then  how  much  doth  thy  taste  exceed 
Soup-meagre,  frogs,  and  salad  1" 


ROASTING.  163 

it  evenly,  that  it  may  not  be  heavier  on  one  side  than 
the  other; — put  a  little  clean  Dripping  into  the 
dripping  pan,  (tie  a  sheet  of  paper  over  it  to  presei-ve 
the  Fat*,)  baste  it  well  as  soon  as  it  is  put  down,  and 
every  quarter  of  an  hour  all  the  time  it  is  roasting,  till 
the  last  half  hour ;  then  take  off  the  paper,  and  make 
some  Gravy  for  it,  (No.  326),  stir  the  fire  and  make  it 
clear :  to  Brown  and  Froth  it,  sprinkle  a  little  salt  over 
it,  baste  it  with  butter,  and  dredge  it  with  flour ;  let  it 
go  a  few  minutes  longer,  till  the  froth  rises,  take  it  up, 
put  it  on  the  dish,  &c. 

Garnish  it  with  Hillocks  of  horseradish  scraped  as 
Jine  as  -possible  with  a  very  sharp  knife,  see  (Nos.  458 
and  399*).  A  Yorkshire  pudding,  is  an  excellent 
accompaniment,  (No.  595),  or  (No.  554.) 

Obs.  —  The  Inside  of  the  Sir-Loin  must  never  be  cutf 
Hot,    but  reserved  entire  for  the  hash,   or  a  mock 


*  "  In  the  ^reizni  fashion  of  fatting  Cattle,  it  is  more  desirable  to  roast 
a-vay  the  Fat,  than  to  preserve  it.  If  the  honourable  Societies  of  Agricul- 
tarists  at  the  time  they  c  jusuited  a  learned  Professor  about  the  composition  of 
Manures,  had  consulted  some  competent  authority,  on  the  nature  of  Animal 
substances,  the  Public  might  have  escaped  the  over-grown  corpulency  of  the 
Animal  flesh,  vvhich  every  where  fills  the  markets."  —  Domestic  Manage- 
ment, 12mo.  1813,  p.  182. 

"  Game  and  other  wild  animals  proper  for  food,  are  of  very  superior  qua- 
lities to  the  tame — from  the  total  contrast  of  the  circumstances  attending  them. 
They  have  a  free  range  of  exercise  in  the  open  air,  and  choose  their  own  food, 
the  good  effects  of  which  are  very  evident  in  a  short  delicate  texture  of  flesh, 
found  only  in  them.  Their  juices  and  flavour  are  more  pure,  and  their  Fat, 
when  it  is  in  any  degree,  as  in  Venison,  and  some  other  instances,  differs  as 
much  from  that  of  our  fatted  Animals,  as  Silver  and  Gold  from  the  grosser 
metals.  The  superiority  of  Welch  Mutton  and  Scotch  Beef  is  owing 
to  a  similar  cause." — Ibid.  p.  150. 

If  there  is  more  Fat  than  you  think  will  be  eaten  with  the  Meat,  cut  it  off, 
it  will  make  an  excellent  Pudding,  (No.  554);  or  clarify  it,  see  (No.  84),  and 
use  it  for  Frying  :  — for  those  who  like  their  meat  djne  thoroughly,  and  use  a 
moderate  fire  for  roasting,  the  Fat  need  not  be  covered  with  paper. 

If  your  Beef  is  large,  and  your  family  small,  —  cut  off  the  thin  end  and 
salt  it, —  and  cut  out  and  dress  the  fillet,  (i.  e.  commonly  called  the  inside) 
next  day  as  Mock  Hare,  (No.  67*) :  thus  you  get  Three  good  hot  Dinners. 
See  also  the  Appendix  to  Chapter  9  —  on  Made  Dishes.  For  Sa.vce  for  Cold 
Beef,  see  (No.  359),  and  Cucumber  Vinegar,  (No.  399),  Horseradish  Vinegar, 
(Nos.  399*  and  458.) 

t  "  This  joint  is  often  spoilt  for  the  next  day's  use,  by  an  injudicious  mode 
of  Carving.  If  you  object  to  the  outside,  take  the  brown  off,  and  help  the 
next— by  the  cutting  it  only  on  one  side,  yon  preserve  the  Gravy  in  the  meat, 
aad  the  goodly  appearance  also  —  by  cutting  it,  on  the  contrary,  down  the 


164  ROASTING. 

HARE  (No.  67*.)  (For  the  Receipt  to  Hash  or  Broil 
Beef  J,  (No.  484),  and  (Nos.  486  and  487);  and  for 
other  ways  of  employing  the  remains  of  a  joint  of  cold 
Beef,  see  (Nos.  503,'4,  5,  6.) 

Ribs  of  Beef.  —  (No.  20.) 

The  Three  first  Ribs,  of  fifteen  or  twenty  pounds, 
will  take  three  hours,  or  three  and  a  half:  the  fourth 
AND  FIFTH  RiBs  will  take  as  long,  managed  in  the 
same  way  as  the  Sir- Loin.  —  Paper  the  Fat,  and  the 
thin  part,  or  it  will  be  done  too  much,  before  the  thick 
part  is  done  enough. 

N.B.  A  Pig-tron  placed  before  it  on  the  bars  of  the 
grate  answers  every  purpose  of  keeping  the  thin  part 
from  being  too  much  done. 

Obs.  —  Many  persons  prefer  the  Ribs  to  the  Sir- 
Loin. 

Ribs  of  Beef  boned  and  rolled.  —  (No.  2  1 .) 

When  you  have  kept  two  or  three  ribs  of  beef  till 
quite  tender,  —  take  out  the  bones,  and  skewer  it  as 
round  as  possible,  (like  a  fillet  of  veal):  —  before  they 
roll  it,  some  Cooks  Egg  it,  and  sprinkle  it  with  Veal 
stuffing,  (No.  374.)  As  the  meat  is  more  in  a  solid 
mass,  it  will  require  more  time  at  the  fire  than  in  the 
preceding  receipt ;  —  a  piece  of  ten  or  twelve  pounds 
weight,  will  not  be  well  and  thoroughly  roasted  in  less 
than  four  and  a  half  or  five  hours. 

For  the  first  half  hour,  it  should  not  be  less  than  12 
inches  from  the  fire,  that  it  may  get  gradually  warm  to 
the  centre  : — the  last  half  hour  before  it  will  be  finished, 
sprinkle  a  little  salt  over  it;  and  if  you  wish  to  froth  it, 
flour  it,  &c. 


middle  of  this  joint,  all  the  Gravy  runs  out,  it  becomes  diy,  and  exhibiu  a 
most  noseemly  aspect  when  brought  to  table  a  second  limt." — From  Udk's 
Cookery, \i\Q.  181B.  )>.  lOO. 


ROASTING. 


165 


iifC/rrOA"*,  — (No.  23.) 

As  Beef  requires  a  large  sound  fire,  Mutton  must 
have  a  brisk  and  sliarp  one :  —  tf  you  wish  to  have 
Mutton  Under^  it  should  be  hung  as  long  as  it  will 
keept  ••  and  then  good  eight-tooth,  i.  e.  four  years  old 
Mutton,  is  as  good  eating  as  Venison,  if  it  is  accom- 
panied by  (Nos.  329  and  346 ) 

The  Leg,  Haunch,  and  Saddle  will  be  the  better  for 
being  hung  up  in  a  cool  airy  place  for  four  or  five  days 
at  least;  in  Temperate  Vv-eatlier,  a  week; — in  Cold 
weather,  ten  days. 

If  you  think  your  Mutton  will  not  be  tender  enough 
to  do  honour  to  the  Spit,  dress  it  as  a  "  Gigot  de  sept 
heures,"  see  N.B.  to  (No.  1),  and  (No.  493.) 

A  Lfg  — (No.  24) 
Of  eight  pounds  will  take  about  Two  hours  :  —  let  it 
be  well  basted,    and  frothed  in  the  same  manner  as 
directed  in  (No.  19).     To  Hash  Mutton,  (No.  484). 
To  Broil  it,  (No.  487),  &c. 


•  Dew  Swift's  Receipt  to  Roast  Mutton. 
To  Geminiani's  beautiful  air  —  "  Gently  touch  the  warbling  Lyre. 

"  Gently  stir  and  blow  the  fire, 
Lay  the  mutton  dowu  to  roast, 

Dress  it  quickly,   I  desire, 
In  the  dripping  put  a  toast. 

That  I  hunger  may  remove  — 

IMutton  is  the  meat  1  love. 

"  On  the  dresser  see  it  lie; 
Oh!  the  charming  while  and  red; 

Finer  meat  ne'er  met  the  eye. 
On  the  sweetest  grass  it  fed: 

Let  the  jack  go  swiftly  round, 

Let  me  have  it  nicely  brown'd. 

"  On  the  table  spread  the  cloth, 
Let  the  knives  be  sharp  and  clean, 

I'ickles  get  and  salad  both, 
Let  them  each  be  fresh  and  green. 

With  small  beer,  good  ale,  and  wine, 

O  ye  gods!  how  1  shall  dine!" 

t  See  the  chapter  of  Advice  to  Cooks. 


166  ROASTING. 

A  Chine  or  Saddle,  — (No.  26), 

(i.  e.  the  two  Loins,)  of  ten  or  eleven  pounds,  —  two 
hours  and  a  half:  it  is  the  business  of  the  Butcher  to 
take  off  the  skin  and  skewer  it  on  again — to  defend  the 
meat  from  extreme  heat,  and  preserve  its  succulence — 
if  this  is  neglected  tie  a  sheet  of  paper  over  it:  (baste 
the  strins^s  you  tie  it  on  witli  directly,  or  they  will 
burn:)  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour  before  you  think  it 
will  be  done,  take  off  the  skin  or  paper,  that  it  may  get 
a  pale  brown  colour  —  and  then  baste  it  and  flour  it 
lightly  to  froth  it.     We  like  (No.  346)  for  sauce. 

N.B.  Desire  the  Butcher  to  cut  off  the  Flaps  and 
the  tail  and  chump  end,  and  trim  away  every  part  — 
that  has  nut  indif-pntaldc  pretensions  to  be  eaten.  This 
will  reduce  a  Saddle  of  eleven  pounds  weight  to  about 
six  or  seven  pounds. 

A  Shou/der—i^o.  27) 

Of  seven  pounds, —  an  hour  and  a  half;  put  the  spit 
in  close  to  the  shank  bone,  and  run  it  along  the  blade 
bone. 

N.B.  The  BLADE  liONE  is  a  favourite  Luncheon  or 
Supper  relish,  scored,  peppered  and  salted,  and  broiled, 
or  done  in  a  Dutch  Oven. 

J  Lain*— (So.  28) 

Of  Mutton,  from  an  hour  and  a  half,  to  an  hour 
and  three  quarters.  —  The  most  elegant  uay  of  carving 
this,  is  to  cut  it  lengthwise,  as  you  do  a  Saddle,  read 
(No.  26.) 

N.B.  Spit  it  on  a  skewer  or  lark  spit,  and  tie  that 
on  the  common  spit,  and  do  not  spoil  the  meat  by 
running  the  spit  through  the  prime  part  of  it. 

•  Common  Cooks  very  scbdom  bronti  the  ends  of  Necks  and  Lowj  ;  to 
have  this  done  nicely,  let  the  fire  be  a  few  inches  longer  at  each  end,  than 
the  joint  that  is  roasting,  and  occasionally  place  the  spit  slanting,  so  that 
each  end  may  get  sulficient  fire;  —  otherwise,  after  the  meat  is  done,  you 
iinut  take  it  up,  and  put  the  ends  before  the  fire. 


ROASTING.  167 

A  Neck,  — 0^0.  29), 

About  the  same  time  as  a  Loin.  It  must  be  care- 
fully jointed,  or  it  is  very  difficult  to  carve.  The  Neck 
and  Breast  are  in  small  families  commonly  roasted 
together  —  the  Cook  will  then  crack  the  bones  across 
the  middle  before  they  are  put  down  to  roast  —  if  this 
is.  not  done  carefully,  they  are  very  troublesome  to 
carve. 

Obs.  —  If  there  is  more  Fat  than  you  think  will  be 
eaten  with  the  lean,  cut  it  otF,  and  it  will  make  an 
excellent  Suet  Pudding,  (No.  o51),  or  (No.  554.) 

N.B.  The  best  way  to  Spit  this,  is  to  run  iron 
skewers  across  it  —  and  put  the  spit  between  them. 

A  Breast,  —  (No.  30), 
An  hour  and  a  quarter. 
To  Grill  a  Breast  of  Mutton,  see  Obs.  to  (No.  38). 

A   Haunch,  — (No.  31), 

(i.  e.  the  leg  and  part  of  the  loin)  of  Mutton;  send 
up  two  sauce  boats  with  it ;  one  of  rich  drawn  Mutton 
Gravy,  made  without  Spice  or  Herbs,  (No.  347),  and 
the  other  of  Sv/eet  Sauce,  (No.  346.)  It  generally 
weighs  about  15  pounds,  and  requires  about  three 
hours  and   a  half  to  roast  it. 

Mutton,  Venison  fashion.  —  (No.  32.) 

Take  a  neck  of  good  four  or  five  year  old  south- 
down wether  Mutton  cut  long  in  the  bones;  let  it 
hang  (in  temperate  weather)  at  least  a  week  :  two  days 
before  you  dress  it,  take  allspice  and  black  pepper 
ground  and  pounded  fine,  a  quarter  of  an  ounce  each, 
rub  them  together,  and  then  rub  your  mutton  well  with 
this  mixture  twice  a  day  : — when  you  dress  it,  wash 
off  the  spice  with  warm  water,  and  roast  it  in  paste,  as 
we  have  ordered  the  haunch  of  venison  :  —  No.  63.) 

Obs.  —  Persevering  and    Ingenious  Epicures,   have 


168  ROASTING. 

invented  many  methods  to  give  Mutton  the  flavour  of 
Venison  —  some  say  that  Mutton  prepared  as  above, 
may  be  mistaken  for  Venison, —  others  that  it  is  full  as 
good;  —  the  refined  palate  of  a  Grand  Gourmand,  (in 
spite  of  the  Spice  and  Wine  the  meat  has  been  fuddled 
and  rubbed  with)  will  perhaps  still  protest  against 
•'  JVeis/i  Venison'  —  and  indeed  we  do  not  understand 
by  w'hat  conjuration  Allspice  and  Claret  can  communi- 
cate the  Havour  of  Vtmson  to  Mutton  —  we  confess 
our  fears  that  the  flavour  of  Venison  (especially  of  its 
Fat)  is  inimitable  —  but  believe  you  can  procure  Prime 
eight-tooth  Wether  MuTiox,  keep  it  the  proper  time, 
and  send  it  to  tabic  with  the  accompaniments  (No.  346 
and  347,  Sec.)  usually  given  to  Venison.  —  A  Rational 
Epicure  will  eat  it  witli  as  much  satisfaction,  as  he 
would  "  feed  on  the  King's  Fallow  Deer." 

VEAL.  —  (No.  33.) 

Veal  requires  particular  care  to  roast  it  a  nice 
Brown.  Let  the  fire  be  the  same  as  for  Beef;  a  sound 
large  fire  for  a  large  joint,  and  a  brisker  for  a  smaller  : 
—  put  it  at  some  distance  from  the  fire  to  soak  tho- 
roughly, and  then  draw  it  near  to  finish  it  brown. 

When  first  laid  down,  it  is  to  be  basted;  —  baste 
it  again  occasionally.  When  the  Veal  is  on  the  dish 
pour  over  it  half  a  pint  of  melted  Butter,  (No.  256): 
if  you  have  a  little  brown  Gravy  by  you,  add  that  to 
the  Butter,  see  (No.  326.)  JVith  those  joints  uhich  arc 
not  Stujf'ed,  send  up  Forcemeat,  (No.  374),  or  (No.  375), 
in  Balls,  or  rolled  into  Sausages  as  garnish  to  the  dish^ 
or  fried  Pork  Sausages,  (No.  87),  Bacon,  (No.  13,  or 
526,  or  527),  and  greens,  are  also  always  expected 
with  Veal. 

Fillet  of  Veal,  —  (No.  34), 

Of  from  twelve  to  sixteen  pounds,  will  require  from 
four  to  five  hours  at  a  good  fire;  make  some  Stuffing 
or  Forcemeat,  (No.  374  or  5),  and  put  it  in  under  the 


ROASTING.  169 

Hap,  that  there  may  be  some  left  to  eat  cold,  or  to 
season  a  Hash*:  brown  it,  and  pour  good  melted 
butter  (No.  266)  over  it,  as  directed  in  (No.  33.) 

Garnish  with  thin  slices  of  lemon,  and  Cakes  or  Balls 
of  Stuffing,  or  (No.  374),  or  (No.  375),  or  Duck 
stuffing:,  (^0-  61),  or  fried  pork  Sausages,  see 
(No.  87),  Curry  sauce,  (No.  348),  Bacon,  (No.  13), 
and  Greens,   &c. 

N.B.  Potted  Veal,  (No.  533.) 

Obs.  —  A  bit  of  the  Brown  outside  is  a  favourite 
with  the  Epicure  in  Roasts.  —  The  Kidney  cut  out  — 
sliced  and  broiled,  see  (No.  538),  is  a  high  relish 
which  some  Bons  Viiants  are  fond  of. 

A  Loin  —  (No.  35.) 

Is  the  best  part  of  the  Calf,  and  will  take  about  three 
hours  roasting.  Paper  the  kidney  fat,  and  the  back  : 
some  Cooks  send  it  up  on  a  Toast,  which  is  eaten  with 
the  Kidney  and  the  fat  of  this  part,  which  is  more 
delicate  than  any  marrow,  &c.  If  there  is  more  of  it 
than  you  think  will  be  eaten  with  the  Veal — before 
you  roast  it  cut  it  out,  it  will  make  an  excellent  suet 
pudding :  —  takt  care  to  have  j/oiir  fire  long  enough  to 
brown  the  tn(h  —  same  accompaniments  as  (No.  34.) 

A  Shoulder,  — {^o.  36.) 

From  three  hours  to  three  hours  and  a  half,  — stuff  it 
with  the  forcemeat  ordered  for  the  fillet  of  veal,  in  the 
underside,  or  Balls  made  of  (No.  374.) 

Neck,  best  end,  —  (No.  37.) 

Will  take  two  hours;  —  same  accompaniments  as 
(No.  34.)  The  Scrag  part  is  best  made  into  a  pye,  or 
broth. 


•  To  Mince   or   IfASH   Veal,  see   (No.  511,  or   511*),  and  to  make 
IlAGOUT  of  cold  Veal,  (No.  5I2.) 

I 


170  BOASTING. 

Breast,  — (iio,  38.) 

From  an  hour  and  a  half  to  two  hours.  Let  the 
caul  remain  till  it  is  almost  done,  then  take  it  off',  to 
brown  it ;  baste,  flour,  and  froth  it. 

Ohs.  —  This  makes  a  savoury  relish  for  a  Luncheon 
or  Supper:  —  if,  when  boiled  enough,  you  put  it  in  a 
cloth  between  two  pewter  dishes  with  a  weight  on  the 
upper  one  —  and  let  it  remain  so  till  cold,  then  pare 
and  trim  it  —  egg  and  crumb  it,  and  broil,  or  warm  it 
in  a  Dutch  oven;  serve  with  it  Capers,  (No.  274),  or 
Wow  Wow  sauce,  (No.  3*28.)  Breast  of  Mutton  dressed 
the  same  tcay. 

Veal  Sneet bread,  — (^0.  39.) 

Trim  a  fine  Sweetbread,  (it  cannot  be  too  fresh,) 
parboil  it  for  five  minutes,  and  throw  it  into  a  basin  of 
cold  water.     Roast  it  plain  —  or 

Beat  up  the  yolk  of  an  Egg,  and  prepare  some  fine 
Bread  crumbs.  When  the  Sweetbread  is  cold,  dry  it 
thoroughly  in  a  cloth,  run  a  lark  spit  or  a  skewer 
through  it,  and  tie  it  on  the  ordinary  spit :  e^^  it  with 
a  paste  brush,  powder  it  well  with  bread  crumbs, — 
and  roast  it. 

For  Sauce,  fried  Bread  Crumbs  round  it,  and  melted 
butter  with  a  little  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439),  and 
Lemon  Juice  (Nos.  307,  or  354,  or  356),  or  serve  them 
on  buttered  Toast  garnished  with  Egg  Sauce  (No.  267), 
or  with  Gravy  (No.  329.) 

Obs.  —  Instead  of  spitting  them,  you  may  put  them 
into  a  tin  Dutch  oven,  or  Fry  them,  (Nos.  88,  or  89, 
or  513.) 

L.-^MB  — (No.  40.) 

Is  a  delicate,  and  commonly  considered  Tender  meat 
—  but  those  who  talk  of  tender  Lamb  —  while  they  are 
thinking  of  the  Age  of  the  Animal, — forget,  that  even  a 
Clikken  must  be  kept  a  proper  time  after  it  has  been 
killed,  or  it  will  be  tough  picking. 


ROASTING.  171 

Woeful  experience  has  warned  us  to  beware  of 
accepting  an  invitation  to  Dinner  on  Easter  Sunday, — 
and  unless  commanded  by  a  thorough  bred  Gourmand 
—  our  Incisores,  Molares,  and  Principal  Viscera,  have 
protested  against  the  Imprudence  of  encountering 
Young  tough  stringy  Mutton  —  under  the  misnomen  of 
Grass  Lamb. 

To  the  usual  accompaniments  of  Roasted  Meat,  Green 
Mint  Sauce  (No.  303),  a  Salad  (Nos.  372  and  138*), 
is  commonly  added ;  and  some  Cooks,  about  five 
minutes  before  it  is  done,  sprinkle  it  with  a  little  minced 
Parsley,  or  (No.  318.) 

Grass  Lamb  is  in  season  from  Easter  to  Michael- 
mas. 

House  Lamb  from  Christmas  to  Lady-Day. 

S/ia7}i-Lamh,  see  Obs.  to  following  Receipt. 

N.B.  When  green  mint  cannot  be  got.  Mint  Vinegar 
(No.  398),  is  an  acceptable  substitute  for  it. 

Hind-Quarter,  —  (No.  41.) 

Of  eight  pounds,  will  take  from  an  Hour  and  three 
quarters  to  two  Hours: — baste  and  froth  it  in  the 
same  way  as  directed  in  (No.  19.) 

Obs.  —  A  Quarter  of  a  Porkliiig  is  sometimes 
skinned,  cut,  and  dressed  Lamb-fashion,  and  sent  up 
as  a  substitute  for  it.  The  Leg  and  the  Loin  of  Lamb 
should  always  be  roasted  together,  —  the  former  being 
very  lean — the  latter  very  fat,  —  and  the  Gravy  is 
better  preserved. 

Fore- Quarter,  —  (No.  42.) 

Of  ten  pounds,  —  about  two  hours. 

N.B.  It  is  a  pretty  general  custom,  when  you  take 
off  the  Shoulder  from  the  Ribs,  to  squeeze  a  Seville 
orange  over  them,  and  sprinkle  them  with  a  little 
Pepper  and  Salt. 

Obs.  —  This  may  as  well  be  done  by  the  Cook  before 
it  comes  to  Table. 

I  2 


172  ROASTING. 

Ifo-,  — (No.  43.) 

Of  five  pounds,  —  from  an  iiour  to  an  hour  and  a 
half. 

S/ioul(Icr,—  {No.4A.) 
With  a  quick  fire,  an  liour. 
See  Ol>s.  to  (No.  27.) 

Ribs,  —  (No.  45.) 

About  an  hour  to  an  hour  and  a  quarter — joint  it 
nicely  —  crack  the  ribs  across,  and  bend  them  up  to 
make  it  easy  to  carve. 

Loin,  — (No.  46.) 
All  hour  and  a  quarter. 

AVd,  —  (No.  47.) 
An  hour. 

r.reait,  —  (So.4S.) 
lliree  quarters  of  an  hour. 

PO/{A'.  —  (No.  49.) 

The  prime  season  for  Pork,  is  from  Michaelmas  to 
March. 

Take  jjarticiilar  care  it  he  DONi:  enough:  other 
meats  underdone  are  unpleasant,  but  Pork  is  abso- 
lutely umalahle,  —  the  very  sight  of  it  is  enough  to 
appal  the  keenest  Appetite. 

For  Saucks,  (No.  300),  (No.  304),  and  (No.  342.) 

Obs. —  Pease  pudding  (No.  555),  is  as  good  an 
accompaniment  to  roasted,  as  it  is  to  boiled  pork;  and 
most  palates  are  pleased  with  the  Savoury  Powder  set 
down  in  (No.  51),  or  bread  crumbs  mixed  with  Sage 
and  Onion  minced  very  fine,  or  ZEST  (No.  255) 
sprinkled  over  it. 

N.B.  *'  The  western  Pigs,  from  Berks,  Oxford,  and 
Bucks,  possess  a  decided  superiority  over  the  eastern, 


BOASTING.  173 

of  Essex,  Sussex,  and  Norfolk;  not  to  forget  another 
qualification  of  the  former,  at  which  some  readers  may 
smile,  —  a  thickness  of  the  skin,  whence  the  Crackling 
of  the  roasted  Pork  is  a  fine  gelatinous  substance, 
which  may  be  easily  masticated,  whilst  the  crackling 
of  the  thin  skinned  breeds,  is  roasted  into  good  block 
Tin,  the  reduction  of  which  would  almost  require 
Teeth  of  Iron."  — MouBRAY  on  Poultjy,  1816,  p.  242. 
There  is  a  second  Edition  of  this  book,  which  seems  to 
be  the  best  work  on  the  subject  we  have  seen. 

A  Leg,  — (No.  50.) 

Of  eight  pounds,  will  require  about  three  hours:  score 
the  skin  across  in  narrow  stripes,  (some  score  it  in 
diamonds)  about  a  quarter  of  an  inch  apart;  —  stuff 
the  knuckle  with  sage  and  onion  minced  fine,  and  a 
little  grated  bread  seasoned  with  pepper,  salt,  and  the 
yolk  of  an  Egg;  see  Duck  Stuffing  (No.  61.) 

Rub  a  little  sweet  Oil  on  the  skin  with  a  paste 
brush,  or  a  goose  feather:  this  makes  the  Crackling 
crisper  and  browner  than  basting  it  with  dripping; 
and  it  will  be  a  better  colour  than  all  the  art  of 
Cookery  can  make  it  in  any  other  way.  And  this  is 
the  best  way  of  preventing  the  skin  from  blistering  — 
which  is  principally  occasioned  by  its  being  put  too 
near  the  fire. 

Leg  of  Pork  roasted  ivithoiit  the  Skin,   commonly  called 
Mock  Goose*. —  (No.  51.) 

Parboil  it,  take  off  the  skin,  and  then  put  it  down 
to  roast;  baste  it  with  butter,  and  make  a  Savovry 
Poxoder  of  finely  minced,  or  dried  and  powdered  Sage, 
ground  black  pepper,  salt,  and  some  bread  crumbs, 
rubbed  together  through  a  cullender  :  you  may  add  to 

*  Priscllla  Uaslehurst,  in  her  Housekeeper's  Instructor,  8vo.  SlielTieJd, 
18i6,  page  19,  gives  us  a  receipt  "  to  Goosify  a  Shoulder  of  Lamb."  ".  Le 
«;rand  Cuisuiier,"  who  gave  nic  the  Receipt  to  dress  Turtle  (No.  250),  informs 
nie,  that  "  t)  Lnmbify"  the  leg  of  a  Poi  kling  is  a  favourite  MetamorplioMs  in 
the  French  kitchen,  when  House  Lamb  is  very  dear. 


174  ROASTING. 

this  a  little  very  finely  minced  Onion  ;  sprinkle  it  witli 
this  when  it  is  almost  roasted;  put  half  a  pint  of 
made  gravy  into  the  dish,  and  Goose  stuffing 
(No.  378)  under  the  knuckle  skin,  or  garnish  the  Dish 
■with  Balls  of  it  fried  or  boiled. 

The  Grishiu,  —  (No.  52.) 
Of  seven  or  eio:ht  pounds,  may  be  dressed  in  the  same 
manner: — it  will  take  an  hour  and  a  half  roasting. 

A  Bacon  Spare-Rib  —  (No.  53.) 

Usually  weighs  about  eight  or  nine  pounds,  and  will 
take  from  two  to  three  hours  to  roast  it  thoroughly, — 
not  exactly  according  to  its  weight, — but  the  thickness 
of  the  meat  upon  it,  which  varies  very  much :  —  lay 
the  thick  end  nearest  to  the  Fire. 

A  proper  rald  Spare-Rib  of  eight  pounds  weight, 
(so  called  because  almost  all  the  Meat  is  pared  off,) 
with  a  steady  tire,  will  be  done  in  an  hour  and  a 
quarter:  — there  is  so  little  meat  on  a  bald  Spare-Rib, 
that  if  you  have  a  large  fierce  tire,  it  will  be  burnt 
before  it  is  warm  through;  joint  it  nicely,  and  crack 
the  Ribs  across  as  yon  do  Ribs  of  Lamb. 

When  you  put  it  down  to  roast,  dust  on  some  flour, 
and  baste  it  with  a  little  butter;  dry  a  dozen  Sage 
leaves,  and  rub  them  through  a  hair  sieve,  and  put 
them  into  the  top  of  a  pepper  box,  and  about  a 
quarter  of  an  hour  before  the  meat  is  done,  baste  it 
with  butter,  dust  the  pulverized  Sage,  or  ihesavowy 
jjowder  in  (No.  51),  or  sprinkle  with  Duck  Stuffing, 
(No.  61.) 

Obs,  —Make  it  a  general  rule,  never  to  pour  gravy 
over  any  thing  that  is  roasted;  by  so  doing,  the 
dredging,  &c.  is  washed  off,  and  it  eats  insipid. 

Some  people  carve  a  Spart-rib  by  cutting  out  in 
slices  the  thick  part  at  the  bottom  of  the  bones :  when 
this  meat  is  cut  away,  the  bones  may  be  easily  sepa- 
rated, and  are  esteemed  very  sweet  picking. 


ROASTING.  175 

Apple  sauce  (No.  304),  Mashed  Potatoes  (No.  106), 
and  good  Mustard  (No.  370),  are  indispensable. 

Loin,  —  (No.  54.) 

Of  five  pounds,  must  be  kept  at  a  good  distance 
from  the  fire  on  account  of  the  Cracklings  and  will 
take  about  two  hours  —  if  very  fat,  half  an  hour  longer. 

Stuff  it  with  Duck  Stuffing  (No.  378.)  Score  the 
skin  in  stripes,  about  a  quarter  of  an  inch  apart,  and 
rub  it  with  Salad  Oil,  as  directed  in  (No.  50.)  You 
may  sprinkle  over  it,  some  of  the  Savour]/  poxvder 
recommended  for  the  Mock  Goose,  (No.  51.) 

A  Chine,  — (^o.  55.) 

If  parted  down  the  back-bone,  so  as  to  have  but  one 
side,  —  a  good  fire  will  roast  it  in  two  hours;  if  not 
parted,  three  hours. 

N.B.  Chines  are  generally  salted  and  boiled. 

A  Slicking  Pig*  —  (No.  56.) 

Is  in  prime  order  for  the  spit,  when  about  three 
weeks  old. 

It  loses  part  of  its  goodness  every  hour  after  it  is 
killed ;  —  if  not  quite  fresh,  no  art  can  make  the 
Crackling  crisp. 

To  be  in  perfection,  it  should  be  killed  in  the  morning, 
to  be  eaten  at  dinner ;  —  it  requires  very  careful  roasting. 
—  A  sucking  Pig,  like  a  young  Child,  must  not  be  left 
for  an  instant. 

The  ends,  must  have  much  more  fire  than  the 
middle;  —  for  this  purpose,  is  contrived  an  Iron  to 
hang  before  the  middle  part,  called  a  Pig  iron.  If  you 
have  not  this,  use  a  common  flat  Iron,  or  keep  the  fire 
fiercest,  at  the  two  ends. 

For  the  Stuffing,  take  of  the  crumb  of  a  stale  loaf 
about  five  ounces ;  rub  it  through  a  cullender ;  mince 


♦  Mons.  Grimod  designates  this  ''  Animal  modeste,ennemidufaste,  et 
le  Rot  des  Animaux  immondes." 


176  ROASTING. 

fine  a  handful  of  sap:e,  {i.  c.  about  two  ounces,)  ami  a 
large  onion,  (about  an  ounce  and  a  half*);  mix  these 
together  with  an  cgtc:,  some  pepper  and  salt,  and  a  bit 
of  butter  as  big  as  an  egg;  fill  the  belly  of  the  pig 
with  this,  and  sew  it  up;  lay  it  to  the  fire,  and  baste 
it  with  Salad  Oil  till  it  is  quite  done;  —  do  not  leave  it 
a  moment;  it  requires  the  most  vigilant  attendance. 

Roast  it  at  a  clear  brisk  fire,  at  some  distance.  To 
gain  the  praise  of  Epicurean  Pig-Eaters,  the  Cuack- 
LiNG  must  be  nictlj/  crisped  and  delicately  Ifgfith/ 
browned,  without  being  either  blistered  or  burnt. 

A  small  three-weeks  old  Pig  will  be  enough  f  in 
about  an  hour  and  a  half. 

Before  you  take  it  from  the  Fire,  cut  off  the  head, 
and  part  that  and  the  body  down  the  middle ;  chop 
the  Brains  very  fine  with  some  boiled  Sage  leaves, 
and  mix  them  with  good  Veal  gravy,  made  as  directed 
in  (No.  192),  or  Beef  Gravy,  (No  .".29),  or  what  runs 
from  the  Pig  when  you  cut  its  head  off.  Send  up  a 
tureenful  of  Gravy,  (No.  .329),  besides. — Currant  Sauce 
is  still  a  favourite  with  some  of  the  Old  School. 

Lay  your  Pig  back  to  back  in  the  dish,  with  one  half 
of  the  head  on  each  side,  and  the  Ears,  one  at  each 
end,  which  you  must  take  care  to  make  nice  and  crisps 
or  you  will  get  scolded,  as  the  good  man  was,  who 
bought  his  wife  a  pig  with  only  one  ear. 

AVhen  you  cut  oft"  the  Pettitoes,  leave  the  skin  long 
round  the  ends  of  the  legs  When  you  first  lay  the 
Pig  before  the  fire,  rub  it  all  over  with  Fresh  Butter  or 
Salad  Oil,  ten  minutes  after,  and  the  skin  cooks  dry  — 
dredge  it  well  with  flour  all  over  —  let  it  remain  on  an 
hour  —  then  rub  it  off  with  a  soft  cloth. 

•  Some  dellcatety  sensitive  r.dates  dtsire  the  Cook  to  farboil  the  Sage 
;>n(l  Onions,  (before  tliey  are  cut,)  to  soften  and  take  off  tlie  rawness  of  their 
t1:tvonr  ;  the  older  and  drier  the  Onion,  the  stronger  wiU  be  its  flavour;  and 
ilie  learned  Etylvn  orders  these  to  be  edulcorated,  \>y  nenlic  niaccraiiou. 

t  All  ancient  culinary  Sa^e  says  -  "  When  you  see  a  Pig's  l^yes  drop  out — 
you  may  be  satisfied — he  has  had  enough  of  the  lire!"  J  his  i«  no  cri- 
terion that  the  body  of  the  Pig  is  done  enough  —  but  arises  merely  from 
the  briskness  of  the  Fire  before  the  head  of  it. 


ROASTING.  177 

X.B.  A  Pig  is  a  very  troublesome  subject  to  Roast, 
—  most  persons  have  them  Baked  ;  send  a  quarter  of 
a  pound  of  butter,  and  beg  the  baker  to  baste  it  well. 

Turkey,  Turkey  Poults,  and  other  Poultry, 
(No.  57.) 

A  Fowl,  and  a  Turkey,  require  the  same  manage- 
ment at  the  fire,  only  the  latter  will  take  longer  time. 

Many  a  Christmas  dinner  has  been  spoiled,  by  the 
Tiirkey  having  been  hung  up  in  a  cold  larder,  be- 
coniing  thoroughly  frozen  ;  — Jack  Frost  has  ruined  the 
reputation  of  many  a  Turkey  Roaster :  —  therefore,  in 
itTj/  cold  JVeather,  remember  the  Note  in  the  5Lh  page 
of  ti^ie  2d  chapter  of  the  PcUdimexts  of  Cookery. 

Let  them  be  carefully  picked,  &c.  and  break  the 
breastbone  (to  make  them  look  plump),  twist  up  a 
sheet  of  clean  writing-  paper,  light  it,  and  thoroughly 
singe  the  Turkey  all  over,  turning  it  about  over  the 
flange. 

Turkeys,  Fowls,  and  Capons,  have  a  much  better 
appearance,  if,  instead  of  trussing  them  with  the  Legs 
close  together,  and  the  feet  cut  off,  the  Legs  are 
extended  on  each  side  of  the  bird,  and  the  toes  only 
cut  off,  with  a  skewer  through  each  foot,  to  keep  them 
at  a  proper  distance. 

Be  careful,  when  you  draw  it,  to  preserve  the  Liver, 
and  not  to  break  the  Gall-bag,  —  as  no  washing  will 
take  off  the  bitter  taste  it  gives,  where  it  once  touches. 

Prepare  a  nice  clear  brisk  fire  for  it. 

Make  Stuffixg  according  to  (No.  374,  or  376),  — ■ 
stuff  it  under  the  breast,  vrhere  the  craw  was  taken 
out,  and  make  some  into  Balls  —  and  boil  or  fry  them, 
and  lay  them  round  the  dish  ;  —  they  are  handy  to 
help,  and  you  can  then  reserve  some  of  the  inside 
stuffing  to  eat  with  the  cold  Turkey  —  or  to  enrich  a 
Hash,  (No.  533.) 

Score  the  Gizzard —  dip  it  into  the  Yolk  of  an  Ego; 
or  melted  butter —  and  sprinkle  it  with  salt  and  a  few 
I  5 


178 


tlOASTtNG. 


grains  of  Cayenne  —  put  it  under  one  Pinion,  and  the 
Liver  under  the  other,  —  cover  the  Liver  with  buttered 
Paper,  to  prevent  it  from  getting;  liardened  or  burnt. 

Wlicn  you  first  put  a  Turkey  down  to  roast,  dredge 
it  with  Flour,  then  put  about  an  ounce  of  Butter 
into  a  basting  ladle,  and  as  it  melts  baste  the  bird 
there  wi  til. 

Keep  it  at  a  distance  from  the  fire  for  the  first  half 
hour,  tliat  it  may  warm  gradually,  then  put  it  nearer, 
and  when  it  is  plumped  up,  and  the  steam  draws  in 
towanl  the  fire,  it  is  nearly  enough,  then  dredge  it 
lightly  with  flour,  and  put  a  bit  of  butter  into  your 
bastini:^  ladle,  and  as  it  melts,  baste  the  turkey  with  it; 
this  will  raise  a  A/ur  Fruf/i  than  can  be  produced  by 
using  the  fat  out  of  the  pan. 

.7  itTj/  lar^e  Turkey,  will  require  about  three  hours, 
to  roast  it  thoroughly;  a  middling  sized  one,  of  eight 
or  ten  pounds  (which  is  far  nicer  eating  than  the  very 
large  one),  about  two  hours  ;  a  Small  one  may  be  done 
in  an  hour  and  a  half.  Tirkey  Poults  are  of  variotis 
sizes,  and  will  take  about  an  hour  and  a  half — they 
should  be  trussed  with  their  legs  twisted  tinder  like  a 
Duck,  and  the  head  under  the  wing  like  a  Pheasant. 

Fried  Pouk  Sausages  (Xo.  87)  are  a  very  savoury, 
and  favourite  accompaniment  to  either  roasted,  or 
boiled  Poultry.  A  Turkey,  thus  garnished,  is  called 
•*  an  Alderman  in  Chains." 

Sausage  meat  is  sometimes  used  as  stuffing,  instead 
of  the  ordinary  Forcemeat  (No.  376),  &c. 

Mem.  If  you  uish  a  Turkey,  especially  a  very  large 
one,  to  be  tender,  never  dress  it  till  at  least  four  or  five 
days  (in  cold  weather,  eight  or  ten)  after  it  has  been 
killed.  *'  No  man  who  understands  good  living,  will 
say  on  such  a  day  I  will  eat  that  Turkey— but  will 
hang  it  up  by  four  of  the  large  tail  feathers,  and  when, 
on  paying  his  morning  visit  to  the  Larder,  he  finds  it 
lying  upon  a  cloth,  prepared  to  receive  it  when  it  falls, 
that  day  let  it  be  cooked." 


ROASTING.  179 

Hen  Turkeys,  are  preferable  to  Cocks  for  whiteness 
and  tenderness,  and  the  small  fleshy  ones  with  black 
legs,  are  most  esteemed. 

Send  up  with  them,  Oyster  (No.  278),  Egg  (No. 
267;,  Bread  (No.  221),  and  plenty  of  Gravy  Sauce, 
(No.  329.)     To  HASH  Turkey,  (No.  533.) 

Mem.  Some  Epicures  are  very  fond  of  the  Gizzard 
and  Rump  peppered  and  salted,  and  broiled  —  see 
(No.  538),  "  how  to  dress  a  Devil  with  veritable  Sauce 
d'Enferir 

Capons  or  Fowls  — (No.  58.) 

Must  be  killed  a  couple  of  days  in  moderate,  and 
more  in  cold  weather,  before  they  are  dressed,  or  they 
will  eat  tough  :  —  a  good  criterion  of  the  ripeness  of 
Poultry  for  the  spit,  is  the  ease  with  v/hich  you  can 
then  pull  out  the  feathers — and  when  a  Fowl  is  plucked, 
leave  a  few  to  help  you  to  ascertain  this. 

They  are  managed  exactly  in  the  same  manner,  and 
sent  up  with  the  same  sauces  as  a  Turkey,  only  they 
require  proportionably  less  time  at  the  fire : — • 

A  FULL-GROWN  FivE-TOED  FowL,  about  an  hour 
and  a  quarter  ; 

A  MODERATE  SIZED  onc,  an  hour;  —  and 

A  Chicken  from  thirty  to  forty  minutes. 

Here  also.  Pork  Sausages  fried  (No.  87),  are  in  general 
a  favourite  accompaniment,  or  Turkey  Stuffing;  see 
Forcemeats,  (Nos.  374,  5,  6,  and  7) ;  put  in  plenty  of 
it,  so  as  to  plump  out  the  fowl,  which  must  be  tied 
closely  (both  at  the  neck  and  rump),  to  keep  in  the 
stuffing. 

Some  cooks  put  the  Liver  of  the  Fowl  into  this  force- 
meat, and  others  rub  it  up  with  flour  and  butter,  to 
thicken,  and  give  flavour  to  the  Gravy;  see  (No.  287.) 

When  the  Bird  is  stufFed  and  trussed,  score  the 
Gizzard  nicely  — dip  it  into  melted  butter, —  let  it  drain, 
and  then  season  it  with  Cayenne  and  Salt  —  put  it 
under  one  pinion,  and  the  Liver  under  the  other — to 


180  ROASTING. 

prevent  it  getting  hcirdcncd  or  scorched,  cover  it  with 
double  paper  buttered. 

Take  care  that  your  R'lastrd  poultry  be  well  brouncd  ; 
it  is  as  indispensable,  that  roasCcd  \to\\\i\'s  should  have 
a  rich  Bro:r/i  complexion,  as  hoilc</  poultry  should  have 
a  delicate  Jf'/iitc  one. 

Ol)s.  "  77r  Jrf  of  ftttlcning  PouUn/  for  the  London 
Market,  is  a  considerable  branch  of  rural  Economy  in 
some  convenient  situatio!is  —  and  consists  in  supplying- 
them  with  plenty  of  healthy  food,  and  confining  them — 
and  Ducks  and  Geese  must  be  prevented  from  going 
into  water,  which  prevents  them  from  becoming  fat  — 
and  they  aUo  thereby  acquire  a  rancid  fishy  taste.-  - 
They  are  put  into  a  dark  place,  and  erammcd  with  a 
paste  made  of  Barley  Meal,  mutton  suet,  and  some 
treacle  or  coarse  Sugar  mixed  with  milk,  and  are  found 
to  be  completely  ripe  in  a  fortnight.  If  kept  longer, 
the  fever  that  is  induced  by  this  continued  state  of 
repletion,  renders  them  red  and  unsaleable,  and  ivG- 
(jucntlv  kills  them."— But  Exercise  is  as  indispensable 
to  health  of  Poultry  —  as  other  creatures,  —  without 
it,  the  Fat  will  be  all  accumulated  in  the  cellular  mem- 
brane, instead  of  being  dispersed  through  its  system. — 
Sec  MoiBRAY,  on  Breeding  and  Fattening  Douicstie 
Pou/fri/,  I'2mo.  1819. 

Fowls  which  are  fattened  artificially,  are  by  some 
Epicures  preferred  to  those  called  Barn  Door  Fowls — 
whom  we  have  heard  say,  that  they  should  as  soon  think 
of  ordering  a  Barn-Door  Jor  Dinner  —  as  a  Barn-Door 
Fowl. 

'1  he  AgQ  of  Poultry,  makes  all  the  difference:  — 
nothing  is  tenderer  than  a  young  Chicken,  —  few  things 
are  tougher  than  an  old  Cock  or  Hen,  which  is  only  fit 
to  make  Broth.  The  meridian  of  perfection  of  I'oultry, 
is  just  before  they  have  come  to  their  full  growth  — 
before  they  have  begun  to  harden. 

For  Sauces  (No.  305),  or  Liver  and  Parsley,  (No. 
287),  and  those  ordered  in  the  last  receipt.  To  hash 
it,  (No.  533.) 


ROASTING 


181 


Goose.  —  (No.  .59.) 

When  a  Goose  is  well  picked,  singed,  and  cleaned, 
make  the  Stuffing  with  about  two  ounces  of  Onion*, 
^nd  half  as  much  Green  Sage,  chop  them  very  fine, 
adding  four  ounces,  i.  e.  about  a  large  breakfast-cup- 
ful of  stale  Bread  crimibs,  and  a  very  little  Pepper 
and  Salt,  (to  this  some  Cooks  add  half  the  Liverf, 
parboiling  it  first,)  the  yolk  of  an  e^g  or  two,  and 
incorporating  the  whole  well  together,  stuff  the  Goose  ; 
do  not  quite  fill  it,  but  leave  a  little  room  for  the 
stuffing  to  swell.  Spit  it,  tie  it  on  the  spit  «t  both 
ends,  to  prevent  its  swinging  round,  and  to  keep  the 
stuffing  from  coming  out.  From  an  hour  and  a  half 
to    two    hours    will     roast    a    fine    full-L;rown    Goose. 


•  If  you  think  the  flavour  of  raw  Onions  too  strong,  cut  tliem  in  slices,  and 
lay  tliem  in  cold  water  tor  a  couple  of  hours,  or  add  as  much  Apple  or  Potatoe 
as  you  l?ave  of  onion. 

t  Although  the  whole  i>  rather  too  luscious  for  the  lingual  nerves  of  the 
good  folks  of  Great  Britain,  the  Liveis  of  Poultry  are  considered  a  very 
high  relish  by  our  Continental  neighbours;  and  the  following  directions  how- 
to  procure  them  in  perfection,  we  copy  from  the  Recipe  of  "  tin  Fieil 
Amateur  dc  Bonne  Che  re. 

"  The  Liver  of  a  Duck,  or  a  Goose,  who  has  submitted  to  the  rules  and 
orders  that  men  of  taste  have  invented  for  the  amusement  of  his  sebaceous 
glands,  is  a  superlative  exqiusite  to  the  palate  of  a  Parisian  Epicure  —  but, 
alas  !  the  poor  goose,  to  produce  this  darling  dainty,  must  endure  sad  torments, 
lie  must  be  crammed  with  meat,  deprived  of  drink,  and  kept  constantly 
before  a  hot  fire  —  a  miserable  itiartyrdom  indeed — and  would  be  truly 
intolerable,  if  his  reflexions,  on  the  consequences  of  his  sufferings,  did  not 
afford  him  some  consolation  —  but  the  gloriors  prospect  of  the  delightful 
growth  of  his  liver,  givis  him  courage  and  support;  and  when  he  thinks, how 
speedily  it  will  become  almost  as  big  as  his  Body — how  high  it  will  rank  on 
the  list  of  double  relishes — and  with  what  ecstacies  it  will  be  eaten  hy  the 
fanciers  "  aes  Foies  gras,"  he  submits  to  his  destiny  without  a  sigh.  —  Ihe 
famous  Strasbourg  Fyes  are  made  with  Livers  thus  prepared,  and  sell  for 
an  enormous  price." 

However  incredible  this  ordonnance  for  the  obesitation  of  a  Goose's  Liver 
may  appear  at  first  sight — will  it  not  seem  equally  so  to  after  ages,  that  in 
this  enlightened  counuy,  in  1821,  we  encouraged  a  Folly  as  much  greater — 
as  its  operation  was  more  universal  ? — Will  it  be  believed,  that  it  was  then 
considered  the  ccwie  of  perfection  in  Beef  and  Mutton,  that  it  should  be  so 
«>t/cr-fattened,  that  a  poor  man,  to  obtain  one  pound  of  Meat  that  he  could 
eat,  —  must  purchase  another  which  he  could  not,  unless  converted  into  a 
Suet  Pudding  — moreover,  that  the  highest  Premiums  were  annually  awarded 
to  those  who  produced  Sheep  and  Oxen  in  the  most  extreme  state  of 
morbid  Obeiity ! ! ! 

" expensive  plans 

For  deluging  of  Dripping  pans." 


182  ROASTING. 

Send  up  Graw,  and  Apple  sauce  with  it,  see 
(No3.  300,  304,  329,  and  341.)  To  hash  it,  see 
(No.  530.) 

For  another  Stuffing;  for  Geese,  see  (No.  378.) 

Ohs.  "  Croosc-ferdin(r\n  the  vicinity  of  the  metropolis 
is  so  larp;c  a  concern,  that  one  person  annually  feeds 
for  market  upwards  of  oOOO."  "  A  Goose  on  a  farm 
in  Scotland  two  years  since,  of  the  clearly  ascertained 
ap:c  of  S<)  years,  healthy  and  vigorous,  was  killed  by  a 
Sow  while  siitino;  over  her  Kj^s^s  ;  it  was  supposed  she 
might  have  lived  many  years,  and  her  fecundity  ap- 
peared to  be  permanent.  Other  Geese  have  been 
proved  to  rtach  the  age  of  70  years."  —  MoiniiAY  on 
Poultry,  p.  40. 

It  appears  in  Dr.  Stark's  Experiments  on  Diet, 
p.  110,  that  "when  he  fed  upon  Roasted  Goosii — 
he  was  more  vi<5orous  both  in  Body  and  Mind,  than 
with  any  other  diet." 

The  Goose  at  Michatlnms,  is  as  famous,  in  the  mouths 
of  the  million,  as  the  Minced  Pie  ^i  Christmas  ;  but, 
for  those  who  eat  with  delicacy,  it  is  by  that  time  too 
full  n^rown.  The  true  ])eriod,  when  the  Goose  is  in  its 
hio^hr^t  j)orfcction,  is  when  it  has  just  acquired  its  full 
growth,  and  not  begun  to  harden.  If  the  Midsummer 
goose  is  insipid,  the  Michaelmas  goose  is  rank;  the 
fine  time,  is  between  both  ;  from  the  first  week  in 
Julv,  to  the  second  in  September.  See  Mock  Goose, 
(No.  51.) 

Green  Goose.  —  (No.  60.) 

Geese  are  called  Green,  till  they  are  about  four 
months  old. 

The  only  difference  between  roasting  these,  and  a 
full  grown  Goose,  consists  in  seasoning  it  with  pepper 
and  salt  instead  of  sage  and  onion,  and  roasting  it  for 
forty  or  fifty  minutes  only. 

Obs.  This  is  one  of  the  least  desirable  of  those 
insipid  premature  productions  —  which  are  esteemed 
dainties. 


ROASTING.  183 

Duck.-— {No.  61.) 

Mind  your  duck  is  well  cleaned,  and  wiped  out  with 
a  clean  cloth ;  for  the  Stuffing  take  an  ounce  of 
Onion,  and  half  an  ounce  of  green  Sage,  chop  them 
very  fine,  and  mix  them  with  two  ounces,  i.  e.  about  a 
breakfast- cupful  of  Bread  crumbs,  a  very  little  black 
pepper  and  salt,  (some  obtuse  palates  will  require 
warming  with  a  little  Cayenne,  No.  404),  and  the  yolk 
of  an  ego:  to  bind  it;  mix  these  thoroughly  together, 
and  put  into  the  Duck.  For  another  Stuffing,  see 
(No.  378.)  From  half  to  three  quarters  of  an  hour, 
will  be  enough  to  roast  it,  according  to  the  size  :  con- 
trive to  have  the  Feet  delicately  crisp,  as  some  people  are 
very  fond  of  them:  —  to  do  this  nicely,  you  must  have 
a  sharp  fire.  For  Sauce,  Green  Pease  (No.  134), 
Bonne  Boucht  (No.  341),  Gravy  Sauce  (No.  329),  and 
Sage  and  Onion  Sauce  (No.  300.) 

To  Hash  or  Stew  Ducks,  see  (No.  530.) 

N.  B.  If  you  think  the  raw  Onion  will  make  too 
strong  an  impression  upon  your  Palate,  parboil  it. — 
Read  Obs.  to  (No.  59.) 

When  Ducks  begin  to  grow  old,  to  ensure  their 
being  tender  —  in  moderate  weather,  kill  them  a  few 
days  —  before  you  dress  them. 

(No.  6-2.) 

For  the  following  observations,  I  am  indebted  to 
Major  Hawker's  entertaining  and  informing  work, 
"  Instructions  for  Young  .S'/7or^>swe/t,"  London,  1816. 

*'  Old  Pheasants  may  be  distinguished  by  the  length 
and  sharpness  of  their  spurs,  which  in  the  younger  ones 
are  short  and  blunt. 

"  Old  Partridges  are  known  during  the  early  part  of 
the  season,  by  their  legs  being  of  a  pale  blue,  instead 
of  a  yellowish  brown  :  so  that  when  a  Londoner  re- 
ceives his  brace  of  blue-legged  birds  in  September,  he 
should  immediately  snap  their  legs  and  draw  out  the 
sinews,  by  means  of  pulling  off  the  feet,  instead  of 


184  ROASTING. 

leaving:  them  to  torment  him,  like  so  many  strings, 
when  he  would  be  wishing  to  enjoy  his  repast.  This 
remedy  to  make  the  legs  tender,  removes  the  objection 
to  old  birds,  provided  the  weather  will  admit  of  tlieir 
being  sufficiently  kept;  and  indeed  they  are  tlien  often 
preferable,  from  havins^  a  higher  flavour. 

"  If  Birds  are  oicr-krpf,  their  legs  will  be  dry,  their 
eyes  much  sunk,  and  the  vent  will  become  soft,  and 
somewhat  discoloured.  The  first  place  to  ascertain  if 
they  are  beginning  to  be  high,  is  the  inside  of  their 
bills,  where  it  is  not  amiss  to  put  some  hether  straw, 
or  spice,  if  you  want  to  keep  them  for  anv  length  of 
time.  Birds  that  have  falkn  into  the  water,  or  have 
not  had  time  to  get  cold,  sliould  not  be  packed  like 
others,  but  sent  openly,  and  dressed  as  soon  as 
possil)le." 

Sportsmen  are  often  heartily  ab\iscd  by  their  ac- 
quaintance, (1  cannot  yet  bring  myself  to  hackney  the 
word  friends  quite  so  fluently  a.^  I  ought  to  do;,  for 
sending  them  '  tough  and  good-for  nothing  game,' 
while  probably  the  blame  should,  in  many  instances, 
rest  with  themselves,  or  their  })udding-headeu  cook, 
who,  may  be,  dresses  an  old  pheasant  or  hare  the  verv 
day  after  it  was  killed!  or  perhaps,  while  engrossed 
in  a  story  or  argument,  leaves  it  to  roast  away,  till 
there  remains  neither  juice  nor  ftuvour.  /ill  game 
should  be  kept  till  properly  tender.  The  following  sauce 
for  v.'ild  fowl  has  l^een  preferred  to  about  fifty  others  ; 
and,  at  one  time,  was  not  to  be  o-ct  v.ithout  tlie  fee  of 


a  guinea:  — 


Recipe  Jur  Sauce  tu  Jlild  t\ 


Oli'ld. 


Fori  \\  irie,  or  Claret 1   glass. 

Sauce  a  la  Russe*,  (the  older  the  belter) 1   t;tblespcoiifui. 

C'-aisop 1  ditto. 

Leuiiai  Jnice 1  ditto. 

J.emonlecl    1  ^lice. 

!:halot,  (a  large) 1  .sliced. 

Cayenne  Teiiper,  (xhe  darkest j,  i;ot  thai  like  }      „_.;„. 

brick  dust 5      ^ 

:viace 1  or  2  blade?. 

•  Sold  by  Avelinj:  and  Hi!',  corner  of  Albemarle  Street,  liccadilly, — and 
a  very  good  sauce  it  is. 


ROASTING.  185 

To  be  scalded,  strained,  and  added  to  the  mere 
gravy  which  comes  from  the  bird  in  roasting.  To  com- 
plete this,  the  fowl  should  be  cut  up  in  a  silver  dish 
vv'hich  has  a  lamp  under  it,  v/hile  the  sauce  is  simmer- 
ing with  it. 

Haunch  of  Venison.  — (J<>o.  63.) 

To  preserve  the  Fat,  make  a  paste  of  flour  and 
water,  as  much  as. will  cover  the  haunch,  wipe  it  vv^ith  a 
dry  cloth  in  every  part,  rub  a  large  sheet  of  paper  all 
over  with  butter,  and  cover  the  Venison  vvith  it,  then 
roll  out  the  paste  about  three  quarters  of  an  inch  thick, 
lay  this  all  over  the  fat  side,  and  cover  it  well,  with 
three  or  four  sheets  of  strong  white  paper,  and  tie  it 
securely  on  with  packthread  ;  have  a  strong  close  fire, 
and  baste  your  venison  as  soon  as  you  lay  it  down  to 
roast,  (to  prevent  the  paper  and  string  from  burning) ; 
it  must  be  well  basted  all  the  time. 

A  Buck  Haunch  generally  weighs  from  20  to  25 
pounds,  v;ill  take  about  four  hours  and  a  half  roasting, 
in  warm,  and  longer  in  CoW  weather, — a  Haunch  of  from 
12  to  18  pounds  v/ill  be  done  in  about  three  or  three 
and  a  half.  A  quarter  of  an  hour  before  it  is  done, 
the  string  must  be  cut,  and  the  paste  carefully  taken 
off;  now  baste  it  with  butter,  dredge  it  lightly  with 
flour,  and  when  the  froth  rises,  and  it  has  got  a  fine 
light  brown  colour,  garnish  the  knuckle-bone,  with  a 
ruflfle  of  cut  writing  paper,  and  send  it  up,  with  good 
stroDg(but  unseasoned)  Gravy  (No.  347),  in  one  boat,  and 
Currant-Jelly  Sauce  in  the  other,  or  Currant-Jelly  in  a 
side  plate  (not  melted) :  see,  for  Sauces,  (Nos.  344, 
o,  6,  and  7.)  Mem.  "  The  Alderman's  Walk"  is  the 
I  favourite  part. 

1      Obs.  Buck  Venison  is  in    greatest  perfection   from 
:  Midsummer  to  Michaelmas;  and  Doe,  from  November 
to  January. 

Keck  and  Shoulder  of  Venison — (No.  64.) 
Are  to  be  managed  in  the  same  way  as  the  haunch; 


•186  ROASTING. 

only  they  do  not  require  the  coat  or  paste,  and  will  not 
require  so  much  time. 

The  best  way  to  spit  a  neck,  is  to  put  three  skewers 
through,  and  put  the  spit  between  the  skewers  and  the 
bones. 

A  jPaiyn,— (No.  0)5) 

Like  a  sucking;  Pig,  should  be  dressed,  almost  as 
soon  as  killed.  When  very  young,  is  trussed,  stuffed, 
and  spitted  the  same  way  as  a  Hare.  But  they  are 
better  eating  when  of  the  size  of  a  House  Lamb  ;  and 
are  then  roasted  in  quarters ;  the  hind  quarter  is  most 
esteemed. 

They  must  be  put  down  to  a  very  quick  fire,  and 
either  basted  all  the  time  they  are  roasting,  or  be 
covered  with  sheets  of  fat  bacon :  when  done,  baste  it 
with  butter,  and  dredge  it  with  a  little  salt  and  flour, 
till  you  make  a  nice  froth  on  it. 

N.  B.  We  advise  our  friends  to  half  roast  a  Fawn  as 
soon  as  they  receive  it  —  and  then  make  a  Hash  of  it 
like  (No.  528.) 

Send  up  Venison  sauce  with  it.  See  the  preceding 
Receipt,  or  (No.  344),  &c. 

A  Ki,l.~(So.  65  \) 

A  young  sucking  Kid  is  very  good  eating;  to  have  it 
in  prime  condition,  the  Dam  should  be  kept  up,  and 
well  fed,  &c. 

Roast  it  like  a  Fawn  or  Hare. 

//are.  — (No.  66.) 

"  Inter  qiiadruiedes  gloria  prima  lepus." — MARTiiL. 

The  first  points  of  consideration  are.  How  old  is  the 
Hare?  and  how  long  has  it  been  killed?  When 
young,  it  is  easy  of  digestion,  and  very  nourishing;  — 
when  old,  the  contrary  in  every  respect. 

To  ascertain  the  age,  examine  the  first  joint  of 
the  fore  foot ;  you  will  find  a  small  knob,  if  it  is  a 


ROASTING.  187 

Leveret,  which  disappears  as  it  grows  older;  then 
examine  the  ears  ;  if  they  tear  easily,  it  will  eat  tender ; 
if  they  are  tough,  so  will  be  the  Hare,  which  we 
advise  you  to  make  into  Soup,  (No.  241),  or  stew  ;  or 
JUG  it,  see  (No.  523.) 

When  newly  killed,  the  body  is  stiff;  as  it  grows 
stale,  it  becomes  limp. 

As  soon  as  you  receive^a  Hare,  take  out  the  Liver, 
parboil  it,  and  keep  it  for  the  stuffing;  some  are  very 
fond  of  it :  —  do  not  use  it,  if  it  be  not  quite  fresh  and 
good.  Some  mince  it,  and  send  it  up  as  a  garnish  in 
little  hillocks  round  the  dish.  Wipe  the  hare  quite 
dry,  rub  the  inside  with  pepper,  and  hang  it  up  in  a 
dry  cool  place. 

Paunch  and  skin*  your  Hare,  wash  it,  and  lay  it  in  a 
large  pan  of  cold  water  four  or  five  hours,  changing 
the  water  two  or  three  times;  lay  it  in  a  clean  cloth, 
and  dry  it  well ;  then  truss  it. 

To  make  the  Stuffing,  see  (No.  379):  do  not 
make  it  too  thin ;  it  should  be  of  cohesive  consistence; 
if  it  is  not  sufficiently  stiff,  it  is  good  for  nothing:  put 
this  into  the  belly,  sew  it  up  tight,  cut  the  neck  skin  to 
let  the  blood  out,  or  it  will  never  appear  to  be  done 
enough,  spit  it,  and  baste  it  with  drippings t,  (or  the 
juices  of  the  Back  will  be  dried  up  before  the  upper 
joints  of  the  Legs  are  half  done,)  till  you  think  it 
is  nearly  done,  which  a  middling  sized  Hare  v»'ill  be  in 
about  an  hour  and  a  quarter.  When  it  is  almost 
roasted  enough,  put  a  little  bit  of  butter  into  your 
basting-ladle,  and  baste  it  with  this,  and  flour  it,  and 
froth  it  nicely. 

Serve  it  with  good  Gravy,  (No.  329),  or  (No.  347), 

*  This,  in  cuiiiiaiy  lecliruc.ils,  is  called  casing  it— upon  the  sh  ue  principle 
— that  "  eatiiii;,  drinking,  and  sleeping,"  are  termed  rMn-naturulf. 

t  Mr«.  Ciiarlotte  Ma^on,  in  lier  "  Complete  Sy.'.tem  uf  Cookery,"  page 
2.53,  says  stic  has  "  tried  all  the  different  things  recommended  to  baste  a  hare 
'.vith,  and  never  fouiid  any  thin'^  so  good  as  small  beer  f'  others  order  milk; 
Dripping  we  believe  is  belter  than  any  thing. 

Instead  of  washing,  a  "  grand  Culsinier"  says,  it  is  much  b-tler  to  wipe 
the  Hare  v.  ith  a  thin  and  dry  cioih,  as  so  much  washing,  or  indeed  waihing 
at  all,  takes  away  the  flavour  so  much  admired  in  Hares. 


188  ROASTING. 

and  Currant-jelly.  For  another  Stufftxg,  see  re- 
ceipt (No.  379.)  Some  Cooks  cut  off  the  head  and 
divide  it,  and  lay  one  lialf  on  each  side  the  Hare. 

Cold  roast  Hare  will  make  excellent  Sorr,  (No.  241), 
chopped  to  pieces,  and  stewed  in  three  quarts  of  water 
for  a  cou})le  of  hours  :  the  Sti/ffing  will  be  a  very  agree- 
able substitute  for  Sweet  herbs  and  seasoning.  See 
receipt  for  Harf.  Soup  (No.  241),  Hashed  Hauf 
(No.  529),  and  Mock  Ha  he,  next  Receipt. 

Mock  7A;rr.  —  (No.  66\) 

Cut  out  the  Fillet  (?.  e.  the  inside  lean)  of  a  Sirloin  of 
Beef;  leaving:  the  Fat,  to  roast  with  the  joint.  Prepare 
some  nice  stuffing,  as  directed  for  a  hare,  in  (No.  66, 
or  379);  put  this  on  the  beef,  and  roll  it  up  with  tape, 
put  a  skewer  through  it,  and  tic  that  on  a  spit. 

Ohs.  —  If  the  Beef  is  of  prime  quality,  —  has  been 
ke^it  till  thoroughly  tender,— and  you  serve  with  it  the 
accompaniments  that  usually  attend  roast  hare,  (No. 
.329  —  344,  &c.)  the  most  fastidio\js  palate  will  have 
no  reason  to  regret  that  the  Game  Season  is  over.  To 
make  this  into  Hare  Soup,  see  (No.  241.) 

Rabbit.  — {"So.  67.) 

If  your  fire  is  clear  and  sharp,  thirty  minutes  will 
recast  a  young,  and  forty  a  full  grown  Rabbit. 

When  you  lay  it  down,  baste  it  with  butter,  and 
dredge  it  lightly  and  carefully  with  flour,  that  you  may 
have  it  frothy,  and  of  a  fine  light  brown.  While  the 
rabbit  is  roasting,  boil  its  Liver*  with  some  Parsley; 
when  tender,  chop  them  together,  and  put  half  the 
mixture  into  some  melted  butter,  reserving  the  other 
half  for  Garnish,  divided  into  little  hillocks.  Cut  ofi' 
the  head,  and  lay  half  on  each  side  of  the  dish. 

Obs.  — A  large,  well  grov/n,  (but  young)  warren- 
rabbit,  kept  some  time  after  it  has  been  killed,  and 

*   Liver  Sauce,  Ko.  287  and  C88. 


ROASTING.  189 

roasted  with  a  stuffing  in  its  belly,  eats  very  like  a 
Hare,  to  the  nature  of  which  it  approaches; — it  is 
nice  nourishing  food  when  young,  but  hard  and 
unwholesome  when  old.  For  Sauces,  (Nos.  298,  287, 
and  329.) 

Pheasant -(^0.  68.) 

Requires  a  smart  fire,  but  not  a  fierce  one.  Thirty 
minutes  will  roast  a  young  bird ;  and  forty  or  fifty  a 
full  grown  Pheasant.  Pick  and  draw  it,  cut  a  slit  in 
the  back  of  the  neck,  and  take  out  the  craw,  but  don't 
cut  the  head  off;  wipe  the  inside  of  the  bird  with  a 
clean  cloth,  twist  the  legs  close  to  the  body,  leave  the 
feet  on,  but  cut  the  toes  off,  don't  turn  the  head  under 
the  wing,  but  truss  it  like  a  fowl, —  it  is  much  easier  to 
carve :  baste  it,  butter  and  froth  it,  and  prepare  sauc^e 
for  it,  (Nos.  321  and  329):  see  the  instructions  in  re- 
ceipts to  roast  fowls  and  turkeys,  (No.  57  and  58.) 

Obs.  —  y/e  believe  that  the  rarity  of  this  bird  is  its 
best  recommendation ;  and  the  character  given  it  by  an 
ingenious  French  author,  is  just  as  good  as  it  deserves. 
*'  Its  flesh  is  naturally  tough,  and  owes  all  its  tender- 
ness and  succulence  to  the  long  time  it  is  kept,  before 
it  is  cooked ;"  until  it  is  "  bien  mortijUe,"  it  is  uneatable*. 
Therefore,  instead  of'-  sus  per  col,"  suspend  it  by  one  of 
the  long  tail-feathers,  and  the  Pheasant's  falling  from 
it,  is  the  criterion  of  its  ripeness  and  readiness  for  the 
spit. 

Our  President  of  the  Committee  of  Taste,  (who  is 
indefatigable  in  his  endeavours  to  improve  the  Health, 


•  "  They  are  oiily  fit  to  be  eaten  wUeu  the  Blood  runs  from  the  Bill,  which  is 
commonly  about  6  or  7  days  after  they  have  been  killed  ;  otherwise,  it  will  have 
no  more  savour  '.han  a  common  fowl.'' — Udt  Cookery,  8vo.  I8I9,  page  2l6. 

"  Gastronomers,  who  have  any  sort  of  aversion  to  a  peculiar  taste  in  GanM; 
properly  kept,  had  better  abstain  from  this  bird,— since  it  is  worse  than  a 
common  fowl,  if  not  waited  f.  r  till  it  acquires  \hG  fumet  it  ought  to  have. 
Whole  republics  of  Matrgois  have  often  been  found  rioting  under  the  wings  of 
Pheasarits;  but  being  r«(/ica^/i/ dispersed,  and  the  birds  properly  washed  with 
Vinegar,  every  tbiiig  went  right,  and  every  guest,  unconscious  of  the  culinary 
ablutions,  enjoyed  the  excellent  llaviur  of  the  Phasian  birds." 

Tabella  Cibaria,  p.  55. 


190  ROASTING. 

as  well  as  promote  the  Enjoyment  of  his  fellow  Students 
in  the  School  of  Good  Livinpr,  and  to  whom  the  Epicure, 
the  Economist,  and  the  Valetudinarian,  are  equally  in- 
debted for  his  careful  revision  of  this  work,  and  espe- 
cially for  iritroducing  that  salutary  maxim  into  the 
Kitchen, —  that  "  the  Salubrious  is  ever  a  superior 
consideration  to  the  Savoury,"  and  indeed,  that  the 
Rafiova!  Epicure  only  relishes  the  latter,  when  entirely 
subordinate  to  the  former,)  has  sug:gested  to  us,  that 
the  detachment  of  the  Feather  cannot  take  place  until 
the  body  of  the  Bird  has  advanced  more  than  one 
degree  beyond  the  state  of  wholesome  /laut-gout,  and 
become  "  frop  mortijit'e ;"  and  that  to  enjoy  this  Game 
in  perfection,  you  must  have  a  brace  of  birds  killed  the 
same  day;  these  are  to  be  put  in  suspense,  as  above 
directed, —  and  when  one  of  them  dropsj —  the  hour  is 
come  that  the  spit  should  be  introduced  to  his  com- 
panion :  — 

"  Ultra  citraque  ncqiiit  consistere  rectum.'* 

N.B.  Sportsmen  will  find  the  following  rule  of 
very  great  advantage  to  themselves  and  their  Cooks, 
—  to  order  their  gamekeepers  (and  observe  the  same 
themselves)  to  cut  off  a  Claw  of  each  Bird  they  kill, 


denoting  the  day  of  the  week,  thus 


and  the  Cook  should  be  particular  in  keeping  each 
week's  killing  separate.  The  claws  should  not  be  cut 
off  when  the  Bird  is  dressed  for  Table,  as  they  serve  to 
show  the  Company  when  it  was  killed,  and  consequently 
how  long  it  has  been  kept. 

Mock  Fheamnt.  —  (No.  69.) 
If  you  have  only  one  pheasant,  and  wish  for  a  com- 


ROASTING.  191 

panion  for  it,  get  a  fine  young  fowl,  of  as  near  as  may 
be  the  sanie  size  as  the  bird  to  be  matched,  and  make 
game  of  it  by  trussing  it  like  the  pheasant,  and  dressing 
it  according  to  the  above  directions.  Few  persons 
will  discover  the  pheasant  from  the  fowl,  especially  if 
the  latter  has  been  kept  four  or  five  days. 

The  peculiar  flavour  of  the  Pheasant  (like  that  of 
other  game)  is  principally  acquired  by  long  keeping. 

Guinea  and  Pea  Fowls  — (No.  69*.) 
Are  dressed  in  the  same  way  as  Pheasants. 

Partridges  — (No.  70.) 

Are  cleaned  and  trussed  in  the  same  manner  as  a 
pheasant,  (but  the  ridiculous  custom  of  tucking  the  legs 
into  each  other,  makes  them  very  troublesome  to  carve); 
the  breast  is  so  plump,  it  will  require  almost  as  much 
roasting:  send  up  with  them  rice  sauce  (No.  321*),  or 
bread  sauce  (No.  321),  and  good  gravy  (No.  329.) 

***  ^f  y^^  "^^^^  ^0  preserve  them  longer  than  you  think 
they  will  keep  good  undressed,  half  roast  them,  they  will 
keep  two  or  three  days  longer,  or  7nake  a  Pie  of  them. 

Black  Cock  (No.  71),  Moor  Game  (No.  72),  and  Grouse, 
(No.  73,) 

Are  all  to  be  dressed  like  partridges;  the  Black 
Cock  will  take  as  much  time  as  a  pheasant,  and  Moor 
game  and  Grouse,  as  the  partridge.  Send  up  with 
them  Currant-jelly  and  fried  Bread  crumbs  (No.  320.) 

mid  Ducks.  —  (No.  74.) 
For  roasting  a  Wild  Duck,  you  must  have  a  clear 
brisk  fire,  and  a  hot  spit ;  it  must  be  browned  upon  the 
outside,  without  being  sodden  within.  To  have  it  well 
frothed,  and  full  of  gravy,  is  the  nicety.  Prepare  the 
fire,  by  stirring  and  raking  it  just  before  the  bird  is  laid 
down,  and  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes  will  do  it  in  the 
fashionable  way ;  but  if  you  like  it  a  little  more  done, 


192  .  ROASTING. 

allow  it  a  few  minutes  longer:  if  it  is  too  much,  it  will 
lose  its  flavour. 

For  the  sauce,  see  (No.  338)  and  (No.  62.) 

Widgeons  and  Teal  —  (No.  75.) 

Are  dressed  exactly  as  the  wild  duck  ;  only  that  less 
time  is  requisite  for  a  Widgeon,  and  still  less  for  a  Teal. 

Woodcock.  —  (No.  76.) 

Woodcocks  should  not  be  drawn,  as  the  trail  is  by  the 
Lovers  of"  huut-gout"  considered  a  "  Bonuc  Bouc/ie ;" 
truss  their  legs  close  to  the  Body,  and  run  an  Iron  skewer 
through  each  thigh  close  to  the  Body,  and  tie  them 
on  a  small  bird  spit,  put  them  to  roast  at  a  clear  fire; 
cut  as  many  slicis  of  bread  as  you  have  birds,  toast  or 
fry  them  a  delicate  brown,  and  lay  them  in  the  dripping 
pan  under  the  birds,  to  catch  the  Trail*;  baste  them 
with  butter,  and  froth  them  with  flour;  lay  the  toast 
on  a  hot  dish,  and  the  birds  on  the  toast;  pour  some 
good  beef  gravy  into  the  dish,  and  send  some  up  in  a 
boat,  see  Obs.  to  (\o.  5"29) :  twenty  or  thirty  minutes 
will  roast  them.     Garnish  with  slices  of  lemon. 

Obs.  —  Some  Epicures  like  this  bird  very  much  under- 
done, and  direct,  that  —  a  W^oodcock  should  be  just 
introduced  to  the  Cook,  for  her  to  show  it  the  Fire, 
and  then  send  it  up  to  Tabic. 

Snipes  ~(^o.  11.) 
Differ  little  from  Woodcocks,  unless  in  size ;   they 


•  "  Ibis  bird  has  soinsinaated  itself  into  the  favour  of  refined  gourma  fids, 
that  I  hey  pay  it  the  same  iionoius  as  the  grand  Lama,  making  a  Ragout  of  its 
ILxcremeiits,  and  dcv.'urint;  tliem  ^\ilh  ecstacy." — Ude  Almanach  dts 
Gourmands,  vol.  i.  page  ^. 

'Ihat  Exercise  prcdiiccs  strength  and  firmnefs  of  fibre,  is  excellently  ^vtll 
exemplified  in  the  Woodcock  and  the  Partridge. — The  former  iHcs  most — 
the  latter  walks — the  wing  ot  the  Woodcock  is  always  very  tough, — of  the 
Partiiflge,  very  tender  ;  hence  the  old  doggrel  distich, — 

"  If  the  Partridge  had  but  the  IVoodcock's  thigh, 
"   He'd  be  the  best  Kird  that  e'er  doth  Ily." 

'l\\<  Breait  of  all  Birds  is  (he  most  jnicy  and  nutritious  part. 


ROASTING.  193 

are  to  be  dressed  in  the  same  way,  but  require  about 
five  minutes  less  time  to  roast  them. 
For  Sauce,  see  (No.  340.) 

Pigeons.  — (Ko.  78.) 

When  the  pigeons  are  ready  for  roasting,  if  you 
are  desired  to  stuff  them,  chop  some  green  parsley 
very  fine,  the  liver,  and  a  bit  of  butter  together, 
with  a  little  pepper  and  salt,  or  with  the  stuffing  or- 
dered for  a  fillet  of  veal  (No.  374),  or  (No.  375),  and 
fill  the  belly  of  each  bird  with  it.  They  will  be  enough 
in  about  twenty  or  thirty  minutes  :  send  up  Parsley  and 
butter  (No.  261),  in  the  dish  under  them,  and  some  in 
a  boat,  and  garnish  with  crisp  parsley,  (No.  318), 
or  Fried  Bread  Crumbs,  (No.  320),  or  Bread  Sauce, 
(No.  321),  or  Gravy,  (No.  329.) 

Obs.  —  When  Pigeons  are  fresh,  they  have  their  full 
relish ;  but  it  goes  entirely  off  with  a  very  little  keeping ; 
nor  is  it  any  way  so  v.'ell  preserved,  as  by  Roasting 
them,  —  when  they  are  put  into  a  Pie,  they  are  gene- 
rally baked  to  rags,  and  taste  more  of  pepper  and  salt 
than  any  thing  else. 

A  little  melted  butter  may  be  put  into  the  dish  with 
them,  and  the  gravy  that  runs  from  them  will  mix  v/ith 
it  into  fine  sauce.  Pigeons  are  in  the  greatest  perfection 
from  Midsummer  to  Michaelmas,  there  is  then  the  most 
plentiful  and  best  food  for  them;  and  their  finest 
growth,  is  just  when  they  are  full  feathered.  When 
they  are  in  the  pen-feathers,  they  are  flabby;  when 
they  are  full  grown,  and  have  flown  some  time,  they 
are  tough.  Game  and  Foultry  are  best  when  they  hare  just 
done  growing,  i.  e.  as  soon  as  Nature  has  perfected  her 
work. 

This  was  the  secret  ot  Solomon,  the  famous  Pigeon- 
feeder  of  Turnham  Green,  who  is  celebrated  by  the  poet 
Gay,  when  he  says, 

"  That  Turnham  Green,  which  dainty  pigeons  fed. 
But  feeds  no  more,  for  Solomon  is  dead." 


194  ROASTING. 

Larks,  and  other  small  Birds.  —  (No.  80.) 

These  delicate  little  birds  are  in  high  season  in 
Xuiemher.  When  they  are  picked,  gutted,  and  cleaned, 
truss  them  ;  brush  them  with  tlie  yolk  of  an  egg,  and 
then  roil  them  in  bread  crumbs  ;  spit  them  on  a  lark  spit, 
<\m\  tie  that  on  to  a  larger  spit,  ten  or  fifteen  minutes 
at  a  quick  fire  will  be  enough  ;  baste  them  with  fresh 
butter  while  they  are  roasting,  and  sprinkle  them  with 
bread  crumbs  till  they  are  well  covered  with  them. 

For  the  Sauce,  fry  some  grated  bread  in  clarified 
butter,  see  (No  '2.59),  and  set  it  to  drain  before  the 
fire,  that  it  may  harden  :  serve  the  crumbs  under  the 
l.arks  when  you  dish  them,  and  garnish  them  with 
slices  of  Lemon. 

Il'/icat  Ears  — {"So.  81.) 
Are  dressed  in  the  same  way  as  Larks. 

Lohitrr.  —  {^o.  82.) 

See  Ixeceipt  for  boiling,  (No.  176.) 
We  give  no  Receipt  for  roasting  Lobster,  Tongue,  <fe(\ 
being  of  oi)inion  with  Dr.  King,  who  says, 

"    P._\    floMbtihw,  ihiii  wlikli  I  iir  fiiitfiill  er8  Biiled, 
Ai'iJ  boiling  wlial  ility  luas-ied,  iiiucli  ifc  spi<ik'il." 


THE 

COOICS  ORACLE, 


FRYING. 

To  clarify  Drippings.  —  (No.  83.) 

Put  your  dripping  into  a  clean  saucepan  over  a  stove 
or  slow  fire  :  when  it  is  just  going  to  boil,  skim  it  well, 
let  it  boil,  and  then  let  it  stand  till  it  is  a  little  cooled, 
then  pour  it  through  a  sieve  into  a  pan. 
Obs.SN eWcXe^iXisedi  Drippings* J  and  the  fat  Skimmings^ 

*  Mrs.  Melroe,  in  her  Economical  Cookery,  page  7,  tells  \is,  she  has 
ascertained  from  actual  experiments,  that  "  the  Drippi?tgs  of  Roast  Meat, 
combined  with  Wheat,  Flour,  Oatmeal,  Barley,  Pease,  or  Potatoe  Starch, will 
make  delicious  Soup,  agreeable  and  savoury  to  the  Palate,  and  nutritive  and 
serviceable  to  the  Stomach,  and  that  while  a  joint  is  roasting,  good  Soup  may 
be  made  from  the  drippings  of  the  Fat,  which  is  the  Essence  of  Meat,  as 
»eed8  are  of  Vegetables,  and  impregnates  Soup  uith  the  identical  taste  of 
Meat." 

"  Writers  on  Cookery  give  strict  directions  to  carefully  skirn  off  the  Fat, 
and  in  the  next  sentence  order  Butter  (a  much  more  expensive  article)  to 
be  added,— instead  of  this,  when  any  Fat  appears  at  the  top  of  your  Soup 
or  Stew,  do  not  skim  it  oflf,  but  unite  it  with  the  broth  by  means  of  the 
vegetable  mucilages,  Flonr,  Oatmeal, Ground  Barley,  or  Potatoe-Starch  ;  when 
suspended,  the  Soup  is  equally  agreeable  to  the  palate,  and  nutritive  to  the 
Stomach,"  &c. 

"  Coolts  bestow  a  great  deal  of  pains  to  make  Gravies ;  they  stew  and  boij 
Jean  meat  for  hours,  and  after  all  their  Cookery  tastes  more  of  Pepper  and 
Salt  than  any  thing  else  : — If  they  would  add  the  bulk  of  a  chesnut  of  solid 
Fat  to  a  common  sized  sance-boatfnl  of  Gravy,  it  will  give  it  more  sapidity 
than  twenty  hours  stewing  lean  meat  would,  unless-  a  larger  quantity  was  used 
than  is  warranted  by  the  rules  of  frugality."    See  (%os.  205  and  229.) 

"  The  experiments  of  Dr.  Stark  on  the  noui  isliing  powers  of  ditterent  sub- 
stances, go  very  far  to  prove  that  three  ounces  of  the  Fat  of  Boiled  Beef  are 
equal  to  a  pound  of  the  Lean.  Dr.  Pages,  the  traveller,  confii  ms  this  opinion. 
*  Being  obliged,'  says  he,  *  during  the  journey  from  >.orth  to  South  America 
by  land,  to  live  solely  on  Animal  food,  I  expenenced  the  truth  of  what  is 
observed  by  Hunters,  who  live  solely  on  Animal  Food,  viz.  that  besides  their 
receiving  little  nourishment  from  the  leaner  parts  cf  it,  it  soon  becomes 
pffensive  to  the  Tas!e,  whereas  the  Fat  is  both  nuie  nutritive,  and  continues 
to  be  agreeable  to  the  Palate,  lo  many  Stomachs  Fat  is  unpleasant  and  indi- 
gestible, especially  when  converted  into  oil  by  heat:  this  may  be  easily 
prevented  by  the  simple  process  of  combining  the  Fat  completely  with  water, 
by  the  intervention  of  vegetable  mucilage,  as  in  melting  Bniter,  by  means  of 
flour,  the  Tutter  and  water  are  united  into  a  homogeneous  fluid.'" — From 
Practical  Econofny,  by  a  Physician.    Callow,  1801. 

t  See  ISote  at  foot  of  (No.  201.) 

K  2 


196  FRYING. 

of  tlie  Broth  pot,  ^vben  fresh  and  sweet,  will  baste  every 
thing:  as  well  as  Butter,  except  i^ame  and  poultry,  and 
should  supply  the  place  of  butter  for  common  fries,  &c. 
for  which  they  are  equal  to  lard,  especially  if  you  repeat 
the  clarifying  twice  over. 

N.  B.  If  you  keep  it  in  a  cool  place,  you  may  preserve 
it  a  fortnight  in  summer,  and  longer  in  winter.  When 
you  have  done  Fryin<x,  let  the  dripping  stand  a  few 
minutes  to  settle,  and  then  pour  it  tlirough  a  sieve  into 
a  clean  Basin  or  stone  Pan ;  and  it  will  do  a  second 
and  a  third  time  as  well  as  it  did  the  first,  —  only  the 
Fat  you  have  fried  Fish  in  must  not  be  used  for  any 
other  purpose. 

To  darifij  Sucf,  to  fry  nit  L  — (So.  84) 

Cut  Beef  or  Mutton  suet  into  thin  slices,  pick  out  all 
the  veins  and  skins,  &c.  put  it  into  a  thick  and  well 
tinned  saucepan,  and  set  it  over  a  xery  .slow  .stove,  or  in 
an  oven,  till  it  is  melted;  you  must  not  hurry  it,  —  if 
not  done  very  slowly  it  will  acquire  a  burnt  taste, 
which  you  cannot  get  rid  of;  —  then  strain  it  through 
a  hair  sieve  into  a  clean  brown  pan. — When  quite  cold, 
tie  a  paper  over  it  and  keep  it  for  use.  Hog's-lard  is 
prepared  in  the  same  way. 

Obs.  —  The  waste  occasioned  by  the  present  absurd 
fashion  of  over-feeding  Cattle  —  till  the  Fat  is  nearly 
equal  to  the  Lean, —  may,  by  good  management,  be  in 
some  measure  prevented, — by  cutting  off  the  superfluous 
part,  and  preparing  it  as  above,  or  by  making  it  into 
Puddings,  see  (Nos.  551  and  554),  or  Soup  (No.  229.) 

Steaks.  — {:so.  85.) 

Cut  the  steaks  rather  thinner  than  for  broiling.  Put 
some  Butter  or  (No.  83)  into  an  iron  frying-pan,  and 
when  it  is  hot,  lay  in  the  steaks,  and  keep  turning  them 
till  they  are  done  enough.  For  Sauce,  see  (No.  356), 
and  for  the  accompaniments  (No.  94.) 

Obs.  —  Unless  the  Fire  be  prepared  on  purpose,  we 


FRYING.  197 

like  this  way  of  cooking  them  ;  the  gravy  is  preserved  ; 
and  the  meat  is  more  equally  dressed,  and  more  evenly 
browned  ;  which  makes  it  more  rehshing,  and  invites 
the  eye  to  encourage  the  Appetite. 

Beefsteaks  andOnions. — (No.  86.)     See  also 
(No.  501.) 

Fry  the  steaks  according  to  the  directions  given  in 
the  preceding  receipt ;  and  have  ready  for  them  some 
Onions,  prepared  as  directed  in  (No.  299.) 

For  Stewed  Rump  Steaks,  see  (Nos.  500  and  501.) 

Sausages  — (No.  87.) 

Are  best  when  quite  fresh  made. — Put  a  bit  of  Butter, 
or  Dripping  (No.  83),  into  a  clean  Frying-Pan;  as  soon 
as  it  is  melted  (before  it  gets  hot)  put  in  the  Sausages, 
and  shake  the  pan  for  a  minute,  and  keep  turning  them, 
(be  careful  not  to  break  or  prick  them  in  so  doing),  fry 
them  over  a  very  slow  fire,  till  they  are  nicely  browned 
on  all  sides,  —  when  they  are  done,  lay  thera  on  a  hair 
sieve,  placed  before  the  fire  for  a  couple  of  minutes  to 
drain  the  fat  from  them.  T/ie  secret  of  frying  Sausages, 
is  to  let  them  get  hot  very  gradually  —  they  then  will 
not  burst,  if  they  are  not  stale. 

The  common  practice  to  prevent  them  bursting,  is  to 
prick  them  with  a  fork,  but  this  lets  all  their  Gravy 
out. 

You  msiy  froth  tliem  by  rubbing  them  with  cold  fresh 
butter,  —  and  lightly  dredge  them  with  flour,  and  put 
them  in  a  cheese  toaster  or  Dutch  oven  for  a  minute. 

Some  oxer-economical  Cooks,  insist  that  no  butter  or 
lard,  &c.  is  required  ;  their  own  fat  being  sufficient  to 
fry  them  ;  —  we  have  tried  it,  —  the  Sausages  were  par- 
tially scorched,  and  had  thdit  pije- bald  appearance,  that 
fried  things  have  when  sufficient  fat  is  not  allowed. 

Obs.  —  Poached  Eggs,  (No.  548),  Pease-Pudding, 
(No.  555),  and  mashed  Potatoes,  (No.  106),  are  agree- 
able accompaniments  to  Sausages,  and  Sausages  are  as 


198 


FRYING. 


welcome  with  Boiled  or  Roasted  Poultry  or  Veal  ; — 
or  Boiled  Tripe,  (No.  18);  so  are  ready  dressed 
German  Sausages,  See  Mem.  to  (No.  13),  and  a 
convenient,  easily  digestible,  and  invigorating-  food  for 
the  aged,  and  those  whose  teeth  are  defective,  as  is 
also  (No.  503.)  For  Sauce  (No.  356),  to  make  Mus- 
tard (Nos.  369  and  70.) 

N.  B.  Sausages,  when  finely  chopped,  are  a  deli- 
cate "  Bunne  Bouchc ;"  and  require  very  little  assist- 
ance from  the  Teeth,  to  render  them  quite  ready  for 
the  Stomach. 

Su-cct  breads  full  dressed.— (^o.  88.) 

Parboil  them  and  let  them  get  cold, — then  cut  them 
in  pieces,  about  three  quarters  of  an  inch  thick,  —  dip 
them  in  the  yolk  of  an  I'^g^,  then  in  fine  bread  crumbs, 
(some  add  Spice,  Lemon  peel,  and  Sweet  herbs);  put 
some  clean  dripping  (No.  83),  into  a  fryingpan ;  when 
it  boils,  put  in  the  Sweetbreads,  and  fry  them  a  fine 
brown.  For  Garnish,  crisp  Parsley;  and  for  Sauce, 
Mushroom  catsup  and  melted  butter,  or  Anchovy  sauce, 
or  (No.  356),  (No.  343),  or  (No.  343'),  or  Bacon  or 
Ham  as  (No.  526)  and  (No.  527.) 

Sweetbreads  plain.  —  (No.  89.) 

Parboil  and  slice  them  as  before,  dry  them  on  a  clean 
cloth,  —  flour  them,  and  fry  them  a  delicate  brown; 
take  care  to  drain  the  fat  well  from  them,  and  garnish 
them  with  slices  of  lemon,  and  sprigs  of  chervil  or 
Parsley,  or  crisp  Parsley,  (No.  318).  For  sauce 
(No.  356),  or  (No.  307),  and  Slices  of  Ham  or  Bacon  as 
(No.  526)  or  (No.  527.) 

*^*  Take  eare  to  have  afresh  Sweetbread;  —  it  spoils 
sooner  than  almost  any  things  therefore  should  he  parboiled 
as  soon  as  it  comes  in.  This  is  called  blanching,  or  setting 
it :  Mutton  kidneys  (No.  95)  are  sometimes  broiled  and 
sent  tip  with  Sweetbreads, 


FRYING.  199 

Veal  Cutlets.  — Qso,  90),  and  (No.  .521.) 

Let  your  cutlets  be  about  half  an  inch  thick,  trim 
them,  and  flatten  them  with  a  cleaver;  you  may  fry 
them  in  fresh  butter,  or  good  drippings  (No.  83);  when 
brown  on  one  side,  turn  them  and  do  the  other;  if  the 
fire  is  very  fierce,  they  must  change  sides  oftener. — 
The  time  they  will  take,  depends  on  the  tliickness  of 
the  Cutlet  and  the  heat  of  the  fire: — half  an  inch  thick 
will  take  about  fifteen  minutes.  Make  some  Gravy, 
by  putting  the  trimmings  into  a  stewpan  with  a  little 
soft  water,  an  onion,  a  roll  of  lemon  peel,  a  blade  of 
mace,  a  sprig  of  thyme  and  parsley,  and  a  bay  leaf; 
stew  over  a  slow  fire  an  hour,  then  strain  it;  put  an 
ounce  of  butter  into  a  stewpan  ;  as  soon  as  it  is  melted, 
mix  with  it  as  much  flour  as  will  dry  it  up,  stir  it  ovtr 
the  fire  for  a  few  minutes,  then  add  the  gravy  by  de- 
grees till  it  is  all  mixed,  boil  it  for  five  minutes,  and 
strain  it  through  a  tammis  sieve,  and  put  it  to  the 
cutlets :  you  may  add  some  Browning  (No.  322), 
Mushroom  (No.  439),  or  walnut  Catsup,  or  Lemon 
pickle,  &c. ;  see  also  Sauces  (No.  343),  and  (No.  348.) 

Cut  the  Veal  into  pieces  about  as  big  as  a  crown 
piece,  beat  them  with  a  cleaver,  dip  them  in  e^g  beat 
up  with  a  little  salt,  and  then  in  fine  bread  crumbs; 
fry  tliem  a  light  brown  in  boiling  lard  ;  serve  under  them 
some  good  Gravy  or  Mushroom  Sauce  (No.  307),  which 
may  be  made  in  five  minutes.  Garnish  with  Slices  of 
Ham  or  Rashers  of  Bacon,  (Nos.  526  and  527),  or  Pork 
Sausages,  (No.  87.) 

Obs.  —  Veal  forcemeat  or  stuflSng,  (Nos.  374 
and  5),  Pork  Sausages,  (No.  87),  Rashers  of  Bacon, 
(No.  526  and  527),  are  very  relishing  accompaniment?, 
fried  and  sent  up  in  the  form  of  Balls  or  Cakes,  and 
laid  round  as  a  Garnish. 

Lamb  or  Mutton  Chops  —  (No.  92.) 
Are  dressed  in  the  same  way,  and  garnished  with 
crisp  parsley  (No.  318),  and  slices  of  lemon. 


200  FRYIxNG. 

If  they  are  bread-crumbed  and  covered  with  but- 
tered writing  paper,  and  then  broiled,  they  are  called 
■*  Maintdion  Cutlets!' 

Pork  C/iops.— (No.  93.) 
Cut  the  Chops  about  half  an  inch  thick ;  Tri/u  them 
neatly ;  (few  Cooks  have  any  idea  how  much  credit  they 
get  by  this),  put  a  frying-pan  ou  the  fire,  with  a  bit  of 
butter;  as  soon  as  it  is  hot,  put  in  your  chops,  turning 
tiieni  often  till  brown  all  over,  they  will  be  enough  in 
about  fifteen  minutes :  take  one  upon  a  plate  and  try 
it;  if  done,  season  it  with  a  little  finely  minced  onion, 
powdered  Sage,  and  pepper  and  salt.  Fur  Gra\ii  and 
Sauce,  see  (Nos.  300,  304,  341,  and  356.) 

Oba.  —  A  little  powdered  Sage,  &c.,  strewed  over 
them,  will  give  them  a  nice  relish,  or  the  Savoury 
Powder  in  (No.  51),  or  Forcemeat  Sausages  like 
(No.  378.) 

Do  not  have  them  cut  too  thick,— about  three  Chops 
to  an  inch  and  a  quarter, — trim  them  neatly,  beat  them 
fiat,  have  ready  some  sweet  herbs,  or  Sage  and  Onion 
clio[)j)ed  fine,  put  them  in  a  stewpan  with  a  bit  of 
Butter  about  as  big  as  a  walnut,  —  let  them  have  one 
fry,  beat  two  L'ggs  on  a  plate  with  a  little  salt,  add  to 
them  the  herbs,  mix  it  all  well  together,  dip  the  chops 
in  one  at  a  time  all  over,  and  then  with  bread-crumbs, 
fry  them  in  hot  lard  or  drippings  till  they  are  a  light 
brown. 

Obs.  —  Veal,  Lamb,  or  Mutton  Chops,  are  very  good 
dressed  in  like  manner. 

To  fry  Fish,  see  (No.  145.) 

N.  B.  To  Fry  Eggs  and  Omelettes,  and  other 
thingSy  see  the  Index. 


THE 

COOK^S  ORACLE. 


BROILING. 


Chops  or  Steaks'".  —  (No.  94.) 
To  Stew   them,  see  (No.  500),  —  ditto  with  Onions, 
(No.  501.) 

Those  who  are  nice  about  Steaks,  never  attempt  to 
have  them,  except  in  weather  which  permits  the  meat  to  be 
hung  till  it  is  tender —  and  give  the  Butcher  some  days' 
notice  of  their  wish  for  them. 

The  best  Steaks  are  those  cut  from  the  middle  of 
a  Rump,  that  has  been  killed  at  least  four  days  in 
moderate  weather,  —  much  longer  in  cold  weather — 
when  they  can  be  cut  about  six  inches  long,  four 
inches  wide,  and  half  an  inch  thick  —  do  not  beat 
them,  unless  you  suspect  they  will  not  be  tender. 
Desire  the  Butcher  to  cut  them  of  even  thickness  — 
if  he  does  not  —  divide  the  thicker  from  the  thinner 
pieces  —  and  give  them  time  accordingly. 

Take  care  to  have  a  very  clear  brisk  fire,  throw  a 
little  salt  on  it,  make  the  Gridiron  hot,  and  set  it 
slanting,  to  prevent  the  fat  from  dropping  into  the  fire, 
and  making  a  smoke.  It  requires  more  practice  and 
care  than  is  generally  supposed  to  do  Steaks  to  a  nicety  ; 
and  for  want  of  these  little  attentions,  this  very  common 

•  The  season  for  these  is  from  the  29th  of  September  to  the  Coth  of  March  ; 
to  eusure  their  beiug  teuder  wheu  out  of  season,  stew  th£.m  as  iu  Receipt 
(No.  500.) 

TO  WARM    CP  COLD   RUMP   STEAKS. 

Lay  them  in  a  stewpan,  with  one  large  Union  cut  in  quarters,  six  berries 
of  Allspice,  the  same  of  Black  Pepper,  cover  ihe  Sltaks  with  boiling  water, 
let  them  stew  gently  one  hour,  thicken  the  liquor  wiih  Flour  and  Butler 
rubbed  together  on  a  plate;  if  a  pint  of  gravy,  about  one  ounce  of  Flour 
and  the  like  weight  of  Butter  will  do  ;  put  it  into  the  Stewpan,  shake  it  well 
over  the  fire  for  five  minutes,  and  it  is  ready  ;  lay  the  Steaks  and  Onion  on  a 
dish,  and  pour  the  Gravy  through  a  sieve  over  them. 
K  5 


202  BROILING. 

dish,  which  every  body  is  supposed  capable  of  dressing; 
seldom  comes  to  table  in  perfection. 

Ask  those  you  Cook  for,  if  they  like  it  under,  or 
thoroughly  done;  and  what  acconipaniments  they  like 
best; —  it  is  usual  to  put  a  tablespoonful  of  Catsup 
(No.  439)—  or  ''  Balls'  Cavice,"  and  a  little  minced 
Shallot  or  (No.  402)  into  a  dish  before  the  fire;  while 
you  are  broiling  —  turn  the  Steak,  d-c.  with  a  pair  of 
Steak  tong^s — it  will  bi-  done  in  about  ten  or  fifteen 
minutes;  rub  a  bit  of  butter  over  it,  and  send  it  up 
garnislied  with  Pickles  and  finely  scraped  Horseradish. 
(Nos.  135,  278,  299,  255,  402,423,439,  and  356,) are 
the  Sauces  usually  composed  for  Chops  and  Steaks. 

N.  B.  Macbetii's  Receipt  for  Beef  Steaks  is  the 
best.  — 

"  tihen  'tis  done,  'tirere  well 

"  1/ 'twere  done  quickly." 

Ohs.—  "  Le  f't'ritah/e  Bifteck,  rowme  il  se  fart  en 
Jng/eterrc,"  as  Mons.  Beauvillicrs  calls  (in  his  I' /Irt  du 
Cui.sinicr,  torn.  i.  8vo.  Paris,  1814,  page  122,)  what  Hi: 
says, — We  call  "  Romcdeck,''  —  is  as  highly  esteemed 
by  our  French  neighbours,  as  their  "  Ragouts"  are  by 
our  Countrymen,  who 

"  post  to  Paris  go, 

"  Merely  to  ta«te  their  Soups,  and  Mnshrx»oms  know." 

KiNc's  Art  oj  Cookery,  p.  19- 

Thcse  lines  were  written,  before  the  establishment  of 
Albion  Housr,  Aldersgate-Street,  where  every  Luxury 
that  Nature  and  Art  produce,  is  served  of  the  primest 
quality,  and  in  the  most  scientific  manner  —  in  a  style 
of  princely  magnificence  and  perfect  comfort  —  tl.e 
Wines,  Liqueurs,  &c.  are  superlative — and  every  de- 
partment of  the  business  of  the  Banquet  is  conducted 
in  the  most  liberal  manner. 

The  French  author  whom  we  have  before  so  often 
quoted,  assures  les  Amateurs  de  Bonne  C/idre  on  the  other 
side  of  the  Water,  it  is  well  worth  their  while  to  cross 
the  Channel  to  taste  this  favourite  English  dish,  wiiich 
when  "  jnortifiee  d  son  point"  2ind  well  dressed,  he  says, 


BROILING. 


203 


is  superior  to  most  of  the  subtle  Relishes  of  the  Parisian 
kitchen.  —  Almanack  des  Gourmands,  vol.  i.  p.  27, 

Beef  is  justly  accounted  the  most  nutritious  animal 
Food— the  celebrated  Trainers,  Sir  Thomas  Parkyns, 
&c.  greatly  preferred  Beef-eaters— to  S/teep-Biters — 
as  they  called  those  who  ate  Mutton.  When  Humphrits 
the  pugilist  was  trained  by  Ripsham,  the  keeper  of 
Ipswich  Jail,  he  was  at  first  fed  on  BeeJ,  but  got  so 
much  flesh — it  was  changed  for  Mutton — roasted,  or 
Iroikd,  —  when  boiled,  great  part  of  the  nutritive  juices 
of  the  meat  is  extracted. 

The  principles  upon  which  trainixg*  is  conducted, 
resolve  themselves  into  Temperance  without  abstemious- 
ness, and  Exercise  without  fatigue. 

Kidneys.  —  (No.  95.) 

Cut  them  through  the  long  way,  —  score  them, 
sprinkle  a  little  pepper  and  salt  on  them,  and  run  a 
wire  skewer  through  them  to  keep  them  from  curling 
on  the  Gridiron— so  that  they  may  be  evenly  broiled. 

Broil  them  over  a  very  clear  fire,  turning  them  often 
till  they  are  done ;  they  will  take  about  ten  or  twelve 
minutes,  if  the  fire  is  brisk  :  or  Fry  them  in  Butter,  and 
make  gravy  for  tliem  in  the  pan  (after  you  have  taken 
out  the  kidneys),  by  putting  in  a  teaspoonful  of  flour  ; 
as  soon  as  it  looks  brown,  put  in  as  much  water  as  will 
make  gravy  ;  they  will  take  five  minutes  more  to  fry 
than  to  broil.     For  Sauce,  (Nos.  318,  355,  and  356.) 

Obs.  —  Some  Cooks  chop  a  few  Parsley  leaves  very 
fine,  and  mix  them  with  a  bit  of  fresh  butter  and  a 
little  Pepper  and  Salt  —  and  put  a  little  of  this  mixture 
on  each  Kidney. 

A  Fowl  or  Rabbit,  SfC.  —  (No.  97.) 

We  can  only  recommend  this  method  of  dressing, 
when  the  Fire  is  not  good  enough  for  roasting. 

•See  "The  Art  of  Invigorating    and  Prolonging  Life,  —  b/ 

the  Editor  of  "  the  Cook's  Oracle." 


204  BROILING. 

Pick  and  truss  it  the  same  as  for  boiling',  cut  it  open 
down  the  back,  wipe  the  inside  clean  with  a  cloth, 
season  it  with  a  little  pepper  and  salt,  have  a  clear 
fire,  and  set  the  gridiron  at  a  good  distance  over  it, 
lay  the  chicken  on  with  the  inside  towards  the  fire; 
(you  may  e^g  it  and  strew  some  grated  bread  over  it) 
and  broil  it  till  it  is  a  fine  brown — take  care  the  fleshy 
side  is  not  burnt.  Lay  it  on  a  hot  dish,  pickled  Mush- 
rooms, or  Mushroom  Sauce  (No.  305),  thrown  over  it, 
or  Parsley  and  '  Butter  (No.  261),  or  melted  Butter 
flavoured  with  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  307.) 

Garnish  it  with  slices  of  Lemon,  and  the  Liver  and 
Gizzard,  slit  and  notched,  and  seasoned  with  pepper 
and  salt,  and  broiled  nicely  brown,  and  some  slices  of 
lemon.     For  Grill  sauce,  see  (No.  355.) 

N.  B.  "  It  was  a  great  mode,  and  taken  up  by  the 
court  party  in  Oliver  Cromwell's  time,  to  roast  /lalf 
Capons — pretending  they  had  a  more  exquisite  taste 
and  nutriment  than  when  dressed  whole." —  Sec  Joan 
Cromwell's  Kite /ten,  London,  1664,  page  39. 

Pigeons,  — {IS^o.  98.) 

To  be  worth  the  trouble  of  picking,  must  be  well 
^own,  and  well  fed. 

Clean  them  well,  and  pepper  and  salt  them;  broil 
them  over  a  clear  slow  fire ;  turn  them  often,  and  put 
a  little  butter  on  them  :  when  they  are  done,  pour  over 
them,  either  stewed  (No.  305)  or  pickled  Mushrooms, 
or  Catsup  and  melted  Butter  (No.  307)  —  or  (Nos.  348 
or  355.) 

Garnish  with  fried  bread  Crumbs  or  Sippets  (No. 
319) ;  OR,  when  the  Pigeons  are  trussed  as  for  boiling, 
fiat  them  with  a  cleaver,  taking  care  not  to  break  the 
skin  of  the  backs,  or  breasts  ;  season  them  with  pepper 
and  salt,  a  little  bit  of  butter,  and  a  teaspoonful  of 
water,  and  tie  them  close  at  both  ends  ;  so  when  they 
are  brought  to  Table,  they  bring  their  Sauce  with  them. 
Egg  and  dredge  them  well  with  grated  bread  (mixed 


BROILING.  205 

with  Spice  and  Sweet  herbs,  if  you  please),  then  lay 
them  on  the  gridiron,  and  turn  them  frequently:  if 
your  fire  is  not  very  clear,  lay  them  on  a  sheet  of  paper 
well  buttered,  to  keep  them  from  getting  smoked. 
They  are  much  better  broiled  whole. 

The  same  Sauce  as  in  the  preceding  receipt,  or 
(Nos.  343,  or  348.) 

Veal  Cutlets  (No.  521),  and  (No.  91.) 

Pork  Chops  (No.  93  ) 


THE 

COOK'S  ORACLE, 


VEGETABLES. 


Sixteen   Ways  of  dressing  Potatoes*. 
(No.  102.) 

The  Vegetable  Kingdom  affords  no  Food  more  whole- 
some, more  easily  procured,  easily  prepared,  or  less 
expensive  than  the  Potatoe  ;  yet  althouiT^h  this  most 
useful  vegetable  is  dressed  almost  every  day,  in  almost 
every  family,  — for  One  plate  of  Potatoes  that  comes  to 
table  as  it  should,  Ten  are  spoiled. 

Be  careful  in  your  choice  of  Potatoes  ;  no  vegetable 
varies  so  much  in  colour,  size,  shape,  consistence,  and 
flavour. 

The  reddi.^h  coloured  are  better  than  the  white,  but 
the  yellowish  looking  ones  are  the  best.  Choose  those 
of  a  moderate  si/e,  free  from  blemishes,  and  fresh,  and 
buy  them  in  the  Mould ;  they  must  nut  be  netted  till  they 
are  cleaned  to  be  cooked.  Protect  them  from  the  Air 
and  Frost  —  by  laying  them  in  heaps  in  a  cellar, 
covering  them  with  mats,  or  burying  them  in  sand  or 
in  earth.  The  action  of  Frost — is  most  destructive  — 
if  it  be  considerable,  the  life  of  the  vegetable  is  de- 
stroyed, and  the  Potatoe  speedily  rots. 

Wash  them,  but  do  not  pare  or  cut  them  unless  they 
are  very  large, — fill  a  saucepan  half  full  of  Potatoes  of 

•  "  Next  to  Bread,  there  is  no  vegetable  article,  the  preparation  of  wliich, 
as  food,  deserves  to  be  more  attended  to,  tlian  the  Potatoe."  —  Sir  Juuw 
Sinclair's  Code  of  Health,  \o\.\.^.  354. 

"  By  the  Analysis  of  Potatoe,  it  appears  tliat  l6  ounces  contained  llj 
oances  of  water— and  the  \\  ounces  of  solid  paru  reiiiaii)ing  attbrded  scarce 
a  drachm  of  earth."  —  Parme.vtikr's  Ubs.  on  Nutritive  ^  egetaUtet,  8vo. 
1783,  p.  1«.  . 


Vegetables.  207 

equal  size*,  (or  make  them  so  by  dividing  the  larger 
ones)  —  put  to  them  as  much  cold  water  as  will  cover 
them  about  an  inch  :  they  are  sooner  boiled,  and  more 
savoury  than  when  drowned  in  water  —  most  boiled 
things  are  spoiled  by  having  too  little  water,  but 
Potatoes  are  often  spoiled  by  too  much :  they  must 
merely  be  covered,  and  a  little  allowed  for  waste  in 
boiling,  so  that  they  may  be  just  covered  at  the  finish. 

Set  them  on  a  moderate  fire  till  they  boil,  then  take 
them  off,  and  set  them  by  the  side  of  the  fire  to  simmer 
slowly  till  they  are  soft  enough  to  admit  a  fork, — 
(place  no  dependence  on  the  usual  test  of  their  skin 
cracking,  which,  if  they  are  boiled  fast,  will  happen  to 
some  Potatoes  when  they  are  not  half  done,  and  the 
inside  is  quite  hard,)  —  then  pour  the  water  off,  (if  you 
let  the  Potatoes  remain  in  the  water  a  moment  after 
they  are  done  enough  —  they  will  become  waxy  and 
watery,)  uncover  the  saucepan,  and  set  it  at  such  a 
distance  from  the  fire  as  will  secure  it  from  burning; 
their  superfluous  moisture  will  evaporate,  and  the 
Potatoes  will  be  perfectly  dry  and  mealy. 

You  may  afterwards  place  a  napkin,  folded  up  to 
the  size  of  the  saucepan's  diameter,  over  the  Potatoes, 
to  keep  thenj  hot  and  mealy  till  wanted. 

Obs. — This  method  of  managing  Potatoes  is  in  every 
respect  equal  to  steaming  them;  and  they  are  dressed 
in  half  the  time. 

There  is  such  an  infinite  variety  of  sorts  and  sizes  of 
Potatoes,  that  it  is  impossible  to  say  how  long  they 
will  take  doing  ;  the  best  way  is  to  try  them  with  a 
fork.  Moderate  sized  Potatoes  will  generally  be 
enough  in  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes.  See  Obs.  to 
(No.  lOS.) 

Cold  Potatoes  Fried.  — (^o.  102*.) 

Put  a  bit  of  cleaa  Dripping  into  a  frying-pan  ;  when 


•  Or  the  SMALL  o.nks  will  be   done  to  pieces  before  the  large  onbs  are 
fcoiied  enougti. 


208  VEGETABLES. 

it  is  melted,  slice  in  your  Potatoes  with  a  little  pepper 
and  salt,  put  tliem  on  the  tire,  keep  stirring-  them  ;  — 
when  they  are  quite  hot,  they  are  ready. 

Obs. — '1  his  is  a  very  good  way  of  re-dressing  Pota- 
toes—  or  see  (No.  lOG.) 

Putatoe.s  hoilul  and  broiled.  —  (No.  103.) 

Dress  your  Potatoes  as  before  directed,  and  put 
them  on  a  e;ridiron  over  a  very  clear  and  brisk  fire  ; 
turn  them  till  they  are  brown  all  over,  and  send  them 
up  dry,  with  melted  butter  in  a  cup. 

Potatoes  fried  in  Slices  or  S/iaii/igs.  — (No.  104.) 

Peel  large  Potatoes,  slice  them  about  a  quarter  of 
an  inch  thick,  or  cut  them  in  shavings  round  and  round 
as  you  would  peel  a  lemon ;  dry  them  well  in  a  clean 
cloth,  and  fry  them  in  lard  or  dripping.  Take  care 
that  your  fat  and  frying-pan  are  quite  clean  ;  put  it  on 
a  quick  fire,  watch  it,  and  as  soon  as  the  lard  boils, 
and  is  still,  put  in  the  slices  of  potatoe,  and  keep 
moving  them  till  they  are  crisp  ;  take  them  up  and  lay 
them  to  drain  on  a  sieve  ;  send  them  up  with  a  very 
little  salt  sprinkled  over  them. 

Potatoes  fried  w/iole.  —  (No.  1 05.) 

When  nearly  boiled  enough,  as  directed  in  (No.  102), 
put  them  into  a  stewpan  with  a  bit  of  butter,  or  some 
nice  clean  beef  drippings  ;  shake  them  about  often  (for 
fear  of  burning  them),  till  they  are  brown  and  crisp ; 
drain  them  from  the  fat. 

Obs.  —  It  will  be  an  elegant  improvement  to  the 
three  last  receipts,  previous  to  frying  or  broiling  the 
Potatoes,  to  flour  them  and  dip  them  in  the  yolk  of  an 
egg,  and  then  roll  them  in  fine  sifted  bread  crumbs  ; 
they  will  then  deserve  to  be  called  potatoes  full 

DRESSED. 

Potatoes  ?naslied.  —  (No.  106.)     See  also  (No.  112.) 
When  your  Potatoes  are  thoroughly  boiled,  drain 


VEGETABLES.  209 

dry,  pick  out  every  speck,  &c.  and  while  hot,  rub 
them  through  a  cullender  into  a  clean  stew  pan  :  to 
a  pound  of  Potatoes  put  about  half  an  ounce  of  butter, 
and  a  tablespoonful  of  milk :  do  not  make  them  too 
moist ;  mix  them  well  together. 

Obs.  —  -iff^r  Lady-daji,  when  the  Potatoes  are  get- 
ting old  and  specky,  and  in  frosty  "weather,  this  is  the 
best  way  of  dressing  them.  You  may  put  them  into 
shapes,  egg  them  with  yolk  of  Egg,  and  brown  them 
very  slightly  before  a  slow  fire. 

Potatoes  mashed  uith  Onions.  —  (No.  107.) 

Prepare  some  boiled  onions,  by  putting  them  through 
a  sieve,  and  mix  them  with  Potatoes.  In  proportioning 
the  Onions  to  the  Potatoes,  you  will  be  guided  by  your 
wish  to  have  more  or  less  of  their  flavour. 

Obs.  —  See  note  under  (No.  555.) 

Potatoes  Escanoped.  —  (No.  108.) 

Mash  Potatoes  as  directed  in  (No.  1 06) ;  then  butter 
some  nice  clean  scollop  shells,  or  patty  pans,  put  in 
your  Potatoes,  make  them  smooth  at  the  top,  cross  a 
knife  over  them,  strew  a  few  fine  bread  crumbs  on 
them,  sprinkle  them  with  a  paste  brush  with  a  few 
drops  of  melted  butter,  and  then  set  them  in  a  Dutch 
oven ;  —  when  they  are  browned  on  the  top,  take  them 
carefully  out  of  the  shells,  and  brown  the  other  side. 

Colcannon.~(No.  108*.) 

Boil  Potatoes  and  Greens,  or  Spinage  —  sepa- 
rately —  Mash  the  Potatoes  —  squeeze  the  Greens  dry, 
chop  them  quite  fine,  and  mix  them  with  the  Potatoes 
with  a  little  butter,  pepper  and  salt  —  put  it  into  a 
mould,  greasing  it  well  first ;  let  it  stand  in  a  hot  oven 
for  ten  minutes. 

Potatoes  Roasted.  —(No.  109.) 
Wash  and  dry  your  Potatoes  {all  of  a  size),  and  put 


210 


VEGETABLES. 


them  in  a  tin  Dutcli  oven,  or  cheese  toaster;  —  take 
care  not  to  put  them  too  near  the  fire,  or  they  will  get 
burnt  on  the  outside  before  they  are  warmed  through. 

Large  Potatoes  will  require  two  hours  to  roast  them. 

N.  B.  To  save  time  and  trouble,  some  Cooks  half 
boil  them  first. 

This  is  one  of  the  best  opportunities  the  Baker  has 
to  rival  the  Cook. 

Potatoes  Roasted  under  Meat.-  (No.  110.) 

Half  boil  large  Potatoes,  —  draiti  the  water  from 
them,  and  put  them  into  an  earthen  dish,  or  small  tin 
pan,  under  Meat  that  is  roasting,  and  baste  them  with 
some  of  the  dripping;  —  when  they  are  browned  on 
oi)e  side,  turn  them  and  brown  the  other, —  send  them 
up  round  the  meat,  or  in  a  small  dish. 

Pofatoc  Balls.  — (So.  111.) 

Mix  mashed  Potatoes  with  the  yolk  of  an  e^^y  roll 
them  into  balls,  flour  them,  or  egg  and  bread-crumb 
them,  and  fry  them  in  clean  drippings,  —  or  brown 
them  in  a  Dutch  oven. 

Pofafoe  Balls  Ragout  — (So.  112.) 
Are  made  by  adding  to  a  pound  of  Potatoes  a 
quarter  of  a  pound  of  grated  ham,  or  some  sweet 
herbs,  or  chopped  parsley,  and  onion  or  shallot,  salt, 
pepper,  and  a  little  grated  nutmeg,  or  other  spice,  with 
the  yolk  of  a  couple  of  eggs  ;  they  are  then  to  be 
dressed  as  (No.   111.) 

Obs.  —  An  agreeable  vegetable  relish,  and  a  good 
supper  dish. 

Potatoe  Snoic.  —  (No.  114.) 

The  Potatoes  must  be  free  from  spots,  and  the 
whitest  you  can  pick  out;  put  them  on  in  cold  water; 
when  they  begin  to  crack,  strain  the  water  from  them, 


VEGETABLES. 


211 


and  put  them  into  a  clean  stewpan  by  the  side  of  the 
fire  till  they  are  quite  dry  and  fall  to  pieces ;  rub  them 
through  a  wire  sieve  on  the  dish  they  are  to  be  sent  up 
in,  and  do  not  disturb  them  afterwards. 

Pofaifoe  Pie.  — (No.  115.) 

Peel  and  slice  your  Potatoes  very  thin,  into  a  pie 
dish;  between  each  layer  of  Potatoes  put  a  little 
chopped  onion,  (three  quarters  of  an  ounce  of  onion  is 
sufficient  for  a  pound  of  Potatoes) ;  between  each 
layer  sprinkle  a  little  pepper  and  salt,  put  in  a  little 
water,  and  cut  about  two  ounces  of  fresh  butter  into 
little  bits,  and  lay  them  on  the  top :  cover  it  close  with 
puff  paste.  It  will  take  about  an  hour  and  a  half  to 
bake  it. 

N.  B.  The  Yolks  of  four  Eggs  (boiled  hard)  may  be 
added;  and  when  baked,  a  tablespoonful  of  good 
Mushroom  Catsup  poured  in  through  a  funnel. 

Obs.  —  Cauliflowers  divided  into  mouthsful,  and 
Button  Onions,  seasoned  with  Curry  Powder,  &c., 
make  a  favourite  Vegetable  Pie. 

New  Potatoes.  —  (No.  116.) 
The  best  way  to  clean  New  Potatoes,  is  to  rub  them 
with  a  coarse  cloth  or  a  flannel,  or  scrubbing  brush  J 
and  proceed  as  in  (No.  192.) 

N.  B.  New  Potatoes  are  poor,  watery,  and  insipid, 
till  they  are  full  two  inches  diameter  —  they  are  hardly 
worth  the  trouble  of  boiling  before  Midsummer  Day. 

Obs.  —  Some  Cooks  prepare  Sauces  to  pour  over 
Potatoes,  made  with  butter,  salt,  and  pepper, — or 
gravy,  or  melted  butter  and  catsup,  —  or  stew  the 
Potatoes  in  ale,  or  water  seasoned  with  pepper  and 
salt;  —  or  bake  them  with  herrings,  or  sprats,  mixed 
with  layers  of  potatoes,  seasoned  with  pepper,  salt, 
sweet  herbs,  vinegar,  and  water;  — or  cut  mutton  or 
beef  into  slices,  and  lay  them  in  a  stewpan,  and  on 
them  potatoes  and  spices,  then  another  layer  of  the 


212  VEGETABLES. 

meat  alternately,  pouring  in  a  little  water,  covering  it 
up  very  close,  and  stewing  slowly. 

Potatoe  Mucilage  (a  good  substitute  for  Arrow  Root), 
(No.  448.) 

Jerusalem  Artichokes — (No.  117.) 

Are  boiled  and  dressed  in  the  various  ways  we  have 
just  before  directed  for  potatoes. 

N.B.  They  should  be  covered  with  thick  melted 
butter,  or  a  nice  White  or  Brown  Sauce. 

Cabbage.  — {^0.  118.) 

Pick  Cabbages  very  clean,  and  wash  them  tho- 
roughly, then  look  them  over  carefully  again  ;  quarter 
them  it"  they  are  very  large.  Put  them  into  a  saucepan 
with  -plenty  of  builing  water;  if  any  scum  rises,  take  it 
oft',  put  a  large  spoonful  of  salt  into  the  saucepan,  and 
boil  them  till  the  stalks  feel  tender.  A  Young  Cabbage 
will  take  about  twenty  minutes,  or  half  an  hour — when 
Full  Grunn,  near  an  hour;  see  that  they  are  well  covered 
with  water  all  the  time,  and  that  no  smoke  or  dirt 
arises  from  stirring  the  fire.  With  careful  management, 
they  will  look  as  beautiful  when  dressed,  as  they  did 
when  growing. 

Obs. — Some  Cooks  say,  that  it  will  much  ameliorate 
the  flavour  of  .'>trung  Old  Cabbages  to  boil  them  in  two 
waters;  i.e.  when  they  are  half  done,  to  take  them 
out,  and  put  them  directly  into  another  saucepan  of 
boiling  water,  instead  of  continuing  them  in  the  water 
into  which  they  were  first  put. 

Boiled  Cabbage  fried.  — (No.  119.) 

See  Receipt  for  Bubble  and  Squeak. 

Savoys  — O^o.  120.) 

Are  boiled  in  the  same  manner  ;  quarter  them  when 
you  send  them  to  table. 


VEGETABLES.  213 

Sprouts  and  Young  Greens.  —  (No.  121.) 

The  Receipt  we  have  written  for  Cabbages  will 
answer  as  well  for  Sprouts,  only  they  will  be  boiled 
enough  in  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes. 

Spinage,—{^o,  122.) 

Spinage  should  be  picked  a  leaf  at  a  time,  and 
washed  in  three  or  four  waters ;  when  perfectly  clean, 
lay  it  on  a  sieve,  or  cullender,  to  drain  the  water 
from  it. 

Put  a  saucepan  on  the  fire,  three  parts  filled  with 
water,  and  large  enough  for  the  Spinage  to  float  in  it; 
put  a  small  handful  of  salt  in  it,  let  it  boil,  skim  it, 
and  then  put  in  the  Spinage,  make  it  boil  as  quick  as 
possible,  till  quite  tender,  pressing  the  Spinage  down 
frequently,  that  it  may  be  done  equally ;  it  will  be 
enough  in  about  ten  minutes,  if  boiled  in  plenty  of 
water;  if  the  Spinage  is  a  little  old,  give  it  a  few 
minutes  longer.  When  done,  strain  it  on  the  back  of 
a  sieve,  squeeze  it  dry  with  a  plate,  or  between  two 
trenchers,  chop  it  fine,  and  put  it  into  a  stewpan  with 
a  bit  of  butter  and  a  little  salt;  a  little  cream  is  a 
great  improvement,  or,  instead  of  either,  some  rich 
Gravy.  Spread  it  in  a  dish,  and  score  it  into  squares 
of  proper  size  to  help  at  table. 

Ohs.  —  Grated  nutmeg,  or  mace,  and  a  little  lemon 
juice,  is  a  favourite  addition  with  some  cooks,  and  is 
added  when  you  stir  it  up  in  the  stewpan  with  the 
butter  garnished.  Spinage  is  frequently  served  with 
Poached  Eggs  with  fried  bread. 

Asparagus.  —  (No.  123.)  " 
Set  a  stewpan  with  plenty  of  water  in  it  on  the  fire ; 
sprinkle  a  handful  of  salt  in  it,  let  it  boil,  and  skim  it ; 
then  put  in  your  Asparagus,  prepared  thus  :  —  Scrape 
all  the  stalks  till  they  are  perfectly  clean,  throw  them 
into  a  pan  of  cold  water  as  you  scrape  them ;  when 


214  VEGETABLES. 

they  are  all  done,  tie  them  up  in  little  bundles,  of 
about  a  quarter  hundred  each,  with  bass,  if  you  can 
get  it,  or  tape;  string  cuts  them  to  pieces:  cut  off  the 
stalks  at  the  bottom,  that  they  may  be  all  of  a  length, 
leaving  only  just  enough  to  serve  as  a  handle  for  the 
green  part ;  when  they  are  tender  at  the  stalk,  which 
will  be  in  from  twenty  to  thirty  minutes,  they  are  done 
enough.  Great  care  must  be  taken  to  uatch  the  exact 
time  of  their  becoming  tender  ;  take  them  up  just  at  that 
instant,  and  they  will  have  their  true  flavour  and 
colour;  —  a  minute  or  two  more  boiling  destroys  both. 

While  the  Asparagus  is  boiling,  toast  a  round  of  a 
quartern  loaf,  about  half  an  inch  thick,  brown  it  deli- 
cately on  both  sides,  dip  it  lightly  in  the  liquor  the 
Asparagus  was  boiled  in,  and  lay  it  in  the  middle  of  a 
dish  :  melt  some  butter  (No.  256),  then  lay  in  the 
Asparagus  upon  the  Toait,  which  must  project  beyond 
the  Asparagus,  that  the  company  may  see  there  is  a 
Toast. 

Pour  no  butter  over  them,  but  send  some  up  in  a 
boat,  or  White  Sauce  (No.  364),  (No.  2.) 

Sea  Kale  — {"So.  124.) 

Is  tied  up  in  bundles,  and  dressed  in  the  same  way 
as  Asparagus. 

Caulifio-u:er.—(So.  125.) 

Choose  those  that  are  close  and  white,  and  of  the 
middle  size,  trim  off  the  outside  leaves,  cut  the  stalk 
off  flat  at  the  bottom,  let  them  lie  in  salt  and  water  an 
hour  before  you  boil  them. 

Put  them  into  boiling  water  with  a  handful  of  salt  in 
it,  skim  it  well,  and  let  it  boil  slowly  till  done,  which  a 
small  one  will  be  in  fifteen,  a  large  one  in  about  twenty 
minutes,  take  it  up  the  nwment  it  i,s  enovgh,  a  minute  or 
two  longer  boiling  will  spoil  it. 

N.  H.  Cold  Caulrfiuuers,  and  French  Beans,  Carrots  and 
Turnips,  boiled  so  as  to  eat  rather  crisp,  are  sometimes 
dressed  as  a  Salad,  (No.  372  or  453.) 


VEGETABLES.  215 

Brocoli.—{No.  126.) 

Set  a  pan  of  clean  cold  water  on  the  table,  —  and  a 
saucepan  on  the  fire  with  plenty  of  water,  and  a  hand- 
ful of  salt  in  it. 

Brocoli  is  prepared  by  stpipping  off  all  the  side 
shoots,  leaving  the  top ;  peel  off  the  skin  of  the  stalk 
with  a  knife,  cut  it  close  off  at  the  bottom,  and  put  it 
into  the  pan  of  cold  water. 

When  the  water  in  the  stewpan  boils,  and  the  Brocoli 

is  ready,  put  it  in,  let  it  boil  briskly  till  the  stalks  feel 

^tender,  from  ten  to  twenty  minutes  ;  —  take  it  up  with 

a  slice,  that  you  may  not  break  it;  —  let  it  drain,  and 

serve  up. 

If  some  of  the  heads  of  Brocoli  are  much  bisrsrer  than 
the  others,  put  them  on  to  boil  first,  so  that  they  may 
get  all  done  together. 

Obs.  —  It  makes  a  nice  supper  dish  served  upon  a 
toast,  like  Asparagus.  It  is  a  very  delicate  vegetable, 
and  you  must  take  it  up  the  moment  it  is  done,  and 
send  it  to  table  /luL 

Red  But  Roots —  CNo.  127.) 

Are  not  so  much  used  as  they  deserve  ;  they  are 
dressed  in  the  same  way  as  Parsnips,  only  neither 
scraped  nor  cut  till  after  they  are  boiled  :  they  will  take 
from  an  hour  and  a  half  to  three  hours  in  boiling, 
according  to  their  size,  —  to  be  sent  to  table  with  Salt 
Fish,  Boiled  Beef,  &c.  When  young,  large,  and  juicy, 
it  is  a  very  good  variety,  —  an  excellent  garnish, — 
and  easily  converted  into  a  very  cheap  and  pleasant 
pickle. 

Parsnips  —  (No.  128.) 

Are  to  be  cooked  just  in  the  same  manner  as  Carrots ; 
they  require  more  or  less  time  according  to  their  size, 
therefore  match  ihem  in  size,  and  you  must  try  them, 
by  thrusting  a  fork  into  them  as  they  are  in  the  water; 


216  VEGETABLES. 

when  that  goes  easily  tlirougli,  they  are  done  enough; 
boil  them  from  an  hour  to  two  hours,  according  to  their 
size  and  freshness. 

Obs.  —  Parsnips  are  sometimes  sent  up  mashiStt  in 
the  same  way  as  Turnips,  and  some  Cooks  quarter 
them  before  they  boil  them. 

Carrots.  — {So.  129.) 

Let  them  be  well  washed  and  brushed,  not  scraped ; 
an  hour  is  enough  for  young  spring  carrots;  grown 
carrots  must  be  cut  in  half,  and  will  take  from  an  hour 
and  a  half  to  two  ho\n-s  and  a  half.  When  done,  rub" 
off  the  peels  with  a  clean  coarse  cloth,  and  slice  them 
in  two  or  four,  according  to  their  size.  The  best  way 
to  try  if  they  are  done  enough,  is  to  pierce  them  with 
a  fork. 

0/m.  —  .Many  people  are  fond  of  cold  Carrot  with 
cold  Beef. 

Turnqis.  —  (No.  130.) 

Peel  off  half  an  inch  of  the  stringy  outside  ;  full- 
grown  turnips  will  take  about  an  hour  and  a  half 
gentle  boiling;  if  you  slice  them,  which  most  people 
do,  they  will  be  done  sooner ;  try  them  with  a  fork, — 
when  tender,  take  them  up,  and  lay  them  on  a  sieve  till 
the  water  is  thoroughly  drained  from  them:  send  them 
up  whole;  do  not  slice  them. 

N.B.  To  veiy  young  Turnips  leave  about  two  inches 
of  the  Green  Top.     See  (No.  132.) 

To  Mash  Turnips.     -(No.  131  ) 

When  they  are  boiled  quite  tender,  squeeze  them  as 
(Irij  as  possible  between  two  trenchers,  put  them  into  a 
saucepan,  mash  them  with  a  wooden  spoon,  and  rub 
them  through  a  cullender,  add  a  little  bit  of  butter, 
keep  stirring  them  till  the  butter  is  melted  and  well 
mixed  with  them,  and  they  are  ready  for  table. 


VEGETABLES.  217 

Turnip  Toj?*-- (No.  132.) 

Are  the  shoots  which  grow  out  (in  the  spring)  of 
the  old  turnip  roots.  Put  them  into  cold  water  an  hour 
before  they  are  dressed;  the  more  water  they  are 
boiled  in,  the  better  they  will  look ;  —  if  boiled  in  a 
small  quantity  of  water,  they  will  taste  bitter  ;  —  when 
the  water  boils,  put  in  a  small  handful  of  salt,  and 
then  your  vegetables ;  if  fresh  and  young,  they  will  be 
done  in  about  twenty  minutes ;  drain  them  on  the  back 
of  a  sieve. 

French  Beans. —(No.  133.) 

Cut  off  the  stalk  end  first,  and  then  turn  to  the  point 
and  strip  off  the  strings:  — If  not  quite  fresh,  have  a 
bowl  of  spring  water,  with  a  little  salt  dissolved  in  it, 
standing  before  you,  and  as  the  beans  are  cleaned  and 
stringed,  throw  them  in: — when  all  are  done,  put 
them  on  the  fire,  in  boiling  water,  with  some  salt  in  it ; 
when  they  have  boiled  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes,  take 
one  out  and  taste  it;  as  soon  as  they  are  tender,  take 
them  up,  throw  them  into  a  cullender  or  sieve  to  drain. 
To  send  up  the  beans  whole  is  much  the  best  method 
when  they  are  thus  young,  and  their  delicate  flavour 
and  colour  are  much  better  preserved.  When  a  little 
more  grown,  they  must  be  cut  across  in  two,  after 
stringing;  and  for  common  tables,  they  are  split,  and 
divided  across  ;  but  those  who  are  nice,  never  have 
them  at  such  a  growth  as  to  require  splitting.  When 
they  are  large,  they  look  verv  pretty  cut  into  Lozenges. 
Obs.  —  See  N.B.  to  (No.  125.) 

Green  Pease.  *  —  (No.  134.) 
Young  Green    Pease,  well  dressed,  are  one  of  the 
most  delicious    delicacies   of  the  vegetable  kingdom. 
They  must  be  young ;  it  is  equally  indispensable  that 

«  These  and  all    other  fruits  ar.d  vegetables,  &c.  by  Mr.  Appert's  plan,  it 
is  said,  may  be  preserved  in  full  flavour  tor  tvelve  iiionlhs.  —  See  Appert's 
Book,  12ino.  1812.     We  have  eaten  of  several  specimens  of  preserved  Fease, 
—  which  looked  pretty  enough,  — but  Jiatcur  ihe^  iiad  none  at  all. 
-L 


218  VEGETABLES. 

they  be  fresh  gathered,  and  cooked  as  soon  as  they  are 
shelled,  for  they  soon  lose  both  their  colour  and 
sweetness. 

If  you  uish  lo  feast  upon  Pease  in  perfection,  you 
must  have  them  gathered  the  same  day  they  are 
dressed,  and  put  on  to  boil  within  half  an  hour  after 
they  are  shelled. 

Pass  them  through  a  riddle^  i.  e.  a  coarse  sieve,  which 
is  made  for  the  purpose  of  separating  them.  This 
precaution  is  necessary,  for  large  and  small  pease 
cannot  be  boiled  together,  as  the  former  will  take  more 
time  than  the  latter. 

For  a  peck  of  pease,  set  on  a  saucepan  with  a  gallon 
of  water  in  it ;  when  it  boils,  put  in  your  pease  with  a 
tablespoonful  of  salt,  —  skim  it  well,  keep  them  boiling 
quick  from  twenty  to  thirty  minutes,  according  to  their 
age  and  size  :  the  best  way  to  judge  of  their  being 
done  enough,  and  indeed  the  only  way  to  make  sure  of 
cooking  them  to,  and  not  beyond,  the  point  of  per- 
fection, or,  as  Pea-eaters  say,  of  "  boiling  them  to  a 
bubble,''  is  to  take  them  out  with  a  spoon  and  taste 
them. 

When  they  are  enough,  drain  tuem  on  a  hair  sieve. 
If  you  like  them  buttered,  put  them  into  a  pie  dish, 
divide  some  butter  into  small  bits,  and  lay  them  on  the 
pease ;  put  another  dish  over  them,  and  turn  them  over 
and  over;  this  vnW  melt  the  butter  through  them;  but 
as  all  people  do  not  like  buttered  pease,  you  had  better 
send  them  to  table  plain,  as  they  come  out  of  the 
Saucepan,  with  melted  butter  (No.  256),  in  a  sance 
tureen.  It  is  usual  to  boil  some  Mint  with  the  Pease ; 
but  if  you  wish  to  garnish  the  Pease  with  Mint,  boil  a 
few  sprigs  in  a  saucepan  by  themselves.  See  Sage  and 
Onion  Sauce  (No.  300),  and  Pea  Powder  (No.  458.) 
To  boil  Bacon  (No.  13),  Slices  of  Ham  and  Bacon 
(No.  526),  and  Relishing  Rashers  of  Bacon  (No.  527.) 

N.  B.  A  Peck  of  young  Pease  will  not  yield  more 
ttan  enough  for  a  couple  of  hearty  Pea-Eaters,  —  whea 
the  pods  are  full,  it  may  serve  for  three. 


VEGETABLES.  219 

Mem. — Never  think  of  purchasing  Pease  ready-shelled, 
for  the  cogent  reasons  assigned  in  the  first  part  of  this 
Receipt. 

Cucumber  Stewed.  —  (No.  135.) 

Peel  and  cut  cucumbers  in  quarters,  take  out  the 
seeds,  and  lay  them  on  a  cloth  to  drain  off  the  water : 
when  they  are  dry,  flour  and  fry  them  in  fresh  butter ; 
let  the  butter  be  quite  hot  before  you  put  in  the  cucum- 
bers ;  fry  them  till  they  are  brown,  then  take  them  out 
with  an  egg  slice,  and  lay  them  on  a  sieve  to  drain  the 
fat  from  them :  (some  Cooks  fry  sliced  Onions  or  some 
small  Button  Onions  with  them  till  they  are  a  delicate 
light  brown  colour,  drain  them  from  the  fat,  and)  then 
put  them  into  a  ste-A^an,  with  as  much  Gra^-y  as  will 
cover  them ;  stew  slowly  till  they  are  tender ;  take  out 
the  cucumbers  with  a  slice,  thicken  the  gravy  Vt^ith 
flour  and  butter,  give  it  a  boil  up,  season  it  \\\\h  pepper 
and  salt,  and  put  in  the  Cucumbers  ;  as  soon  as  they 
are  warm,  they  are  ready. 

The  above  rubbed  through  a  Tammis  or  fine  sieve, 
will  be  entitled  to  be  called  "  Cucumber  Sauce." 
See  (No.  399),  Cucumber  Vinegar.  This  is  a  very 
favourite  sauce  with  lamb  or  mutton  cutlets,  stewed 
rump  steaks,  &c.  &c. ;  when  made  for  the  latter,  a  third 
part  of  sliced  onion  is  sometimes  fried  with  the  cucum- 
ber. 

Artichokes.  — (No.  136.) 

Soak  them  in  cold  water,  wash  them  well,  then  put 
them  into  plenty  of  boiling  water,  with  a  handful  of 
salt,  and  let  them  boil  gently  till  they  are  tender,  which 
will  take  an  hour  and  a  half,  or  two  hours ;  the  surest 
way  to  know  when  they  are  done  enough,  is  to  draw 
out  a  leaf;  trim  them  and  drain  them  on  a  sieve;  and 
send  up  melted  butter  with  them,  which  some  put  into 
small  cups,  so  that  each  guest  may  have  one. 

Stewed  Onions.  —  (No.  137.) 
The  large  Portugal  Onions  are  the  best;  take  off  the 
l3 


220  VEGETABLES. 

top-coats  of  half  a  dozen  of  these,  (taking  care  not  to 
cut  off  the  tops  or  tails  too  near,  or  the  onions  will  go 
to  pieces);  and  put  them  into  a  stewpan  broad  enough 
to  hold  them  without  laying  them  atop  of  one  another, 
and  just  cover  them  with  good  broth. 

Put  them  over  a  slow  fire,  and  let  them  simmer  about 
two  hours ;  when  you  dish  them,  turn  them  upside 
down,  and  pour  the  sauce  over. 

Young  Onions  stewed,  see  (No.  296.) 

Salads.  — (^o.  138*),  also  (No.  372.) 

Tliose  who  desire  to  see  this  subject  elaborately 
iUustrated,  we  refer  to  "  Evylyn's  /lataria,"  a  dis- 
course of  Sallets,  a  12mo.  of  240  pages.  London, 
1699. 

Mr.  E.  gives  us  ''  an  account  of  seventy-two  herbs 
proper  and  fit  to  make  Sallet  with," — and  a  table  of 
Thirtif-Fiie,  telhng  their  seasons  and  proportions.  "  In 
the  composure  of  a  Sallet,  every  plant  should  come  in 
to  bear  its  part,  like  the  notes  in  Music :  thus  the 
comical  Master  Cook  introduced  by  Danioxc?ius,  when 
asked,  *  what  Harnionj/  there  was  in  McaLs?' — '  the  very 
same,'  says  he,  '  as  the  3d,  5th,  and  8th  have  to  one 
another  in  music  —  the  main  skill  hes  in  this,  not  to 
mingle  ('  .sapores  minimc  consenticntes)  —  '  Tastes  not 
well  joined  —  inelegant,'  as  our  Paradisian  Bard  directs 
Ere  when  dressing  a  sallet  for  her  Angtlical  Guest.'" — 
Milton's  Paradise  Lo.st. 

He  gives  the  following  Receipt  for  the  Oxoleon  : — 

"  Take  of  clear  and  perfectly  good  Ch/l-Olive  three 
parts  —  of  sharpest  Vinegar,  {sweetest  of  all  Condiment s^ 
for  it  incites  appetite,  and  causes  Hunger,  which  is  the 
best  sauce,)  Limon,  or  juice  of  Orange,  one  part  —  and 
therein  let  steep  some  slices  of  Horseradish,  with  a  little 
Salt :  some,  in  a  separate  Vinegar,  gently  bruise  a  pod 
of  Ginny  Pepper,  and  strain  it  to  the  other  —  then  add 
as  much  Mustard  as  will  lie  upon  a  half-crown  piece. 
Beat  and  mingle  these  well  together  with  the  yolk  of 


VEGETABLES.  221 

two  new-laid  Eg^s  boiled  hard,  and  pour  it  over  your 
Sailet,  stirring  it  well  together.  The  5z/jt;er-curious 
insist  that  the  knife  with  which  Sailet  herb  is  cut  must 
be  of  Silver  —  and  some  who  are  husbands  of  their  Oyl 
pour  at  first  the  Oyl  alone,  as  more  apt  to  communicate 
and  diffuse  its  slipperiness,  than  when  it  is  mingled 
and  beaten  with  the  Acids  —  which  they  pour  on  last 
of  all ;  and  it  is  incredible  how  small  a  quantity  of  Oyl 
thus  applied  is  sufficient  to  imbue  a  very  plentiful 
assembly  of  Sailet  Herbs." 

Obs.  —  Our  own  Directions   to  prepare  and  dress 
Salads  will  be  found  under  (No.  372.) 


THE 

COOICS  ORACLE. 


FISH. 

Turbotto  Bo^7.  — (No.  140.) 

This  excellent  Fish  is  in  season  the  greatest  part  of 
the  Summer, — when  good,  it  is  at  once  firm  and 
tender,  and  abounds  with  rich  gelatinous  nutriment. 

Being  drawn,  and  washed  clean,  if  it  be  quite  fresh, 
by  rubbing  it  lightly  with  salt,  and  keeping  it  in  a  cold 
place,  you  may  in  moderate  weather  preserve  it  for  a 
couple  of  days  *. 

An  Hour  or  tivo  before  you  dress  it,  soak  it  in  spring 
water  with  some  salt  in  it,  —  then  score  the  skin  across 
the  thickest  part  of  the  back;  (this  is  to  prevent  it 
breaking  on  the  Breast,  which  will  happen  from  the 
fish  swelling,  and  cracking  the  skin,  if  this  precaution 
be  not  used.)      Put  a  large  handful  of  salt  into  a  fish 


*  "  I  have  ascertained,  by  many  years'  observation,  that  a  Turbot  kept 
two  or  three  days  is  much  better  eating  than  a  very  fresh  one." —  Ude's 
Cookery,  p.  238, 

"  TuRBOTS.  The  finest  brought  to  the  London  market,  are  caught  off  the 
Dutch  coast,  or  German  ocean,  and  are  brought  in  well-boats  alive.  The 
commencement  of  the  season  is  generally  about  March  and  April,  aud  con- 
tinues all  the  summer.  Turbots,  like  other  fish,  do  not  spawn  all  at  the  same 
time  ;  therefore.there  is  always  good  and  bad  nearly  all  the  year  round.  For 
tills  year  or  two  past,  there  has  been  an  immense  quantity  brought  to  London, 
from  all  parts,  and  of  all  qualities :  a  great  many  from  a  new  fishery  off 
Hartlepool,  which  are  a  very  handsome  looking  turbot,  but  by  no  means 
equal  to  what  are  caught  off  the  Dutch  coast.  Many  excellent  Turbots  are 
caught  off  Dover  and  Dungeness;  and  a  large  quantity  brought  from  Scotland, 
packed  in  ice,  which  are  of  a  very  inferior  quality,  and  are  generally  to  be 
bought  for  about  one  fourth  the  price  of  good  turbots. 

"  Brills  are  generally  caught  at  the  same  place  as  turbots,  and  are  generally 
of  the  same  quality  as  the  tijrbot,  from  the  different  parts." 


risH. 


223 


kettle  with  cold  water,  lay  your  fish  on  a  fish  strainer, 
put  it  in,  and  when  it  is  coming  to  a  boil,  skim  it  well ; 
then  set  the  kettle  on  the  side  of  the  fire,  to  boil  as 
gently  as  possible  for  about  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes ; 
(if  it  boils  fast,  the  fish  will  break  to  pieces) ;  sup- 
posing it  a  middling  size  Turbot,  and  to  weigh  eight  or 
nine  pounds. 

Rub  a  httle  of  tl-e  inside  Red  Coral  spawn  of  the 
Lobster  through  a  hair  sieve,  without  butter;  and 
when  the  Turbot  is  dished,  sprinkle  the  spawn  over  it. 
Garnish  the  dish  with  sprigs  of  curled  Parsley,  sliced 
Lemon,  and  finely  scraped  Horseradish. 

If  you  like  to  send  it  to  table  in  Full  Dress,  surround 
it  with  nicely  Fried  Smelts  (No.  173),  laying  the  largest 
opposite  the  broadest  part  of  the  Turbot;  so  that  they 
may  form  a  well  proportioned  fringe  for  it, — or  Oysters 
(No.  183*),  or  cut  a  Sole  in  strips,  crossways,  about 
the  size  of  a  Smelt;  fry  them  as  directed  in  (No.  145), 
and  lay  them  round.  Send  up  Lobster  sauce  (No.  284), 
two  boats  of  it,  if  it  is  for  a  larp;e  party. 

N.  B.  Cold  Turbot  with  (IVo.  372)  for  Sauce— or 
take  off  the  Fillets  that  are  left — as  soon  as  the  Turbot 
returns  from  Table — and  they  will  make  a  side  dish  for 
your  next  dinner,  warmed  in  (No.  364),  (No.  2.) 

Ohs. — The  thickest  part  is  the  favourite,  and  the 
Carver  of  this  Fish  must  remember  to  ask  his  friends  if 
they  are  Fin-Fanciers.  It  will  save  a  troublesome  Job  to 
the  Carver,  if  the  Cook,  when  the  Fish  is  boiled,  cuts 
the  spine-bone  across  the  middle. 

A  Briil-(So.  143.) 
Is  dressed  the  same  way  as  a  Turbot. 

Soles  to  EozX— (No.  144.) 

A  fine  fresh  thick  Sole,  is  almost  as  good  eating 
as  a  Turbot. 

Wash  and  clean  it  nicely ;  put  it  into  a  fish-kettle 
with  a  handful  of  salt,  and  as  much  cold  water  as  will 
cover  it;  set  it  on  the  side  of  the  fire,  take  off  the 


224 


FISH. 


scum  as  it  rises,  and  let  it  boil  frently; — about  five 
minutes  (according;  to  its  size)  will  be  long-  enough, 
unless  it  be  very  larg:e.  Send  it  up  on  a  fish-drainer 
s:arnished  with  slices  of  Lemon  and  sprigs  of  curled 
Parslev,  or  nicely  fried  Smelts  (No.  173),  or  Oysters 
(No.  183.) 

Ohs. — Slices  of  Lemon  are  a  universally  acceptable 
garnish,  with  either  fried  or  broiled  fish; — a  few  Sprii^s 
of  criq)  l\irslcy  may  be  added,  if  you  wish  to  make  it 
look  very  smart;  and  Parsley,  or  Fennel  and  butter, 
are  excellent  sauces,  see  (No.  261),  and  (No.  265),  or 
Chervil  sauce  (No.  264),  Anchovy  (No.  270). 

N.  B.  Boiled  Soles  are  very  good  uarmcd  up  like 
Eels,  Wio^gv's  way  (No.  164\  or  covered  with  White 
Sauce  (No.  364),  (No.  2),  and  see  (No.  158.) 

Soles,  or  other  Fish,  to  Fry. — (No.  145.) 

Soles  are  generally  to  be  procured  good  from  some 
part  of  the  coast,  as  some  are  going  out  of  season,  and 
some  coming  in,  both  at  tlie  same  time;  a  great  many 
are  brought  in  well-boats,  alive,  that  are  caught  otF 
Dover,  and  Folkstone,  and  some  are  brought  from  the 
same  places  by  land  carriage.  The  finest  soles  are 
caught  ofi"  Plymouth,  near  the  Eddistone,  and  all  the 
way  up  the  Channel,  and  to  Torbay  ;  and  frequently 
weigh  eight  or  ten  ])ouuds  per  pair  :  they  are  generally 
brought  by  water  to  Portsmouth,  and  thence  by  land  ; 
but  the  greatest  quantity  are  caught  off  Yarmouth  and 
the  Knole,and  off  the  Forelands 

Be  sure  tliey  are  quite  f res /i,  or  the  most  expert  Cook 
cannot  make  them  either  look,  or  eat  well. 

u4n  hour  before  yon  intend  to  dress  them,  wash  them 
thoroughly,  and  wrap  them  in  a  clean  cloth,  to  make 
them  perfectly  dry,  — or  the  Bread  crumbs  v/ill  not 
stick  to  them. 

Prepare  some  Bread  Crumbs*,  by  rubbing  some  stale 

•  A  large  pair  of  Soles  will  take  llie  fourth  part  of  a  qnarlern  Loaf,  which 
now  costs  twopence  halfpenny.  Oatmeal  is  a  good  substitul,;  for  Brtaii 
Crnmbs, — and  costs  comparatively  nothing!! 


FISH.  225 

bread  through  a  Cullender;  or,  if  you  wish  the  Fish  to 
appear  very  dehcately  and  highly  finished,  through  a 
Hair  sieve,  or  use  Biscuit  Powder. 

Beat  the  yolk  and  white  of  an  Egg  well  together,  on 
a  plate,  with  a  fork; — flour  your  fish  to  absorb  any 
moisture  that  may  remain,  and  wipe  it  off  with  a  clean 
cloth: — dip  them  in  the  e^^  on  both  sides  all  over, 
or,  what  is  better,  egg  them  with  a  paste  brush, — 
strew  the  Bread  Crumbs  all  over  the  Fish,  so  that  they 
cover  every  part, — take  up  the  fish  by  the  head,  and 
shake  off  the  loose  crumbs.  The  Fish  is  now  ready 
for  the  Fryingpan. 

Put  a  Quart  or  more  of  fresh  sweet  Olive  Oil,  or 
Clarified  Butter  (No.  259),  Dripping  (No.  83),  Lard*, 
or  Clarified  Drippings  (No.  83);  be  sure  they  are  quite 
sweet  and  perfectly  clean :  ft  he  Fat  ought  to  cover  the 
Fish  J:  what  we  here  order,  is  for  Soles  about  ten  inches 
long, — if  larger,  cut  them  into  pieces  the  proper  size 
to  help  at  table ;  this  will  save  much  time  and  trouble 
to  the  Carver, — when  you  send  them  to  table,  lay  them 
in  the  same  form  they  were  before  they  were  cut,  and 
you  may  strew  a  little  curled  Parsley  over  them :  they 
are  much  easier  managed  in  the  Fryingpan,  and  require 
less  Fat ;  and  you  can  by  this  means  only  fry  the  thick 
part  enough,  without  frying  the  tkin  too  much.  Very 
Large  Soles  should  be  boiled  (No.  144),  or  fried  in 
Fillets  (No.  147).  Soles  cut  in  pieces,  crossways,  about 
the  size  of  a  Smelt ^  make  a  very  pretty  garnish,  for  stewed 
Fish,  and  boiled  Fish. 

Set  the  fryingpan  over  a  sharp  and  clear  fire ;  watch 
it,  skim  it  with  an  Egg  slice,  and  when  it  boilsf,  i.  e. 
when  it  has  done  bubbling,  and  the  smoke  just  begins 
to  rise  from  the  surface,  put  in  the  Fish: — if  the  Fat  is 
not  extremely  hot,  it  is  impossible  to  fry  Fish  of  a  good 

•  The  Fat  will  do  Two  or  Three  times,  if  strained  through  a  hair  sieve, 
r.nd  put  by  ;  if  you  do  not  find  it  enough,  put  a  little  fresh  to  it.  Read  (No.  83), 
and  the  3d  Chapter  of  the  Rudiments  of  Cookery. 

t  This  requires  a  Heat  of  upwards  of  600  degrees  of  FahreDheit's  thermo- 
meter— FRYING  is,  in  fact.  Boiling  in  Fat. 
L  5 


226  risii. 

colour,  or  to  keep  them  firm  and  crisp,  (read  the  3d 
Chapter  of  the  Rudiments  of  Cookery). 

The  best  way  to  ascertain  the  heat  of  the  Fat,  is  to  try 
it  with  a  bit  of  bread  as  big  as  a  nut ;  if  it  is  quite  hot 
enough,  the  bread  will  bro^^^l  immediately.  Put  in  the 
Fish,  and  it  will  be  crisp  and  brown  on  the  side  next  the 
fire,  in  about  four  or  five  minutes ;  to  turn  it,  stick  a 
two-pronfred  fork  near  the  head,  and  support  the  tail 
with  a  fish-slice,  and  fry  the  other  side. 

Fry  One  Sole  at  a  time,  except  the  pan  is  very  large, 
and  YOU  have  jilenty  of  fat. 

When  the  Fish  are  fried,  lay  them  on  a  soft  cloth 
(old  table  cloths  are  best),  near  enough  the  fire  to  keep 
tliem  warm  ;  turn  them  eicri/  tuo  or  three  minutes,  till 
they  are  quite  dry  on  both  .yiV/t'5  — this,  common  Cooks 
commonly  neglect.  It  will  take  ten  or  fifteen  minutes*, 
if  the  Fat  you  fried  them  in  was  not  hot  enough  ;  when 
it  is,  they  want  very  little  drying.  When  Soles  are  friedy 
they  will  keep  very  good  in  a  dry  place  for  three  or  Jour 
days  ;  uarm  them,  by  hanging  them  on  the  hooks  in  a  Dutch 
oven,  letting  them  heat  very  gradually,  by  putting  it  some 
distance  from  the  fire  for  about  tucnti/  ?ninufes,  or  in  good 
Graiu,  as  Eels,  WiJgy's  way,  (Nos.  164,  299,  337, 
or  356.) 

Obs. — There  are  several  general  rules  in  this  Receipt 
which  apply  to  all  Fried  Fish:— we  have  been  very 
particular  and  minute  in  our  directions; — for,  althougli 
a  Fried  Sole  is  so  frequent  and  favourite  a  dish,  it  is 
very  seldom  brought  to  table  in  perfection!. 


•  Tf  you  are  in  lia«te,  lay  the  Sole  on  a  clean  soft  cloth,  cover  it  with  it, 
and  gently  press  it  upon  the  fish  to  suck  up  the  fat  from  its  surface. 

t  The  very  indiftVrent  manner  in  which  the  operation  of  frying  fish  is 
asnally  pei formed,  we  suppose,  produced  the  following  jeu  d'aprit,  which 
appeared  in  T/ie  Morning  Chronicle : — 

"  The  Kind's  Bench  Reports  have  cook'd  up  an  odd  dish. 
An  action  for  dama^Tes,  Fry  versus  Fish. 
"But  sure,  if  for  damages  action  c^nld  lie. 
It  certainly  must  have  been  Fish  against  Fry." 
n^e  author  of  the  Cook's  Cookery,  8vo.  paee  116,  docs  not  seem  to  think 
this  fish  can  be  too  fresh  ;  for  he  commences  his  directions  with,  *'  I/you  can, 
get  a  Cod  hot  out  of  the  Sea,"  &c. 


FISH.  227 

Soles  to  Stew.    -(No.  146.) 
These  are  half  fried,  and  then  done  the  same  as  Eels, 
V/iggy's  way.     See  (No.  164.) 

Fillets  of  Soles,  Broun  or  White.— Q\o.  147.) 

Take  off  the  Fillets  very  nicely — trim  them  neatly, 
and  press  them  dry  between  a  soft  cloth;  Egg, — 
Crumb,  and  Fry  them,  &c.  as  directed  in  (No.  145,) — 
or  boil  them,  and  serve  them  with  (No.  364),  (No.  2.) 

N.  B.  This  is  one  of  the  best  ways  of  dressing  very 
large  Soles.     See  also  (No.  164). 

Shate.~-{^o.  148.) 
Is  very  good  when  in  good  season,  but  no  fish  so  bad 
when  it  is  otherwise  :  those  persons  that  like  it  firm  and 
dry,  should  have  it  crimped ;  but  those  that  like  it  ten- 
der, should  have  it  plain,  and  eat  it  not  earlier  than  the 
second  day,  and  if  cold  weather,  three  or  four  days 
old  it  is  better :  it  cannot  be  kept  too  long,  if  perfectly 
sweet.  Young  Skate  eats  very  fine,  crimped  and  fried, 
see  (No.  154.) 

Cod  Boiled.— (So.  149.) 
Wash  and  clean  the  fish,  and  rub  a  little  salt  in  the 
inside  of  it ;  (if  the  weather  is  very  cold,  a  large  cod  is 
the  better  for  being  kept  a  day) :  put  plenty  of  water  in 
your  fish-kettle,  so  that  the  fish  may  be  well  covered ; 
put  in  a  large  handful  of  salt :  and  when  it  is  dissolved, 
put  in  your  fish ;  a  very  small  fish  will  require  from 
fifteen  to  twenty  minutes,  after  the  water  boils,  —  large 
ones  about  half  an  hour ;  drain  it  on  the  fish  plate ;  dish 
it  with  a  garnish  of  the  Roe,  Liver,  Chitterlings,  &c. ; 
or  large  native  Oysters,  fried  a  light  brown,  see  (No. 
183*),  or  Smelts  (No.  173),  Whitings  (No.  153),  t/te 
tail*  of  the  Cod  cut  in  shoes, — or  split  it — and  fry  it. 
Scolloped  Oysters  (No.  182),  Oyster  Sauce  (No.  278.) 


*  The  TAIL  is  so  much  thinner  than  the  thick  part  of  the  body,  that,  if 
boiled  together,  the  former  will  be  boiled  too  much — before  the  latter  is  done 
enough — therefore  it  should  be  dressed  separate,  and  the  best  way  of  cookiuij 
it  is  lo  fry  it  in  Slice*  or  Fillets ;  see  (No.  151 .) 


228  FISH. 

Mem. — The  Sounds, — the  jelly  parts  about  the 
Jowl, — the  Palate,— and  the  Tongue,  are  esteemed 
exquisites  by  piscivorous  Epicures — whose  long;ing  i 
Eyes  will  keep  a  sharp  look-out  for  a  share  of  their 
favourite  "  Bonne  Bouehe;"  —  the  Carver's  reputation 
depends  much  on  his  equitable  distribution  of  them. 

Salt  Fish  Boiled— {"So.  150.) 

Salted  Fish  requires  Suakins:,  aecurdino  to  the  time  it 
has  been  in  Salt  ;  —  \\\dX  which  is  hard  and  dri/,  requires 
two  nijjfhts'  soakinc;,  changing  the  water  two  or  three 
times;  the  intermediate  day,  lay  it  on  a  stone  floor;  — 
for  BarrelUd  Cod,  less  time  will  do ; — and  for  the  best 
Dodger  Bank  Split  Fish,  which  has  not  been  more  than 
a  fortnight  or  three  weeks  in  salt,  still  less  will  be 
needful. 

Put  it  into  plenty  of  cold  water,  and  let  it  simmer 
gently  till  it  is  enough — if  the  water  boils,  the  Fish  will 
be  tough  and  thready.  For  Egg  sauce,  see  (No.  267). 
and  to  boil  Red  Beetroot  (No.  V21 ),  Parsnips  (No.  128), 


"  Cod  generally  comes  into  good  season  in  Octobir,  when,  if  tlie  wcither  it 
cold,  it  tais  as  tine  as  at  any  lime  in  the  jt.ar:  towards  tlie  latter  end  of 
Janaaiy,  and  Icbruary,  and  pan  of  March,  tiity  arc  mostly  poor;  but  the 
latter  end  of  March,  April,  and  May,  they  are  generally  particularly  line, 
havint;  shot  their  spawn,  lluy  come  in  fine  order.  The  Dogger- Hank  Cod 
are  the  most  esteemed,  as  they  generally  cut  in  large  fine  flakes;  the  north 
country  cod,  which  are  caught  ott  llie  Orkney  Isles,  are  generally  very  stringy, 
or  what  is  commonly  called  woollcy,  and  sell  at  a  very  inferior  price,  but 
are  caught  in  much  greater  abundance  than  the  Dogger  cod.  Jhe  cod  arc  all 
caught  with  hook,  and  brought  alive  in  well-boats  to  the  London  markets. 
The  cod  cured  on  the  Dogger  Bank  is  remarkably  fine,  and  seldom  cured 
above  two  <.r  three  weeks  befure  brought  to  market;  the  Barrel  Cod  i« 
commonly  cured  on  the  coast  of  Scotland  and  Yorkshire.  There  is  a  great 
deal  of  inferior  cured  salt  fish  brought  from  Newfoundland  and  Iceland. 

"The  Skull  of  a  Dogger  Bank  cod,  is  a  famous  di.-h  for  an  epicure, 
cither  baked  or  boiled  :  and  is  a  good  meal  for  three  or  four  people,  and  may 
be  bought  for  about  Ss., — either  boil  it  whole,  or  cut  it  into  pieces — flour  and 
dry  thein,  and  then  egg  and  crumb,  and  fry  them,  or  stew  it,  (No.  15J5.) 

The  TAIL  of  a  cod  cut  in  fillets,  or  slice?,  and  fried,  makc.i  a  good  dish,  and 
generally  to  be  bought  at  a  very  reasonable  rale; — if  boiled,  it  is  soft  and 
watery.  The  ^kull  and  Tail  of  a  Cod  is  a  favouriteand  excellent  .Scotch  dish, 
stewed,  and  served  up  with  Anchovy  or  Oyster  sauce,  with  the  liquor  it 
is  boiled   in,  in  a  Tureen. 

"  Ling  is  brought  to  the  London  market  in  the  same  manner  as  Cod,  bi*ii 
very  inferior  to  it,  either  fresh  or  sdlt." 


FISH.  229 

Carrots  (No.  129.)  Garnish  Salt  Fisli  with  the  yolks 
of  Eggs,  cut  into  quarters. 

Obs. — Our  favourite  vegetable  accompaniment  is  a 
dish  of  equal  parts  of  Red  Beetroot  and  Parsnips. 

N.  B.  Salted  Fish  differs  in  Quality — quite  as  much 
as  it  does  in  Price. 

Slices  of  Cod  Boiled.— '(No.  151.) 

Half  an  Hour  before  you  dress  them,  put  them  into 
cold  spring  water  with  some  salt  in  it. 

Lay  them  at  the  bottom  of  a  fish-kettle,  with  as 
much  cold  spring  water  as  will  cover  them,  and  some 
salt ;  set  it  on  a  quick  fire,  and  when  it  boils,  skim  it, 
and  set  it  on  one  side  of  the  fire  to  boil  very  gently, 
for  about  ten  minutes,  according  to  its  size  and  thick- 
ness. Garnish  with  scraped  Horseradish,  slices  of 
Lemon,  and  a  slice  of  the  Liver  on  one  side,  and 
Chitterling  on  the  other.  Oyster  sauce  (No.  278), 
and  Plain  Butter. 

06*.— Slices  of  God  (especially  the  Tail,  split),  are 
very  good,  fried  like  Soles  (No.  145),  or  stewed  in 
Gravy  like  Eels  (No.  164),  or  (No.  364,  x\o.  2.) 

Whitings  Fried.  — (So.  153.) 

Skin*  them,  presei-ve  the  Liver,  see  (No.  228),  and 
fasten  their  Tails  to  their  Mouths  ;  dip  them  in  egg, 
then  in  bread  crumbs,  and  fry  them  in  hot  lard,  read 
(No.  145); — or  split  them,  and  fry  them  like  fillets  of 
Soles  (No.  147.) 

A  three  quart  stewpan,  half  full  of  fat,  is  the  best 
utensil  to  fry  Whitings.  They  will  be  done  enough  in 
about  five  minutes  -  but  it  will  sometimes  require  a 
quarter  of  an  hour  to  drain  the  fat  from  them  and 
dry  them,  (if  the  fat  you  put  them  into  was  not  hot 
enough),  turning  them  now  and  then  with  a  Fish  Shce. 
Obs. — When  Whitings  are  scarce,  the  Fisimiongers 
can  skin  and  truss  young  Codlings, — so  that  you  can 

*  The  French  do  not  flay  them— bat  split  thein— dip  tlieni  in  flour,  and  fry 
them  in  hot  dripping. 


230  FISH. 

hardly  tell  the  difference,  except  that  a  Codling  wears 
a  Beard,  and  a  JVhifmg  does  not : — this  distinguishing- 
mark  is  sometimes  cut  off;  however,  if  you  turn  up  his 
Jowl,  you  may  see  the  mark  where  the  Beard  was,  and 
thus  discover  whether  He  be  a  Real  Whiting, — or  a 
Shaved  Codling. 

Skate  Fried.- {^o.  154.) 

After  you  have  cleaned  the  fish,  divide  it  into  fillets, 
dry  them  on  a  clean  cloth ;  beat  the  yolk  and  white  of 
an  egg  thoroughly  together,  dip  the  fish  in  this,  and 
then  in  fine  bread  crumbs ;  fry  it  in  hot  lard  or  drip- 
pings till  it  is  of  a  delicate  brown  colour ;  lay  it  on  a 
hair  sieve  to  drain ;  garnish  with  Crisp  Parsley  (Ts^o.  318) 
—  and  some  like  Caper  sauce,  with  an  Anchovy  in  it. 

Plaice  or  Flounders  Fried,  or  Boiled.  (No.  155  ) 
Flounders  are  perhaps  the  most  difficult  fish  to  fry 
very  nicely.  Clean  them  well,  flour  them,  and  wipe 
them  with  a  dry  cloth  to  absorb  all  the  water  from 
them  ;  flour  or  eg^  and  bread  crumb  them,  &c.  as 
directed  in  (No.  145.) 

To  Boil  Flounders. 

Wash  and  clean  them  well,  cut  the  black  side  of 
them  the  same  as  you  do  Turbot,  then  put  them  into  a 
fish-kettle,  with  plenty  of  cold  water  and  a  handful  of 
salt;  when  they  come  to  a  boil,  scum  them  clean  and 
let  them  stand  by  the  side  of  the  fire  for  five  minutes, 
and  they  are  ready. 

Obs. — Eaten  with  plain  melted  butter  and  a  little 
salt; — you  have  the  sweet  delicate  flavour  of  the 
Flounder — which  is  overpowered  by  any  sauce. 

Water  -Soz/c/^j/,*— (No.  156.) 
Is  made   with  Flounders,  Whitings,  Gudgeons,  or 

*  One  of  my  Calinary  Counsellors  says,  the  heading  of  this  Receipt  should 
be,  "  How  to  dress  a  good  dish  of  Fish  iihile  the  Cloth  is  laying."  If  the 
articles  are  ready,  twelve  minutes  will  do  it,  wiih  very  little  trouble  or 
expense.    For  richer  stewed  I'isb,  ste  (No.  l6i.) 


FISH.  231 

Eels.  These  must  be  quite  fresh,  and  very  nicely 
cleaned;  for  what  they  are  boiled  in^  is  the  sauce  for 
them. 

Wash,  gut,  and  trim  your  Fish,  cut  them  into  hand- 
some pieces,  and  put  them  into  a  stew-pan  with  just 
as  much  water  as  will  cover  them,  with  some  parsley, 
or  parsley  roots  sliced,  an  onion  minced  fine,  and  a 
little  pepper  and  salt:  (to  this  some  Cooks  add  some 
scraped  Horseradish  and  a  Bay  leaf;)  skim  it  care- 
fully when  it  boils  ;  when  your  fish  is  done  enough 
(which  it  will  be  in  a  few  minutes),  send  it  up  in  a 
deep  dish,  lined  with  bread  sippets,  and  some  slices 
of  bread  and  butter  on  a  plate. 

Obs.  Some  Cooks  thicken  the  liquor  the  Fish  has 
been  stewing  in  w^ith  flour  and  butter — and  flavour  it 
with  white  wine,  Lemon  juice,  Essence  of  Anchovy, 
and  Catsup— and  boil  down  two  or  three  Flounders, 
&c.  to  make  a  fish  broth,  to  boil  the  other  fish  in — 
observing,  that  the  Broth  cannot  be  good,  unless 
the  Fish  are  boiled  too  much. 

Haddock  Boiled.— {^0.  157.) 

Wash  it  well,  and  put  it  on  to  boil,  as  directed  in 
(No.  149);  a  Haddock  of  three  pounds  w^ill  take  about 
ten  minutes  after  the  kettle  boils. 

Haddocks  salted  a  day  or  two  and  eaten  with  egg 
sauce,  are  a  very  good  article.  Haddocks  cut  in  fillets, 
fried,  eat  very  fine.  Or  if  small,  very  well  broiled,  or 
baked,  w^ith  a  pudding  in  their  belly,  and  some  good 
gravy. 

FindJiorn  Haddocks.— (No.  157*.) 

Let  the  Fish  be  well  cleaned  and  laid  in  Salt  for 
two  hours,  let  the  water  drain  from  them,  and  then 
wet  them  with  the  Pyrolygncous  acid, — they  may  be 
split  or  not, — they  are  then  to  be  hung  in  a  dry 
situation  for  a  day  or  two,  or  a  week  or  two,  if  you 
please  : — when  broiled,   they  have  all  the  flavour  of 


232  FISH. 

the  Findhorn  Haddock,  and  will  keep  sweet  for  a  long 
time. 

The  Pyroligneoiis  acid,  apph"ed  in  the  same  way  to 
Beef  or  Mutton,  gives  the  fine  smoke  flavour,  and  may 
be  kept  for  a  considerabK^  length  of  time. 

Scotch  -nay  of  dressing  Haddocks. — A  haddock  is  quite 
like  a  different  fish  in  London  and  in  Edinburgh, 
which  arises  chiefly  from  the  manner  in  which  they  are 
treated  ;  a  haddock  should  never  appear  at  table  with 
its  head  and  skin  on.  For  boiling  ,they  are  ail  the  better 
for  lying  a  night  in  salt;  of  course  they  do  not  take  so 
long  to  boil  without  the  skin,  and  require  to  be  well 
skimmed  to  preserve  the  colour. —  After  lying  in  salt 
for  a  night,  if  you  hang  them  up  for  a  day  or  two,  they 
arc  very  2;ood  broiled  and  served  with  cold  butter.  For 
frying,  they  should  be  split  and  boned  very  carefully, 
and  divided  into  convenient  pieces  if  too  large  to  halve 
mcrchi ;  Q^<^  and  crumb  them,  and  fry  in  a  good  deal  of 
lard ;  they  resemble  soles  when  dressed  in  this  manner. 
There  is  another  very  delicate  mode  of  dressing  them; 
you  split  the  fish,  rub  it  well  with  butter,  and  do  it  be- 
fore the  fire  in  the  Dutch-oven. 

To  stew  Cod's  Sculi  Saks,  Carp,  Trout,  Perch,  Eel, 
or  Flounder.— (So.  158.);— See  also  (So.  164.) 

When  the  Fish  has  been  properly  washed,  lay  it  in  a 
stewpan,  with  half  a  pint  of  Claret  or  Port  wine,  and  a 
quart  of  good  gravy,  —  a  large  onion,  a  dozen  berries 
of  black  pepper,  the  same  of  allspice,  and  a  few  cloves, 
or  a  bit  of  mace  ;  cover  the  fish  kettle  close,  and  let  it 
stew  gently  for  ten  or  twenty  minutes,  according  to  the 
thickness  of  the  fish  :  take  the  fish  up,  lay  it  on  a  hot 
dish,  cover  it  up,  and  thicken  the  liquor  that  it  was 
stewed  in  with  a  little  flour,  and  season  it  with  Pepper, 
Salt,  F.ssence  of  Anchovy,  Mushroom  Catsup,  and  a 
little  Chili  Vinegar  ;  when  it  has  boiled  ten  minutes, 
strain  it  through  a  tammis,  and  pour  it  over  the  fish ; 


FISH.  233 

if  there  is  more  sauce  than  the  dish  will  hold,  send  the 
rest  up  in  a  boat. 

The  Rive?'  Trout  comes  into  season  in  April,  and 
continues  till  July ;  it  is  a  very  delicious  fish :  those 
caught  near  Uxbridge  come  to  town  quite  alive. 

The  Eels  and  Perch  from  the  same  water,  are  very 
fine. 

Obs. — These  fish  are  very  nice  plain  boiled,  with 
(No.  261),  or  (No.  264),  for  sauce;  some  Cooks  dredge 
them  with  flour,  and  fry  them  a  light  brown  before  they 
put  them  on  to  stew,  —  and  stuff  them  with  (No.  374), 
or  some  of  the  stuffings  following. 

To  Dress  them  Maigre. 

Put  the  Fish  into  a  stewpan,  with  a  large  Onion, 
four  Cloves,  fifteen  berries  of  Allspice,  and  the  same 
black  pepper — just  cover  them  with  boiling  water,  set 
it  where  they  will  simmer  gently  for  ten  or  twenty  mi- 
nutes, according  to  the  size  of  the  Fish ;  strain  off  the 
liquor  in  another  stewpan,  leaving  the  Fish  to  keep 
warm  till  the  Sauce  is  ready. 

Rub  together  on  a  plate  as  much  fiour  and  butter 
as  will  make  the  Sauce  as  thick  as  a  double  Cream. 
Each  Pint  of  Sauce,  season  with  a  glass  of  Wine,  half 
as  much  Mushroom  Catsup,  a  teaspoonful  of  Essence 
of  Anchovy,  and  a  few  grains  of  Cayenne;  let  it  boil 
a  few  minutes,  put  the  Fish  on  a  deep  dish,  strain  the 
Gravy  over  it  ;  garnish  it  with  Sippets  of  Bread  toasted 
or  fried  (No.  319.) 

N.  B,  The  Editor  has  paid  particular  attention  to 
the  above  Receipt  —  and  also  to  (No.  224),  which 
Catholics,  and  t/wse  whose  Religious  tenets  do  not  allow 
them  to  eat  Meat  on  Maigre  Days,  will  find  a  very  satis- 
factory substitute  for  the  Meat  Gravy  Soup  (No.  200.) 

For  Sauce  for  Maigre  Dishes,  see  (Nos.  225, 
305,  and  364,  No.  2.) 

Obs.  —  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439),  and  Onions 
(No.  402),  supply  the  place  of  Meat,  better  than  any 
thing ;  if  you  have  not  these,  Wine  —  Spice  (No.  457),— 


234  Fisa. 

Curry  Powder  (No.  455),  Aromatic  Roots  and  Herbs,— 
Anchovy  and  Soy,  —  or  Oyster  Catsup  (No.  441,) 
variously  combined,  and  thickened  with  flour  and 
butter,  are  convenient  substitutes. 

J^Jaigre  Fish  Pies. 

Salt  Fish  Pie. — The  thickest  part  must  be  cposen, 
and  put  in  cold  water  to  soak  the  night  before  wanted ; 
then  boil  it  well,  take  it  up,  take  away  the  bones  and 
skin,  and  if  it  is  good  fish  it  will  be  in  fine  layers  ;  set 
it  on  a  fish  drainer  to  get  cold  :  in  the  mean  time  boil 
four  eggs  hard,  peel  and  slice  them  very  thin,  the  same 
quantity  of  onion  sliced  thin,  line  the  bottom  of  a  Pie  dish 
with  Fish  force-meat,  (No.  383),  or  a  layer  of  potatoes 
sliced  thin,  —  then  a  layer  of  onions,  then  cf  fish,  and 
of  eggs,  and  so  on  till  the  dish  is  full ;  season  each  layer 
with  a  little  pepper,  —  then  m.ix  a  teaspoonful  of  made 
mustard,  the  same  of  Essence  of  Anchovy,  a  little 
Mushroom  Catsup  in  a  gill  of  water,  put  it  in  the 
dish,  then  put  on  the  top  an  ounce  of  fresh  butter  broke 
in  bits,  cover  it  with  puff  paste,  and  bake  it  one  hour. 

Fresh  Cod  may  be  done  in  the  'ozmt  way  by  adding 
a  little  salt. 

All  Fish  for  making  Pies,  whether  Soles,  Flounders, 
Herrings,  Salmon,  Lobster,  Eels,  Trout,  Tench,  &c., 
should  be  dressed  first, — this  is  the  most  Economical  way 
for  Catholic  families,  as  what  is  boiled  one  day, 
will  make  excellent  Pies,  or  Patties,  the  next; 
if  you  intend  it  for  Pies,  take  the  skin  off,  and  the 
bones  out,  —  lay  your  Salmon,  Soles,  Turbot,  or  Cod- 
fish in  layers,  and  season  each  layer  with  equal  quan- 
tities of  pepper,  allspice,  mace,  and  salt,  till  the  dish  is 
full,  —  save  a  little  of  the  liquor  that  the  fish  was 
boiled  in,  set  it  on  the  fire  with  the  bones  and  skin  of 
the  fish ;  boil  it  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  then  strain  it 
through  a  sieve,  let  it  settle,  and  pour  it  in  the  dish, 
cover  it  with  puff  paste,  bake  it  about  an  hour  and 
a  quarter.  Shrimps,  prawns,  or  oysters  added,  will 
improve  the   above;   if  for   Patties,    they   must  be 


FISH.  235 

fcut  in  small  pieces,  and  dressed  in  a  Beshameli  sauce, 
(No.  364.) 

Cod  Sounds  for  a  pie  should  be  soaked  at  the  least 
twenty-four  hours,  then  well  washed,  and  put  on  a  cloth 
to  dry, — put  in  a  stew-pan  two  ounces  of  fresh  butter, 
with  four  ounces  of  sliced  onions,  fry  them  of  a  nice 
brown,  then-put  in  a  small  table-spoonful  of  flour,  and  add 
half  a  pint  of  boiling  water;  when  smooth,  put  m  about 
ten  Cod-sounds,  and  season  them  with  a  little  pepper, 
a  glass  of  white  wine,  a  teaspoonful  of  Essence  of  An- 
chovy, the  juice  of  half  a  lemon  ;  stir  it  well  together,  put 
it  in  a  pie-dish,  cover  it  with  paste,  and  bake  it  one  hour. 

Perch,  lloacJi,  Dace,  Gudgeons,  SfC.  Fried. — (No.  159.) 

Wash  the  Fish  well,  —  wipe  them  on  a  dry  cloth, — 
flour  them  lightly  all  over,  and  fry  them  ten  minutes, 
see  (No.  145),  in  hot  lard  or  drippings ;  —  lay  them 
on  a  hair  sieve  to  drain ;  —  send  them  up  on  a  hot 
dish,  garnished  v/ith  sprigs  of  green  parsley.  Anchovy 
sauce  (No.  270),  and  (No.  433.) 

Verch  Boikd^-Qno.  160.) 

Clean  them  carefullV,  and  put  them  in  a  fish-kettle, 
with  as  much  cold  spring  w^ater  as  will  cover  them, 
with  a  handful  of  salt ;  set  them  on  a  quick  fire  till 
they  boil;  when  they  boil,  set  them  on  one  side  to  boil 
gently  for  about  ten  minutes,  according  to  their  size. 

Salmon,  Herrings,  Sprats,  Mackarel,  Scc.  Pickled. 
(No.   161.) 

Cut  the  Fish  into  proper  pieces,  do  not  take  off  the 
scales —  make  a  brine  strong  enough  to  bear  an  Egg, 
in  which  boil  the  Fish  —  it  m.ust  be  boiled  in  only 
just  liquor  enough  to  cover  it  —  do  not  overboil  it. 
\yhen  the  fish  is  boiled,  lay  it  slantingly  to  drain  off 
all  the  liquor  —  when  cold,  pack  it  close  in  the  kits, 
and  fill  them  up  v/ith  equal  parts  of  the  liquor  the 
Salmon  was  boiled  in  (having  first  well  skimmed  it), 
and  best  Vinegar,  (No.  24) ;  let  them  rest  for  a  day,  fill 


236 


FISH. 


up  again,  striking  the  sides  of  the  kit  with  a  Cooper's 
Adze,  until  the  kit  will  receive  no  more  —  then  head 
them  down  as  close  as  possible. 

Obs. —  This  is  in  the  finest  condition  when  fresh. 
Salmon  is  most  plentiful  about  Midsummer;  the 
season  for  it,  is  from  February  to  September.  Some 
sprigs  0^ fresh  gathered  young  Fennel  —  are  the  accom- 
paniments. 

N.  B.  The  three  indispensable  marks  of  the  goodness 
o{  Pickled  Salmon,  are,  1st,  —  The  brightness  of  the 
scales,  and  their  sticking  fast  to  the  skin  ;  2dly,  The 
firmness  of  the  flesh  ;  and  thirdly,  its  fine  pale  red  rose 
colour;  —  without  these  it  is  not  fit  to  eat,  and  was 
either  stale  before  it  was  pickled,  or  has  been  kept  too 
long  after. 

The  above  was  given  us  as  the  actual  practice  of 
those  who  pickle  it  for  the  London  market. 

N.B.  Pickled  Salmon,  warined  by  steam,  or  in  its 
pickle  liquor,  is  a  favourite  dish  at  Newcastle. 

Salmon*  Boiled.  — (No.  l62.) 
Put  on  a  fish  kettle,  with  spring  water  enough  to  well 
cover  the  Salmon  you  are  going  to  dress,  or  the  Salmon 


•  Salmon.  The  earliest  that  conies  in  season  to  the  Lonoon  market,  is 
brought  from  the  Severn,  and  begins  to  come  into  season  the  beginning  of 
November,  but  very  few  so  early,  perhaps  not  above  one  in  fifty,  as  many  of 
them  will  not  shoot  their  spawn  till  January,  or  after,  and  then  continue  in 
season  till  October,  when  they  begin  to  get  very  thin  and  poor.  The  prin- 
cipal supply  of  salmon  is  from  different  parts  of  Scotland,  packed  in  ice,  and 
brought  by  water  :  if  the  vessels  have  a  fair  wind,  they  will  be  in  London  in 
three  days  ;  but  it  frequently  happens  that  they  are  at  sea  perhaps  a  fortnight, 
when  the  greater  part  of  the  fish  is  perished,  and  has, for  a  year  or  two  past, 
sold  as  low  as  two  pence  per  pound,  and  up  to  as  much  as  eighteen  pence  per 
pound  at  the  same  time,  owing  to  its  different  degrees  of  goodness.  This  ac- 
counts for  the  very  low  prices  at  which  the  itinerant  fishmongers  cry  their 
"  delicate  Salmon,"  "  dainty  fresh  Salmon,"  and  "  Live  Cod,"  "  New 
Mackarel,"  &c.  &c. 

"  Salmon  Gwilts,  or  Salmon  Peel,  are  the  small  salmon  which  come  from 
about  five  or  six  pounds  to  ten  pounds,  are  very  good  fish,  and  make  hand- 
some dishes  of  fish,  sent  to  table  crooked  in  the  form  of  an  S. 

"  Beruick  Trout  are  a  distinct  fish  from  the  gwilts,  and  are  caught  in 
the  River  Tweed,  and  dressed  in  the  same  manner  as  the  gwilt. 

"  Calvered  Salmon  is  the  salmon  caught  in  the  Thames,  and  cut  into  slices 
alive ;  and  some  few  salmon  are  brought  from  Oxford  to  London  alive,  and 
ctit.  A  few  slices  make  a  handsome,  genteel  dish,  but  is  generally  very 
expensive  :  sometimes  15s.  per  pound." 


FISH.  '  237 

will  neither  look  nor  taste  well :  (boil  the  Liver  in  a 
separate  saucepan.)  When  the  water  boils,  put  in  a 
handful  of  salt,  take  off  the  scum  as  soon  as  it  rises, 
have  the  fish  well  washed,  put  it  in,  and  if  it  is  thick, 
let  it  boil  very  gently  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour  to  a 
pound  of  fish ;  but  practice  only  can  perfect  the  Cook 
in  dressing  Salmon  ;  —  a  quarter  of  a  split  Salmon  will 
take  almost  as  long  boiling  as  half  a  one.  Lobster 
Sauce  (No.  284.) 

Olis.  —  The  thinnest  part  of  the  Fish,  is  the  fattest, 
and  if  vou  have  a  "  Grand  Gourmand''  at  table,  ask  him 
if  he  is  for  Thick  or  Thin. 

T/ie  Thames  Salmon  is  preferred  in  the  London 
Market,  and  some  Epicures  pretend  to  be  able  to 
distinguish  by  the  taste,  in  which  reach  of  the  River 
it  was  caught ! ! ! 

N.B.  If  you  haie  any  left,  put  it  into  a  pie-dish,  and 
cover  it  with  an  equal  portion  of  Vinegar  and  Pump- 
water,  and  a  little  salt,  it  will  be  ready  in  three  days. 

Fresh  Salmon  Broiled.  —  (No.  163.) 
Clean  the  salmon  well,  and  cut  it  into  slices  about 
an  inch  and  a  half  thick ;  dry  it  thoroughly  in  a  clean 
cloth,  rub  it  over  with  sweet  oil,  or  thick  melted  butter, 
and  sprinkle  a  little  salt  over  it ;  put  your  gridiron  over 
a  clear  fire,  at  some  distance ;  when  it  is  hot,  wipe  it 
clean,  rub  it  with  sweet  oil  or  lard  ;  lay  the  salmon  on, 
and  when  it  is  done  on  one  side,  turn  it  gently  and 
broil  the  other.  Anchovy  sauce,  &c. 
Obs.  —  An  oven  does  them  best. 

Soles  or  Eels"^,  SfC.  SfC.  stewed  Wiggy's  way.  — 
(No.  164.) 
Take  two  pounds  of  fine  silverf  Eels; : — the  best  are 

*  Small  Pish  and  the  Fillets  of  Whiting,  Turbots,  Brills,  &c.  and  slices  of 
Cod,  or  the  head  or  Tail  of  it,  are  excellent  dressed  the  san'ie  way. 

t  The  Yellotc  Eels  taste  muddy  :  the  Whiteness  of  the  belly  of  the  fish,  is 
not  the  only  mark  to  know  the  best ;  the  right  colour  of  the  back  is  a  very 
bright  coppery  hue  ;  the  Olive  coloured  are  inferior  ;  and  those  tending  to  a 
Sreen  are  worse. 


238  FISH. 

those  that  are  rather  more  than  a  half-crown  piece  in 
circumference,  quite  fresh,  full  of  life,  and  as  "  brisk  as 
an  Eel  •"  such  as  have  been  kept  out  of  water  till  they 
can  scarce  stir,  are  good  for  nothing.  Gut  them,  rub 
them  with  salt  till  the  slime  is  cleaned  from  them,  wash 
them  in  several  different  waters,  and  divide  them  into 
pieces  about  four  inches  long. 

Some  Cooks,  after  skinning  them,  dredge  them  with 
a  little  flour,  wipe  them  dry,  and  then  a^'^  and  crumb 
them,  and  fry  them  in  drippings  till  they  are  brown, 
and  lay  them  to  dry  on  a  hair  sieve. 

Have  ready  a  quart  of  good  Beef  Gravy  (No.  329); 
it  must  be  cold  when  you  put  the  Eels  into  it,  set  them 
on  a  slow  fire  to  simmer  very  gently  for  about  a  quarter 
of  an  hour,  according  to  the  size  of  the  eels;  —  watch 
them  that  they  are  not  done  too  much ;  —  take  them 
carefully  out  of  the  stewpan  with  a  fish  slice,  so  as  not 
to  tear  their  coats,  and  lay  them  on  a  dish  about  two 
inches  deep. 

Or,  if  /o;-  ]S[a'igre  Dai/s,  when  you  have  skinned  your 
Eels,  throw  the  skins  into  salt  and  water,  wash  them 
well,  and  then  put  them  into  a  stewpan  with  a  quart  of 
water,  two  onions,  with  two  cloves  stuck  in  each,  and 
one  blade  of  mace ;  let  it  boil  twenty  minutes,  and 
strain  it  through  a  sieve  in  a  basin. 

Make  the  Sauce  about  as  thick  as  cream,  by  mix- 
ing a  little  flour  ^vith  it;  put  in  also  two  table- 
spoonsful  of  Port  wine,  and  one  of  Mushroom  Cat- 
sup, or  Cavice;  stir  it  into  the  sauce  by  degrees, 
give  it  a  boil,  and  strain  it  to  the  fish  through  a 
sieve. 

N.B.  If  Mushroom  sauce  (Nos.  225,  305,  or  333), 
or  White  Sauce  (No.  364,  No.  2),  be  used  instead  of 
Eeef  Gravy,  this  will  be  one  of  the  most  relishing  Maigre 
dishes  we  know\ 

Obs.  —  To  kill  Eels  insfantlij,  without  the  horrid  tor- 
ture of  cutting  and  skinning  them  alive,  pierce  the  spinal 
marrow,  close  to  the  back  part  of  the  skull,  with  a  sharp 


FISH.  239 

pointed  skewer:  if  this  be  done  in  the  right  place,  all 
motion  will  instantly  cease.  The  humane  Executioner 
does  certain  criminals  the  favour  to  hang  them,  before 
he  breaks  them  on  the  wheel. 

To/n/Ee/^.  — (No.  165.) 

Skin  and  gut  them,  and  wash  them  well  in  cold 
water,  cut  them  in  pieces  four  inches  long,  season  them 
with  pepper  and  salt,  beat  an  eg^  well  on  a  plate,  dip 
them  in  the  egg,  and  then  in  fine  bread  crumbs ;  fry 
them  in  fresh  clean  lard,  drain  them  well  from  the  fat ; 
Garnish  v/ith  crisp  parsley ;  for  Sauce,  plain  and  melted 
butter,  sharpened  with  lemon  juice,  or  Parsley  and 
Butter. 

Spitc/icoclied  Eels.  —  (No.  166.) 

This  the  French  Cooks  call  the  English  way  of 
dressing  Eels. 

Take  two  middling  sized  silver  eels,  leave  the  skin 
on,  scour  them  with  salt,  and  wash  them,  cut  off  the 
heads,  slit  them  on  the  belly  side,  and  take  out  the 
bone  and  guts,  and  w^ash  and  wipe  them  nicely,  then 
cut  them  into  pieces  about  three  inches  long,  and  wipe 
them  quite  dry,  put  two  ounces  of  butter  into  a  stewpan 
with  a  little  minced  parsley,  thyme,  sage,  pepper,  and 
salt,  and  a  vei-y  little  chopped  shallot ;  set  the  stew- 
pan  over  the  fire ;  when  the  butter  is  melted,  stir  the 
ingredients  together,  and  take  it  off  the  fire,  mix  the 
yolks  of  two  eggs  with  them,  and  dip  the  eel  in,  a 
piece  at  a  time,  and  then  roll  them  in  bread  crumbs, 
making  as  much  stick  to  them  as  you  can;  then  rub  a 
gridiron  with  a  bit  of  suet,  set  it  high  over  a  very  clear 
fire,  and  broil  your  eels  of  a  fine  crisp  brown :  dish 
them  with  crisp  parsley,  and  send  up  plain  butter  in  a 
boat,  and  anchovy  and  butter. 

Obs.~^ye  like  them  better  with  the  Skin  off;  it  is 
very  apt  to  offend  delicate  stomachs. 


240  FISH. 

Mackarel  Boiled,  — (So.  167.) 

This  Fish  loses  its  life  as  soon  as  it  leaves  the  Sea, 
and  the  fresher  it  is  the  better. 

1J\is/i  and  clean  t/icni  thornughhi,  (the  fishmongers 
seldom  do  this  sufficiently),  put  them  into  cold  water 
with  a  iiandful  of  salt  in  it;  let  them  rather  simmer, 
than  boil ;  a  small  mackarel  will  be  enough  in  about  a 
quarter  of  an  hour :  when  the  Eye  starts  and  the  Tail 
splits, —  they  are  done;  do  not  let  them  stand  in  the 
water  a  moment  after;  they  are  so  delicate  that  the 
heat  of  the  water  will  break  them. 

Tliis  fisii  in  London  is  rarely  fresh  enough  to  appear 
at  table  in  perfection;  and  either  the  Mackarel  is  boiled 
too  much,  or  the  Rue'  too  little.  The  best  way  is  to 
open  a  slit  opposite  the  middle  of  the  roe,  you  can  then 
clean  it  properly;  this  will  allow  the  water  access,  and 
the  roc  w  ill  then  be  done  as  soon  as  the  fish,  which  it 
seldom  is  otherwise  ;  some  sagacious  gour/nands  insist 
upon  it  they  must  be  taken  out  and  boiled  separately. 
For  sauce,  see  (Nos.  263,  265,  and  266),  and  you  may 
garnish  them  with  pats  of  minced  Fennel. 

N.B.  The  common  notion  is,  that  Mackarel  are  in 
best  condition  when  fullest  of  Roe; — however,  the  Fish 
at  that  time  is  only  valuable  for  its  Roe,  —  the  Meat  of 
it  has  scarcely  any  flavour. 

Mackarel  generally  make  their  appearance  off  the 
Land's  End  about  the  beginning  of  April,  and  as  the 
weather  gets  warm,  they  gradually  come  round  the 
coast,  and  generally  arrive  oft'  Brighton  about  May, 
and  continue  for  some  months,  until  they  begin  to 
shoot  their  spawn. 

After  they  have  let  go  their  Roes,  they  are  called 
shotten  mackarel,  and  are  not  worth  catching,  the  Roe, 
which  was  all  that  was  good  of  them,  being  gone. 


•  The  Roe  of  the  Male  fish  is  soft  like  the  brains  of  a  Calf,  — that  of   the 
Fem&le  is  fuil  of  small  eggs,  and  called  hard  Hot. 


FISH.  241 

It  is  in  the  early  season,  when  they  have  least  Roe,  that 
the  Jiesh  of  this  Fish  is  in  highest  perfeetion.  There 
is  also  an  after-season,  when  a  few  fine  large  Mankarel 
are  taken,  {i.  e.  during  the  Herring  season,  about 
October),  which  some  piscivorous  Epicures  are  very 
partial  to, — these  fish  having  had  time  to  fatten  and 
recover  their  Health,  are  full  of  high  flavour,  and  their 
flesh  is  firm  and  juicy:  they  are  commonly  called  Silver 
Mackorel,  from  their  beautiful  appearance,  their  colour 
being  almost  as  bright  when  boiled,  as  it  was  the 
moment  they  were  caught. 

Mackorel  Broiled.— -(No.  169.) 

Clean  a  fine  large  mackarel,  wnpe  it  on  a  dry  cloth, 
and  cut  a  long  slit  down  the  back ;  lay  it  on  a  clean 
gridiron,  over  a  very  clear  slow  fire;  when  it  is  done 
on  one  side  turn  it;  be  careful  that  it  does  not  burn; 
send  it  up  with  Fennel  sauce  (No.  265) ;  mix  well 
together  a  little  finely  minced  Fennel  and  Parsley, 
seasoned  with  a  little  Pepper  and  Salt,  a  bit  of  fresh 
butter,  and  when  the  Zvlackarel  are  ready  for  the  table, 
put  some  of  this  into  each  fish. 

Mackarel  Baked.— (So.  170.) 

Cut  off  their  heads,  open  them,  and  take  out  the 
roes,  and  clean  them  thoroughly;  rub  them  on  the 
inside  with  a  little  pepper  and  salt,  put  the  roes  in 
again,  season  them  (with  a  mixture  of  powdered  allspice, 
black  pepper  and  salt,  well  rubbed  together),  and  lay 
them  close  in  a  baking  pan,  cover  them  with  equal 
quantities  of  cold  vinegar  and  water,  tie  them  down 
with  strong  white  paper  doubled,  and  bake  them  for  an 
hour  in  a  slow  oven.     They  will  keep  for  a  fortmght. 

Pickled  Mackarel,  Herrings,  or  Sprats.  — (No.  171.) 

Procure  them  as  fresh  as  possible,  split  them  open, 
take  off  the  heads,  and  trim  off  all  the  thin  part  of  the 
M 


242  FISH. 

belly,  put  them  into  salt  and  water  for  one  hour,  drain 
and  wipe  your  fish,  and  put  them  into  jars  or  casks, 
with  the  following  preparation,  which  is  enough  for 
three  dozen  Mackarel.  Take  salt  and  bay  salt,  one 
pound  each,  saltpetre  and  lump  sugar,  two  ounces 
each  ;  grind  and  pound  the  salt,  &c.  well  together,  put 
the  fish  into  jars  or  casks,  with  a  layer  of  the  preparation 
at  the  bottom,  then  a  layer  of  mackarel  with  the  skin 
side  downwards,  so  continue  alternately  till  the  cask 
or  jar  is  full;  press  it  down  and  cover  it  close.  In 
about  three  months  they  will  be  fit  for  use. 

Sprats  Broi/€d.  —  {No.  \70.*)  —  Fried,  see  (No.  173.) 

If  you  have  not  a  Sprat  Gridiron,  get  a  piece  of 
pointed  iron  wire  as  thick  as  packiiiread,  and  as  long 
as  your  gridiron  is  broad  ;  run  this  through  the  heads 
of  your  sprats,  sprinkle  a  little  flour  and  salt  over 
them,  —  put  your  gridiron  over  a  clear  quick  fire,  turn 
them  in  about  a  couple  of  minutes  ;  when  the  other  side 
is  brown,  draw  out  the  wire  and  send  up  the  fish  with 
melted  butter  in  a  cup. 

Oh.s.  —  That  Sprats  ar»  young  Herrings,  is  evident 
by  their  anatomy,  in  which  there  is  no  perceptible 
difference.  They  appear  very  soon  after  the  Herrings 
are  gone,  and  seem  to  be  the  spawn  just  vivified. 

Sprats  Steu-ef/.—iSo.  170.**) 

Wash  and  dry  your  Sprats,  and  lay  them  as  level  as 
you  can  in  a  stew-pan,  and  between  every  layer  of 
Sprats  put  three  peppercorns,  and  as  many  allspice  v.'ith 
a  few  grains  of  salt;  barely  cover  thorn  with  vinegar, 
and  stew  them  one  hour  over  a  slow  fire ;  they  must  not 
boil;  a  bay  leaf  is  sometimes  added.  Herrings  or 
Mackarel  may  be  stewed  the  same  way. 

To  Fri/  Sprats,  see  (No.  173.) 

Herrings  Broiled.  —(No.  171.') 
Wash  them  well,  then  dry  them  with  a  cloth,  dust 


FISH. 


243 


them  with  flour,  and  broil  them  over  a  slow  fire  till  they 
are  well  done.     Send  up  melted  butter  in  a  boat. 

Obs.  —  For  a  particular  account  of  Herrings,  see 
S'oLAS  Dodd's  Natural  Hist,  of  Herrings,  in  178  pages 
8vo.  1752. 

Red  Herrings,  a?id  other  Dried  Fish  —  (No.  172.) 
"  Should  be  cooked  in  the  same  manner  now  prac- 
tised by  the  Poor  in  Scotland.  They  soak  them  in 
water  until  they  become  pretty  fresh ;  they  are  then  hung 
up  in  the  Sun  and  Wind,  on  a  stick  through  their  Eyes, 
to  dry  ;  and  then  boiled  or  broiled.  In  this  way,  they 
eat  almost  as  well  as  if  they  were  new  caught." —  See 
the  Hon.  John  Cochrane's  Seaman's  Guide,  Svo. 
1797,  p. 34. 

"  Scotch  Haddocks  should  be  soaked  all  night.  You 
may  boil  or  broil  them  ;  if  you  broil,  split  them  in  two. 
'*  All  the  different  sorts  of  Dried  Fish,  except  Stock 
Fish,  —  are  salted,  dried  in  the  Sun,  in  prepared  kilns, 
or  by  the  smoke  of  wood  fires ;  and  require  to  be 
softened  and  freshened,  in  proportion  to  their  bulk, 
nature  or  dryness ;  the  very  dry  sort,  as  Cod,  Whiting, 
&c.  should  be  steeped  in  lukewarm  water,  kept  as  near 
as  possi!)le  to  an  equal  degree  of  heat.  The  larger  Fish 
should  be  steeped  twelve  hours:  the  smaller  about 
two ;  after  which  they  should  be  taken  out  and  hung 
up  by  the  tails  until  they  are  dressed.  The  reason  for 
hanging  them  up  is  that  they  soften  equally  as  in  the 
steeping,  without  extracting  too  much  of  the  relish, 
which  would  render  them  insipid.  When  thus  pre- 
pared, the  small  Fish,  as  Whiting,  Tusk,  &c.  should  be 
floured  and  laid  on  the  gridiron  ;  and  when  a  little 
hardened  on  one  side,  must  be  turned  and  basted  with 
sweet  oil  upon  a  feather  ;  and  when  basted  on  both 
sides,  and  well  heated  through,  taken  up.  A  clear 
charcoal  fire  is  the  best  for  cooking  them,  and  the  Fish 
should  be  kept  at  a  good  distance  to  broil  gradually. 
When  they  are  enough  they  will  swell  a  little  in  the 
M  2 


2.44  nsii. 

basting,  and  you  must  not  let  them  fall  again.  If 
boik'l,  as  the  larger  fish  generally  are,  they  should  be 
kept  just  simmering  over  an  equal  fire,  in  which  way 
half  an  hour  will  do  the  largest  fish,  and  five  minutes 
the  smallest. 

"  Dried Siilnwn,  though  a  large  fish,  docs  not  require 
more  steeping  than  a  Whiting  ;  and  when  laid  on  the 
gridiron  should  be  moderately  peppered.  To  ILrring 
and  to  all  kinds  of  broiled  Salt  Fish,  sweet  oil  is  the 
best  basting.'' 

The  above  is  from  Macdonald's  I,ondon  Farni/i/ 
Cook,  8vo.  1808,  p.  139. 

SmcltSy  Sprats,  or  other  small  Fishjrud.  —  (Xo.  173.) 

Clean  and  dry  them  thoroughly  in  a  cloth,  fry  them 
plain,  or  beat  an  q^^  on  a  plate,  dip  them  in  it,  and 
then  in  very  fine  bread  crumbs  that  have  been  rubbed 
though  a  sieve;  the  smaller  the  Fish,  the  finer  should 
be  the  bread  crumbs,  —  Biscuit  Powder  is  still  better ; 
fry  them  in  plenty  of  clean  lard,  or  drippings;  as  soon 
as  the  lard  boils  and  is  still,  put  in  the  fish,  —  as  soon 
as  they  arc  delicately  browned,  they  are  done  ;  this  will 
hardly  take  two  minutes.  Drain  them  on  a  hair  sieve, 
placed  before  the  fire,  turning  tl\em  till  quite  dry. 
Obs.-  Head  (No.  145.) 

"  Smelts  are  allowed  to  be  caught  in  the  Thames, 
on  the  first  of  November,  and  continue  till  May.  The 
Thames  smelts;  are  the  best  and  sweetest  for  two  rea- 
sons ;  they  are  fresher  and  richer,  than  any  other  yon 
can  get :  they  catch  them  much  more  plentiful  and 
larger  in  Lancashire  and  Norfolk  ;  but  not  so  good  :  a 
great  many  are  brought  to  town  from  Norfolk,  but 
barely  come  good,  as  they  are  a  fish  should  always  be 
eaten  fresh  ;  indeed  all  river  Fisii  should  be  eaton 
fresh,  except  Salmon,  which,  unless  crimped,  eats  better 
the  second  or  tliird  day  ;  but  all  Thames  fish,  particu- 
iarly,  should  be  eaten  very  fresh  ;  no  fish  eats  so  bad 
kept."' 


FISH.  245 

Potted  Praiins,  Shrimps,  or  Craii-Jish.  —  (No.  175.) 
Boil  them  in  water  with  plenty  of  Salt  in  it.  When 
you  have  picked  them,  powder  them  with  a  little  beaten 
mace,  or  grated  nutmeg,  or  allspice,  and  pepper  and 
salt ;  add  a  little  cold  butter,  and  pound  all  well  together 
in  a  marble  mortar  till  of  the  consistence  of  paste. 
Put  it  into  pots  covered  with  clarified  butter,  and  cover 
them  over  with  wetted  bladder. 

Lobster.  — {^o.  176.) 

Buy  these  Alke,  —  the  Lobster  ^lerchants  sometimes 
keep  them  till  they  are  starved,  before  they  boil  them  ; 
they  are  then  watery,  and  have  not  half  their  flavour. 

Choose  those  that  (as  an  old  Cook  says,  are  "  Heaiy 
and  Lirehi,"  and)  are  full  of  motion,  which  is  the  Index 
of  their  freshness. 

Those  of  the  middle  size  are  the  best.  Never  fake 
them  when  the  shell  is  incrusted,  which  is  a  sign  they  are 
old.  The  Male  Lobster  is  preferred  to  Eat,  and  the 
Female  (on  account  of  the  Eggs)  to  make  Sauce  of. 
The  Hen  Lobster  is  distinguished  by  having  a  broader 
Tail  than  the  male,  and  less  Claws. 

•  Set  on  a  pot,  with  water  salted  in  the  proportion  of 
;a  tablespoonful  of  salt  to  a  quart  of  water  :  when  the 
water  boils  put  it  in,  and  keep  it  boiling  briskly  from  half 
an  hour  to  an  hour,  according  to  its  size  ;  v/ipe  all  the 
scum  off  it,  and  rub  the  shell  v/ith  a  very  little  butter  or 
sweet  oil ;  break  off  the  great  claws,  crack  them  care- 
fully in  each  joint,  so  that  they  may  not  be  shattered, 
and  yet  come  to  pieces  easily,  cut  the  tail  dov/n  the 
middle,  and  send  up  the  body  whole.  For  Sauce 
(No.  285.)     To  pot  Lobster  (No.  178.) 

\*  These  Fish  come  in  about  April,  and  continue  plen- 
tiful till  the  Oyster  season  returns  ;  after  that  time  they 
begin  to  spawn,  and  seldom  open  solid. 

Crab.  — 0^0.  177.) 
The  above  observations  apply  to  crabs,  which  should 


246 


FISH. 


neither  be  too  small  nor  too  lars^e.  The  best  size  are 
those  which  measiire  about  eight  inches  across  the 
shoulders. 

*^*  (Jrab.s  make  t/wir  appearance  and  disappearance  about 
the  same  time  as  Lobsters.  T/te  Cromer  Crabs  are  most 
esteemed^  but  numbers  are  brought  from  the  Isle  of  IVight. 

Potted  Lub»teror  Crab.— (No.  178.) 
This  must  be  made  with  fine  Hen  Lobsters  when  full 
of  spawn;  boil  them  thorougiily,  see  (No.  176);  when 
cold,  pick  out  all  the  solid  meat,  and  pound  it  in  a 
mortar,  it  is  usual  to  add  by  degrees  (a  very  little)  finely 
pounded  mace,  black  or  Cayenne  pepper,  salt,  and,  while 
pouudiM;r,  a  little  butter.  When  the  whole  is  well 
mixed,  and  beat  to  the  consistence  of  paste,  press  it 
down  hard  in  a  preserving-pot,  pour  clarified  butter 
over  it,  and  cover  it  with  wetted  bladder. 

Obs. — Some  put  Lobster  without  pounding  it,  and  only 
cut  it  or  ])ull  it  into  such  pieces  as  if  it  was  prepared 
for  sauce,  and  mince  it  with  the  spawn  and  soft  parts 
and  seasoning,  and  jDress  it  together  as  close  as  possible  ; 
in  packing  it  place  the  coral  and  spawn,  Sec.  in  layers, 
so  that  it  may  look  regular  and  handsome  when  cut  out. 
If  you  intend  it  as  store,  (see  N.  B.  to  (No.  284)  to 
make  sauce  with,)  this  is  the  best  way  to  do  it  —  but  if 
for  Sandwiches,  &c.  the  first  is  the  best,  and  will  keep 
much  longer. 

Dressed  or  Buttf.ued  Lobstkrs  and  Crabs  are 
favourite  ornamental  dishes  w4th  those  who  deck  their 
table  merely  to  please  the  Eye.  Our  apology  for  not 
giving  such  Receipts  will  be  found  in  Obs.  to  (No.  322.) 

OYSTERS*.— (No.  18L) 
The   common  t  Colchester   and    Feversham   oysters 


•  Oyster  Sauce  (So.  278),  Preoerved  Oysters  (No.  280.) 
+  Those  are  called  Com/n<m  Oysters  which  are  picked  up  ou  the  French 
coast,  and  laid  in  the  Colchisier  beds. 
These  are  uever  80  fine  and  fat  a»  the  Natives,  and  seldom  recover  the 


FISH.  247 

are  brought  to  market  on  the  5th  of  August;  —  the 
Milton,  or  as  they  are  commonly  called,  the  melting 
Nathes *,  do  not  come  in  till  the  beginning  of  October, 
continue  in  season  till  the  12th  of  May,  and  approach 
the  meridian  of  their  perfection  about  Christmas. 

Some  piscivorous  Gourmands  think  that  Oysters  are 
not  best  when  quite  fresh  from  their  beds,  and  that 
their  flavour  is  too  brackish  and  harsh,  and  is  much 
ameliorated  by  giving  them  a  feed. 

To  FfiEDf  Oysters. — Cover  them  with  clean  water, 
with  a  pint  of  salt  to  about  two  gallons ;  (nothing  else, 
no  oatmeal,  flour,  nor  any  other  trumpery);  this  will 
cleanse  them  from  the  mud  and  sand,  &c.  of  the  bed  ; 
after  they  have  lain  in  it  twelve  hours,  change  it  for 
fresh  salt  and  water,  and  in  twelve  hours  more  they 
will  be  in  prime  order  for  the  Mouth,  and  remain  so  two 
or  three  days  :  —  at  the  time  of  high  water,  you  may  see 
them  open  their  shells,  in  expectation  of  receiving  their 
usual  food.  This  process  of  feeding  oysters,  is  only 
employed  when  a  great  many  come  up  together. 

The  REAL  Colchester,  or  Pyfleet  Barrelled 
Oysters,  that  are  packed  at  the  beds,  are  better  without 
being  put  in  water ;  they  are  carefully  and  tightly 
packed,  and  must  not  be  disturbed  till  wanted  for  table : 
these,  in  moderate  weather,  will  keep  good  for  a  week 
or  ten  days. 

If  an  Oyster  opens  his  mouth  in  the  barrel,  he  dies 
immediately. 

To  preserve  the  lives  of  Barrelled  Oysters,  put  a  heavy 
v/eight  on  the  wooden  top  of  the  barrel,  which  is  to  be 


shock  their  feelings  receive,  from  being  transported  from  their  native  place ; — 
delicate  little  Creatures,  they  arc  as  exquisi'te  in  their  own  taste,  as  they  are  to 
Ihe  taste  of  others!  ! 

•  Oysters  are  thus  called,  that  are  born,  as  well  as  bred  and  fed  in  this 
country,  and  are  mostly  spit  in  the  Burnham  and  Mersey  rivers  ;  they  do  not 
come  to  their  finest  condition  till  they  are  near  four  years  old. 

t  \ViL,L  Rabisha,  in  his  Receipt  to  "  broil  oysters,"  (set  his  Cookery, 
pa^e  144),  directs,  that  while  they  are  undergoing  this  operation,  they  should 
ha  fed  with  white  wine  and  grated  bread. 


248 


FISH. 


placed  on  the  surface  of  the  oysters.  This  is  to  be 
effected  by  removing  the  first  hoop,  the  staves  will  then 
spread  and  stand  erect,  making  a  wide  openinc;  for  the 
head  of  the  barrel  to  fall  down  closely  on  the  remaining 
fish,  keeping:  them  close  together. 

Mem. — The  Oysters  which  are  commonly  sold  as 
Barrelled  Oysters,  are  merely  the  smallest  natives,  se- 
lected from  the  stock,  and  put  into  the  Tub  when 
ordered  ;  and  instead  of  being  of  superior  quality,  are 
often  very  inferior.  — To  immature  Animals,  there' is  the 
same  objection,  as  to  unripe  Vegetables. 

Ohs. — Common  people  are  indifferent  ^nhowl  the  tnonner 
of  opening  Ousters,  and  the  time  of  eating  them  after 
they  are  opened ;  nothing,  however,  is  more  important, 
in  the  enlightened  eyes  of  the  experienced  Oyster 
eater. 

Those  who  wish  to  enjoy  this  delicious  restorative  irr 
its  utmost  perfection,  must  eat  it  the  moment  it  is  opened^ 
.with  its  own  gravy  in  the  under  shell :  —  if  not  Eaten 
•ahile  Absohtehj  Aine,  its  flavour  and  spirit  are  lost. 

The  true  lover  of  an  Oyster,  will  have  some  regard 
for  the  feelin^-s  of  his  little  favourite,  and  will  never 
abandon  it  to  the  mercy  of  a  bungling  operator,  —  but 
will  open  it  himself,  and  contrive  to  detach  the  Fish 
from  the  shell  so  dexterously,  that  the  Oyster  is  hardly 
conscious  he  has  been  ejected  from  his  Lodging,  till  he 
feels  the  teeth  of  the  piscivorous  Gourmand  tickling  him 
to  Death. 

•  N.  B.  Fish  is  less  nutritious  than  Flesh:  as  a  proof, 
when  the  trainer  of  Newmarket  wishes  to  uaste  a  Jockey, 
jie  is  not  allowed  Meat,  not  even  Pudding,  if  Fish  can 
be  had.  The  white  kinds  of  Fish,  Turbots,  Soles, 
Whiting,  Cod,  Haddock,  Flounders,  Smelts,  &c.  are 
less  nutritious  than  the  oib,  fat  Fish,  such  as  Eels, 
Salmon,  Herrings,  Sprats,  &c. ;  the  latter,  however,  are 
more  difficult  to  digest,  and  often  disturb  weak  sto- 
machs, .  ,0  that  they  are  obliged  to  call  in  the  assistance 
of  Cayenne,  Cogniac,  &c. 


FISH.  249 

-Shell  Fish,  have  long  held  a  high  rank  in  the 
catalogue  of  easily  digestible  and  speedily  restorative 
foods ;  of  these,  the  Oyster  certainly  deserves  the  best 
character,  —  but,  we  think  it  has  acquired  not  a  little 
more  reputation  for  these  qualities  than  it  deserves  ; 
a  well  dressed  Chop  *  or  Steak,  see  (No.  94),  will  invi- 
gorate the  Heart  in  a  much  higher  ratio ;  —  to  recruit 
the  Animal  Spirits  and  support  strength,  there  is  nothing 
equal  to  Animal  food,  — when  kept  till  properly  tender, 
none  will  give  so  little  trouble  to  the  Digestive  organs, 
and  so  much  substantial  excitement  to  the  Constitution. 
See  note  under  (No.  185.  *) 

We  could  easily  say  as  much  in  praise  of  Mutton,  as 
Mr  .  Ritson  has  against  it,  in  his  "  Essay  on  Abstinence 
from  Animal  Food  as  a  Moral  Duty,''  8vo.  London, 
1802,  page  102.  He  says,  "  The  Pagan  Priests  were 
the  first  eaters  of  Animal  Food;  it  corrupted  their  taste, 
and  so  excited  them  to  Gluttony,  that  when  they  had 
eaten  the  same  thing  repeatedly,  their  htiurims  Appetites 
called  for  Variety.  —  He  who  had  devoured  the  Sheep 
longed  to  masticate  the  Shepherd  !  !  ! 

"  Nature  seems  to  have  provided  other  Animals  for 
the  food  of  man,  from  the  astonishing  increase  of  those 
which  instinct  points  out  to  him  as  peculiarly  desirable 
for  that  purpose.  For  instance  ;  so  quick  is  the  produce 
of  Pigeons,  that  in  the  space  of  four  years  14,760 
may  come  from  a  single  pair ;  and  in  the  like  period 
1,274,840  from  a  couple  of  rabbits,  —  this  is  nothing 
to  the  millions  of  eggs  in  the  melt  of  a  cod  fish." 

Scolloped  Oysters.  —  (No.  182.)  —  A  good  way  to 

warm  up  any  cold  Fish. 
Stew  the  Oysters  slowly  in  their  own  liquor  for  tvro 

•  "  Animal  food,  being  composed  of  the  most  nutritious  parts  of  tlie  food 
on  which  the  Animal  lived,  and  having  already  been  digested  by  the  proper 
organs  of  an  animal,  requires  only  solution  and  mixture,  whereas  Vegetable 
food  must  be  converted  into  a  substance  of  an  animal  nature,  by  the  proper 
action  of  our  own  Viscera,  and  consequently  requires  more  labour  of  the 
Stomach,  and  other  Digestive  Organs." 

Burton  on  the  Non  naturals,  page  213. 
M  5 


250  FISH. 

or  three  minutes,  —  take  them  out  with  a  spoon,  and 
beard  them,  and  skim  the  Hquor,  —  put  a  bit  of  butter 
into  a  stewpan,  —  and  when  it  is  melted,  add  as  much 
line  bread  crumbs  as  will  dry  it  up,  tlien  put  to  it  the 
Oyster  liquor,  and  i^ive  it  a  boil  up,  —  put  the  Oysters 
into  Scollop  shells  that  you  have  buttered,  and  strewed 
with  bread  crumbs, — then  a  layer  of  Oysters,  —  then 
of  bread  crumbs,  and  then  some  more  Oysters, — moisten 
it  with  the  Oyster  liquor,  cover  them  with  bread 
cruml)s,  —  put  about  half  a  dozen  little  bits  of  butter 
on  the  top  of  each,  and  brown  them  in  a  Dutch  oven. 

Obs. — Essence  of  Anchovy,  Catsup,  Cayenne,  unrated 
I^mon  Peel,  Mace,  and  other  Spices,  &c.  are  added  by 
those  who  prefer  jnquuncc  to  the  j^enuine  Havour  of  the 
Oyster. 

Cold  Fish  may  be  re-dressed  the  same  way. 

N.  B.  Small  Scollop  shells,  or  Saucers  that  hold 
about  half  a  dozen  Oysters,  are  the  most  convenient. 

SUned  Oy.stcrs.—Qso.  182  *.) 

Large  Oysters  will  da  for  stewing,  and  by  some  are 
preferred  ;  but  we  love  the  plump,  juicy  natives.  Stew 
a  couple  of  dozen  of  these  in  their  own  liquor; — 
when  they  are  coming  to  a  boil,  skim  well,  tnke  them 
up  and  beard  them ;  strain  the  liquor  through  a 
tammis  sieve,  and  lay  the  oysters  on  a  dish.  Put  an 
ounce  of  butter  into  a  stewpan,  —  when  it  is  melted,  put 
to  it  as  much  flour  as  will  dry  it  up,  the  liquor  of  the 
Oysters,  and  three  tablespoonsful  of  milk  or  cream, 
and  a  litile  white  pepper  and  salt ;  to  this  some 
Cooks  add  a  little  Catsup  or  finely  chopped  Parsley, 
grated  Lemon  Peel,  and  juice ;  let  it  boil  up  for  a 
couple  of  minutes,  till  it  is  smooth,  then  take  it  ofF  the 
fire,  put  in  the  Oysters,  and  let  them  get  warm  ;  (they 
must  not  themselves  be  boiled,  or  they  will  become 
hard ;)  line  the  bottom  and  sides  of  a  hash-dish  with 
bread  sippets,  and  pour  your  ovsters  and  sauce  into  it. 
See  Obs.  to  Receipt  (No.  278.)" 


FISH.  251 

Oysters  Fried.  — {^o.  183.) 

The  largest  and  finest  Oysters  are  to  be  chosen  for 
this  purpose ;  simmer  them  in  their  own  liquor  for  a 
couple  of  minutes,  —  take  them  out  and  lay  them  on  a 
cloth  to  drain,  —  beard  them  and  then  flour  them, — 
egg  and  bread-crumb  them,  —  put  them  into  boiling 
fat,  and  fry  them  a  delicate  brown. 

Obs. — A  tery  nice  garnish  for  Made  Dishes,  —  Steived 
Rump  Steaks,  —  boiled  or  fried  Fish,  S^^c. 


THE 

COOK^S  ORACLE, 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS. 

Btef  Broth''.  —  {^o.  185.) 

Wash  a  Leg  or  a  Shin  of  Beef  very  clean,  crack  the 
bone  in  two  or  three  places,  (this  you  should  desire 
the  Butcher  to  do  for  you,)  add  thereto  any  trimmings 
you  have  of  Meat,  Game,  or  Poultry,  {i.  e.  heads,  necks, 
gizzards,  feet,  &c.)  and  cover  them  ^vith  cold  water, — 
watch  and  stir  it  up  well  from  the  bottom,  and  t/w 
iuoment  it  begins  to  simmer ,  skim  it  carefully — your  Broth 
must  be  perfectly  clear  and  limpid  ;  —  07i  this,  depends 
the  goodness  of  the  Soups,  Sauces,  and  Gravies,  ofivhich 
it  is  the  Basis :  —  then  add  some  cold  water,  to  make 
the  remaining  scum  rise,  and  skim  it  again ;  —  when 
the  scum  has  done  rising,  and  the  surface  of  the  Broth 
is  quite  clear,  put  in  one  moderate-sized  Carrot,  a  head 
of  Celery,  two  Turnips,  and  two  Onions,  —  it  should 
not  have  any  taste  of  sweet  herbs,  spice,  or  garlic, 
&c.  —  either  of  these  flavours  can  easily  be  added  im- 
mediately after,  if  desired,  by  (Nos.  420,  421,  402, 
&c.)  —  cover  it  close,  —  set  it  by  the  side  of  the  fire,  — 
and  let  it  simmer  very  gently  (so  as  not  to  waste  the 
Broth)  for  four  or  five  hours,  or  more,  according  to  the 
v/eight  of  the  Meat :  —  strain  it  through  a  sieve  into  a 
clean  and  dry  stone  pan,  and  set  it  in  the  coldest  place 
you  have. 

Obs. — This  is  the  foundation  for  all  sorts  of  Soups 
and  Sauces,  brown  or  white. 


•  In  culinary  technicals,   is  called  first  stoce,  or  long  Broth  —  in  tkc 
French  Kitchen.  "  Le  Grand  Bouillon," 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,    AND     SOUPS.  253 

-  Stew  no  longer  than  the  Meat  is  thoroughhj  done  to  eat, 
•and  you  will  obtain  excellent  Broth,  without  depriving 
the  Meat  of  its  nutritious  succulence  :  —  to  boil  it  to 
rag's,  as  is  the  common  practice,  will  not  enrich  your 
Broths,  but  make  them  thick  and  grouty. 

The  Meat*,  when  gently  stewed  for  only  four  or  five 
hours  till  it  is  just  tender,  remains  abundantly  sapid 
and  nourishing,  and  will  afford  a  relishing  and  whole- 
some meal  for  half  a  dozen  people  ;  — •  or  make  Potted 
Beef,  (No.  503)  :  —  or  when  you  have  strained  off  the 
Broth,  —  cover  the  meat  again  with  water,  and  let  it 
go  on  boiling  for  four  hours  longer,  and  make  what 
some  Cooks  call  "  Second  Stock,"  —  it  will  produce 
some  very  good  Glaze,  or  Portable  Soup  ;  see  (No. 
252)  and  the  Ohs.  thereon. 

'EeefGrary\.-(^o.  186.) 

Cover  the  bottom  of  a  Stewpan,  that  is  well  tinned 
and  quite  clean,  v/ith  a  slice  of  good  Ham,  or  lean 
Bacon,  four  or  five  pounds  of  Gravy  Beef  cut  into  half- 
pound  pieces,  a  Carrot,  an  Onion  with  tvro  Cloves 
stuck  in  it,  and  a  head  cf  Celery ;  put  a  pint  of  Broth 
or  water  to  it,  cover  it  close,  and  set  it  over  a  moderate 
fire  till  the  water  is  reduced  to  as  little  as  will  just  save 
ths  ingredients  from  burning;  then  turn  it  all  about, 
and  let  it  brown  shghtly  and  equally  all  over ;  —  then 
put  in  three  quarts  of  boiling  water  J  when  it  boils  up, 

*  A  dog  was  fed  on  the  richest  Broth,  yet  could  not  be  kept  alive  ;  while 
another,  wliich  liad  only  the  Meat  boiled  to  a  Chip,  (Had  water,)  throve  very 
well.  This  shows  the  folly  of  attemptii'i;  to  nourish  Men  by  Concentrated 
Soups,  Jellies,  &c.  —  Sinclair,  Code  of  Health,  p.  356. 

If  this  experiment  be  accurate,  what  becomes  of  the  theoretic  virions  of 
those  who  have  written  abuut  noiiiishing  Broths,  &c.? —  The  best  test  cfthe 
restorative  quality  of  Food,  is  a  small  quantity  of  it  satisfying  hun-^er,  the 
strength  of  the  pulse  after  it,  and  the  length  of  time  which  elapses  before 
appetite  returns  again.  According  to  this  rule,  we  give  oar  verdict  in  favour 
of  VNo.  19  or  2i.)    See  N.  B.  to  (No.  181.) 

This  subject  is  fully  discussed  in  "  The  Art  of  Invigorating  and 
Prolosgixg  Life,  by  Diet,  &c."  published  by  Hurst  and  Co.,  No.  90, 
Cheapside,  London;  and  Constable  and  Co.,  Edinburgh, 

t  Called  in  some  Cookery  Books,  "  Second  Stock,"  —  in  the  French 
Kitchen,  "  Jus  de  Bceuf," 

;  A  great  deal  of  care  is  to  be  taken  to  watch  the  time  of  putting  in  the 


254  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,   AND   SOUPS. 

skim  it  carefully,  and  wipe  oft'  with  a  clean  cloth  what 
sticks  round  the  edg:e  and  inside  of  the  stewpan,  that 
your  gravy  may  be  delicately  clean  and  clear.  Set^it 
by  the  side  of  a  fire,  where  it  will  stew  gently  (to  keep 
it  clear,  and  that  it  may  not  be  reduced  too  much)  for 
about  four  hours  :  —  if  it  has  not  boiled  too  fast,  there 
should  be  two  quarts  of  good  gravy;  strain  through  a 
silk  or  tammis  sieve ;  take  very  particular  care  to  skim 
it  well,  and  set  it  in  a  col  I  place. 

Strong   Savouri/   Graxy  —  (No.   188),  —  alias  *'  Brown 
Sauce j"  alias  "  Grand  Espagnol." 

Take  a  Stewpan  that  will  hold  four  quarts,  lay  a 
slice  or  two  of  Ham  or  Bacon  (about  a  quarter  of  an 
inch  thick)  at  the  bottom,  (undressed  is  the  best,)  and 
two  pounds  of  Beef,  or  Veal,  a  Carrot,  a  large  Onion, 
with  four  Cloves  stuck  in  it,  one  head  of  Celery,  a 
bundle  of  Parsley,  Lemon-thyme,  and  Savoury,  about 
as  big  round  as  your  httle  hw^er  when  tied  close,  a 
few  leaves  of  sweet  Basil,  (one  Bay-leaf,  and  a  Shallot, 
if  you  like  it),  a  piece  of  Lemon-peel,  and  a  dozen 
corns  of  Allspice*;  pour  on  this  half  a  pint  of  water, 
cover  it  close,  and  let  it  simmer  gently  on  a  slow  fire 
for  half  an  hour,  in  which  time  it  will  be  almost  dry  ; 
watch  it  very  carefully,  and  let  it  catch  a  nice  brown 
colour,  —  turn  the  Meat,  &c.,  let  it  brown  on  all  sides; 
add  three  pints  of  boiling  water  t,  and  boil  for  a 
couple  of  hours.  It  is  now  rich  Gravy.  To  convert 
it  into 

Cullis,  or  Thickened  Gravy.  —(No.  189.) 

To  a  quart  of  Gravy,  put  a  tablespoonful  of  Thick- 


watcr, — if  it  is  poured  in  too  soon,  the  Gravy  will  not  have  its  true  flavour 
and  colour  ;  —  and  if  it  be  let  alone  till  the  Meat  sticks  to  the  pan,  it  will  get 
a  burnt  tastf. 

•  Trutfles,  Morells  and  Mushrooms,  Catsups  and  Wines,  &c.  are  added  liy 
those  who  are  for  the  extreme  of  Uatit  Gout. 

t  The  general  rule  is  to  put  in  about  a  Piut  of  water  to  a  pound  of  meat, 
U  it  only  simmers  very  geniiy. 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,   AND  SOUPS.  255 

ening  (No.  257),  or  from  one  to  two  tablespoonsful  of 
Flour,  according  to  the  thickness  you  wish  the  Gravy 
to  be,  into  a  basin,  with  a  lacUeful  of  the  Gravy;  stir 
it  quick;  —  add  the  rest  by  degrees,  till  it  is  all  well 
mixed ;  then  pour  it  back  into  a  stewpan,  and  leave  it 
by  the  side  of  the  fire  to  simmer  for  half  an  hour 
longer,  that  the  Thickening  may  thoroughly  incor- 
porate with  the  Gravy,  the  stewpan  being  only  half 
covered,  stirring  it  every  now  and  then ;  —  a  sort  of 
scum  will  gather  on  the  top,  which  it  is  best  not  to 
take  off  till  you  are  ready  to  strain  it  through  a 
Tammis  *. 

Take  care  it  is  neither  too  pale  nor  too  dark  a 
colour :  if  it  is  not  Thick  enough,  let  it  stew  longer,  till 
it  is  reduced  to  the  desired  thickness ;  or  add  a  bit  of 
glaze  or  Portable  Soup  to  it,  see  (No.  252) :  if  it  is  too 
Thick,  you  can  easily  thin  it  with  a  spoonful  or  two  of 
warm  broth,  or  water.  When  your  sauce  is  done,  stir 
it  in  the  basin  you  put  it  into  once  or  twice,  while  it  is 
cooling. 

Veal  Broth.  — (No.  191.) 

A  Knuckle  of  Veal  is  best;  manage  it  as  directed 
in  the  receipt  for  Beef  Broth  (No.  185^),  only  take  care 
not  to  let  it  catch  any  colour,  as  this  and  the  following 
and  richer  preparation  of  Veal,  is  chiefly  used  for 
White  Soups,  Sauces,  &c. 

To  make  White  Sauce,  see  (No.  364*.) 

Veal  Gravy.  — {^o.  192.) 

About  three  pounds  of  the  nut  of  the  Leg  of  Veal, 
cut  into  half  pound  slices,  with  a  quarter  of  a  pound 
of  Ham  in  small  dice;  proceed  as  directed  for  the 
Beef  Gravy  (No.  186),  but  watch  the  time  of  putting 
in  the  water ;   if  this  is  poured  in  too  soon,  the  gravy 

•  A  Tammis  is  a  worsted  cloth,  sold  at  the  oil  shops,  made  on  purpose  for 
straining  sauces ;  the  best  way  of  using  it  is  for  two  people  to  twist  it  contrary 
ways  :  this  is  a  much  better  way  of  straining  sauce  than  through  a  Sieve,  and 
r€fines  it  much  more  completely. 


256  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS. 

Avill  not  have  its  true  flavour,  —  if  it  be  let  alone  till  the 
meat  sticks  too  much  to  the  pan,  it  will  catch  too  brown 
a  Colour. 

Knuckle  o/'Veal,  or  Shin  or  Leg  o/'Beef,  Sou-p. 
(No.  193.) 

A  Knuckle  of  Veal,  of  six  pounds  weight,  will  make 
a  large  tureen  of  excellent  b^oup,  and  is  tims  easily 
prepared :  —  Cut  half  a  pound  of  Bacon  into  slices 
about  half  an  inch  thick,  lay  it  at  the  bottom  of  a  soup 
kettle,  or  deep  stewpan,  and  on  this  place  the  knuckle 
of  veal,  havinjj:  first  chopped  the  bone  in  two  or  three 
places,  —  furnish  it  willi  two  carrots,  two  turnips,  a 
head  of  celery,  tsvo  large  onions,  with  two  or  three 
cloves  stuck  in  one  of  them,  a  dozen  corns  of  Black, 
and  the  same  of  Jamaica  pepper,  and  a  good  bundle 
of  lemon  thyme,  winter  savory,  and  parsley.  —  Just 
cover  the  meal  with  cold  water,  and  set  it  over  a  quick 
fire  till  it  boils ;  having  skimmed  it  well,  remove  your 
soup  kettle  to  the  side  of  the  fire,  let  it  stew  very  gently 
till  it  is  quite  tender,  i.  e.  about  four  hours ;  then  take 
out  the  bacon  and  veal,  strain  the  soup,  and  set  it  by 
in  a  cool  place  till  you  want  it,  when  you  must  take  off 
the  fat  from  the  surface  of  your  liquor,  and  decant  it 
(keeping  back  the  settlings  at  the  bottom)  into  a  clean 
pan. 

If  you  like  a  Thickened  Soup,  put  three  table- 
sfHDonsful  of  the  fat  you  have  taken  off  the  soup,  into 
a  small  stewpan,  and  mix  it  with  four  tablespoonsful 
of  flour,  pour  a  ladlefiil  of  soup  to  it,  and  mix  it  with 
the  rest  by  degrees,  and  boil  it  up  till  it  is  smooth. 

Cut  the  Meat  and  Gristle  of  the  Knuckle  and  the 
Bacon  into  mouthsful,  and  put  them  into  the  Soup, 
and  let  them  get  warm. 

Obs.  —  You  may  make  this  more  savoury  by  adding 
Catsup  (No.  439),  &c.  Shin  or  Beef  may  be  dressed 
in  the  same  way;  see  Knuckle  of  Veal  stewed  with 
Rice  (No.  523.) 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS.  257 

Muttcm  Brot/i.  —  (No.  194.) 

Take  two  pounds  of  Scrag  of  Mutton ;  to  take  the 
biood  out,  put  it  into  a  Stewpan,  and  cover  it  with 
cold  water;  when  the  water  becomes  milk  warm,  pour 
it  off,  skim  it  well,  then  put  it  in  again,  with  four  or 
five  pints  of  v/ater,  a  teaspoonful  of  salt,  a  tablespoonful 
of  best  grits,  and  an  Onion;  set  it  on  a  slow  fire,  and 
when  you  have  taken  all  the  scum  off,  put  in  two  or 
three  turnips,  let  it  simmer  veri/  sloxvly  for  two  hours, 
and  strain  it  through  a  clean  sieve. 

This  usual  method  of  making  Mutton  Broth  with  the 
Scrag,  is  by  no  means  the  most  Economical  method  of 
obtaining  it ;  for  which  see  (Nos.  490  and  564.) 

Ohs. — You  may  thicken  Broth,  by  boihng  with 
it  a  little  Oatmeal, — Rice,  —  Scotch,  or  Pearl  Barley; 
when  you  make  it  for  a  Sick  person,  read  the  Obs.  on 
Broths,  &c.  in  the  last  page  of  the  7th  Chapter  of  the 
Rudiments  of  Cookery ;  and  (No.  564.) 

Mock  Mutton  Broth,  uitJiout  Meat,  in  Five  Minutes, 

(No.  195.) 
Boil  a  few  leaves  of  Parsley  with  two  teaspoonsful 
of  Mushroom*  Catsup,  in  three  quarters  of  a  pint  of 
very  thin  Gruel  (No.  572.)     Season  with  a  little  salt. 

Obs.  —  This  is  improved  by  a  few  drops  of  Shallot 
Wine  (No.  402),  and  the  same  of  Essence  of  Sweet 
Herbs  (No.  419.)   See  also  Portable  Soup  (No.  252.) 

The  Queen's  morning  "  Bouillon  de  Sante.'" 

(No.  196.) 

Sir  Kenelm  Digby,  in  his  "  Closet  of  Cooker i/,'*  page 

149,  London,   1669,  informs  us,  was  made  with  "  a 

brawny  Hen,  or  young  Cock,  a  handful  of  parsley,  one 

sprig  of  thyme,  three  of  speamiint,  a  little  balm,  half  a 


*  By  this  method,  it  is  said,  an  ingenious  Cook  long  deceived  a  large 
family,  who  were  all  fond  of  weak  mutton  broth. — Mushroom  Gravy,  or 
Catsup  (No.  439),  approaches  the  nature  and  flavour  of  Meat  Gravy,  mor« 
than  any  Vegetable  Juice,  and  is  the  best  substitute  for  it  in  Meagre  Soup* 
and  extempore  Sauces,  that  Culinary  Chemistry  Las  yet  produoed. 


258  BROTHS, 

great  onion,  a  little  pepper  and  salt,  and  a  clove,  with 
as  much  water  as  will  cover  them;  and  this  boiled  to 
less  than  a  Pint,  for  one  g^ood  porrengerful." 

Ox-hctlJelh/.  —  CSo.  198.) 
Slit  thera  in  two,  and  take  away  the  fat  between  the 
claws.  The  proportion  of  water  to  each  Heel  is  about 
a  quart;  — -let  it  simmer  gently  for  eight  hours,  (keeping 
it  clean  skimmed) ;  it  will  make  a  pint  and  a  half  of 
strong  Jelly,  wiiich  is  frequentlv  used  to  make  Calves' 
feet  Jelly  (No.  481),  or  to  add  to  Mock  Turtle,  and 
other  Soups.  See  (No.  240  •.)  This  Jelly,  evaporated 
as  directed  in  (No.  252),  will  give  about  three  ounces 
and  a  half  of  strong  Glaze,  —  an  unboiled  Heel  costs 
one  shilling  and  three  pence  ;  so  this  glaze,  which  is 
very  inferior  in  flavour  to  No.  252,  is  quite  as  expensive 
as  that  is. 

N.B.  To  dress  the  Heels,  see  (No.  18  •.) 
Obs.  —  Get  a  Heel  that  has  only  been  scalded,  not 
one  of  those  usually   sold  at  the  Tripe   shops,   which 
have  been  built  d  till  almost  all  the  Gelatine  is  extracted. 

Clkar  Gravy  Sours.  — (No.  200.) 
Cut  half  a  pound  of  Ham  into  slices,  and  lay  them  at 
the  bottom  of  a  large  stewpan,  or  stockpot,  with  two 
or  Uiree  pounds  of  lean  Beef,  and  as  much  Veal ;  — 
break  the  bones  and  lay  them  on  the  meat,  take  off 
the  outer  skin  of  two  large  Onions,  and  two  Turnips, 
wash,  clean,  and  cut  into  pieces  a  couple  of  large 
Carrots,  and  two  heads  of  Celery ;  and  put  in  three 
Cloves  and  a  large  blade  of  Mace  :  —  cover  the  stewpan 
close,  and  set  it  over  a  smart  fire ;  —  when  the  meat 
begins  to  stick  to  the  bottom  of  the  stewpan,  turn  it, 
and  when  there  is  a  nice  brown  jrlaze  at  the  bottom  of 
the  stewpan,  cover  the  meat  with  hot  water: — watch 
it,  and  when  it  is  coming  to  a  boil,  put  in  half  a  pint  of 
cold  water,  take  off  the  scum,  then  put  in  half  a  pint 
more  cold  water,  and  skim  it  again,  and  continue  to  do  so 


I 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS.  259 

till  no  more  scum  rises. — Now  set  it  on  one  side  of  the 
fire,  to  boil  gently  for  about  four  hours, — strain  it 
through  a  clean  tammis,  or  napkin,  (do  not  squeeze  it, 
or  the  Soup  will  be  thick),  into  a  clean  Stone  pan,  let 
it  remain  till  it  is  cold,  and  then  remove  all  the  Fat;  — 
when  you  decant  it,  be  careful  not  to  disturb  the 
settlings  at  the  bottom  of  the  pan. 

The  Broth  should  he  of  a  fine  Amber  colour,  and  as  clear 
as  Rock  Water ; — if  it  is  not  so  brio^ht  as  you  wish  it, 
put  it  into  a  stewpan, — break  two  whites  and  shells  of 
Eggs  into  a  basin,  beat  them  well  together,  put  them 
into  the  Soup,  set  it  on  a  quick  fire,  and  stir  it  with  a 
whisk  till  it  boils, — then  set  it  on  one  side  of  the  fire, 
to  settle  for  ten  minutes,  run  it  through  a  fine  napkin 
into  a  basin,  and  it  is  ready. 

However,  if  your  Broth  is  carefully  skimmed,  &c.  ac- 
cording to  the  directions  above  given,  it  ivill  be  ckar 
enough  without  clarifying,  which  process  impairs  the 
flavour  of  it, — in  a  higher  proportion  than  it  improves 
its  appearance. 

Obs. — This  is  the  Basis  of  almost  all  Gravy  Soups, 
which  are  called  by  the  name  of  the  vegetables  that  are 
put  into  them : 

Carrots, — Turnips,  — Onions, — Celery, — and 
a  few  leaves  of  Chervil,  make  what  is  called  Spring 
Soup,  or  Soup  Sante  ;  to  this  a  pint  of  Green  Pease, 
or  Asparagus  Pease,  or  French  Beans  cut  into  pieces, 
or  a  cabbage  lettuce,  are  an  improvement. 

With  Rice, — or  Scotch  Barley, — with  Macca- 
RONi,  —  or  Vermicelli,  —  or  Celery,  —  cut  into 
lengths;  it  will  be  the  Soup  usually  called  by  those 
names 

Or  Turnips  scooped  round,  or  young  Onions,  will 
give  you  a  clear  Turnip,  or  Onion  Soup,  and  all  these 
vegetables  mixed  together,  Soup  Cressi. 

The  Gravy  for  all  these  soups  may  be  produced 
extempore  with  (No.  252). 

The  Roots  and  Vegetables  you  use,  must  be  boiled 


260  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS. 

first,  or  they  will  impregnate  the  soup  with  too  strong; 
a  flavour. 

The  Seasoning  for  all  thtse  Soups  is  the  same,  viz. 
Salt,  and  a  very  little  Cayenne  pepper. 

N.  B.  To  make  excellent  Vegetable  Gran/  Soup  for 
4|d.  a  quart,  see  (No.  224). 

Scotch  Barley  Broth, — A  Good  and  Substantial 
Dinner  for  5d.  per  Head. — (No.  204). 
"Wash  three  quarters  of  a  pound  of  Scotch  Barley  in 
a  little  cold  water,  ]nit  it  in  a  soup  pot  with  a  Shin  or 
Lcj^  of  Beef,  or  a  Knuckle  of  Veal  of  about  ten  pounds 
weight,  sawed  into  four  pieces,  (tell  the  Butcher  to  do 
this  for  you),  cover  it  well  with  cold  water,  set  it  on  the 
fire;  when  it  Boils  skim  it  very  clean  and  put  in  two 
Onions  of  about  three  ounces  weight  each,  set  it  by  the 
side  of  the  fire  to  simmer  xeri/  gently  about  two  hours ; 
then  skim  all  the  fat  clean  off,  and  put  in  two  heads  of 
Celery,  and  a  large  Turnip  cut  into  small  squares; 
season  it  with  salt,  and  let  it  boil  an  hour  and  a  half 
longer,  and  it  is  ready :  take  out  the  meat  (carefully 
with  a  slice,  and  cover  it  up  and  set  it  by  the  fire  to 
keep  warm) :  and  scum  the  Broth  well  before  you  put 
it  in  the  Tureen. 

S.     (1. 

ShiD  of  Beef  of  lOft i;  G 

j  ponnd  of  lUrley    , O  4i 

C  Onions  of  about  3  •!.  weight  euch  0  0\ 

Celery 0  1 

A  large  Turnip 0  1 

3     1 

Thus  you  get  Jour  quarts  of  Good  Soup,  at  9|d.  per 
Quart,  besides  another  quart  to  make  sauce  for  the 
Meat,  in  the  following  manner  : — 

Put  a  quart  of  the  Soup  into  a  basin, — put  about  an 
ounce  of  Flour  into  a  stewpan,  and  pour  the  Broth  to 
it  by  degrees,  stirring  it  well  together,  set  it  on  the 
fire  and  stir  it  till  it  boils, — then  (some  put  in  a  glass 
of  Port  wine  or  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439),  let  it  boil 
lip,  and  it  is  ready. 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS.  261 

Put  the  Meat  in  a  Ragout  dish,  and  strain  the  Sauce 
through  a  sieve  over  the  Meat,  you  may  put  to  it  some 
Capers,  or  minced  Gherkins  or  Walnuts,  &c. 

If  the  Beef  has  been  stewed  with  proper  care  in  a  xery 
gentle  manner  J  and  be  taken  up  at  "  the  critical  moment 
when  it  is  just  tender,"  you  will  obtain  exceUtnt  and 
^atoury  Meat  for  eight  People  for  Five  Pence,  i.  e.  for 
only  the  cost  of  the  glass  of  Port  wine. 

If  you   use  Veal,  cover  the  Meat  with  (No.  364, 

No.  2). 

s.  a. 

Soup 3     1 

Wine    0    5 

3     6 

Obs.  —  Ihis  is  a  most  Frugal, — Agreeable, —  and 
Nutritive  Meal, — it  will  neither  lighten  the  Purse,  nor 
lie  heavy  on  the  Stomach,  and  will  furnish  a  plentiful 
and  pleasant  Soup  and  Meat  for  eight  persons.  So  You 
may  give  a  good  Dinner  for  5d.  per  Head.  See  also  (No. 
229),  and  (No.  239). 

N.  B.  If  you  will  draw  your  Purse-strings  a  little 
wider, — and  allow  Id.  per  head  more,  — and  prepare 
a  pint  of  young  Onions  as  directed  in  (No.  29'i),  and 
garnish  the  dish  with  them,  or  some  Carrots,  or  Turnips 
cut  into  squares,— ybr  6d.per  Head  you  will  have  as  good 
a  Ragout  as  "  le  Cuisinier  Imperial  de  France"  can  give 
you  for  as  many  shillings.     Read  Obs.  to  (No.  493). 

You  may  vary  the  flavour  by  adding  a  little  Curry 
Powder  (No.  455),  Ragout  (No.  457,  &c.)  or  any  of 
the  store  Sauces  and  flavouring  Essences,  between 
(Nos.  396  and  463),  and  you  may  garnish  the  dish  with 
split  pickled  Mangoes,  Walnuts,  Gherkins,  Onions,  &c. 
See  Wow  Wow  Sauce  (No.  328). 

If  it  is  made  the  evening  before  the  Soup  is  wanted, 
and  suffered  to  stand  till  it  is  cold,  much  Fat^  may  be 

*  See  "  L'Art  de  Cuisinier,"  par  A.  Beauvillier,  Paris,  1814,  page  08, 
"  I  have  learned  by  experience,  that  of  all  the  fats  that  are  used  for  frying, 
the  Pot  Top  which  is  taken  from  the  surface  of  the  Broth  and  Stock-Pot  is  by 
far  the  best." 


262  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS. 

removed  from  the  surface  of  the  Soup,  which  is,  when 
clarified  (No.  83),  useful  for  all  the  purposes  that 
Drippings- are  applied  to. 

Scotch  Soups.  —  (No.  205). 

The  three  Jhlluwifig  Receipts  are  the  contribution  of 
a.  frit /id  at  Edinburgh. 

Winter  Notch   Patch, 

Take  the  best  end  of  a  neck  or  loin  of  Mutton,  cut  it 
into  neat  chops,  cut  four  carrots  and  as  many  turnips 
into  slices,  put  on  four  quarts  of  water  with  half  the 
carrots  and  turnips,  and  a  whole  one  of  each,  with  a 
pound  of  dried  green  peas,  which  must  be  put  to  soak 
i!ie  njf^lit  before,  — let  it  boil  two  hours,  then  take  out 
the  whole  carrot  and  turnip,  bruise  and  return  them, 
put  in  the  meat  and  the  rest  of  the  carrot  and  turnip, 
some  pepper  and  salt,  and  boil  slowly  three  quarters  of 
an  hour;  a  short  time  before  serving  add  an  onion  cut 
small  and  ahead  of  celery. 

Cocky-Leeky  Soup. 
Take  a  scra<^  of  Mutton,  or  shank  of  Veal,  three 
quarts  ofwater  (or  liquor  in  which  meat  has  been  boiled), 
and  a  good  sized  fowl,  with  two  or  three  leeks  cut  in 
pieces  about  an  inch  long,  pepper  and  salt,  boil  slowly 
about  an  hour,  then  put  in  as  many  more  leeks,  and 
give  it  three  quarters  of  an  hour  longer: — this  is  very 
good,  made  of  good  beef  stock,  and  leeks  put  in  at 
twice. 

Lamb  Stove  or  Lamb  Ster.\ 

Take  a  lamb's  head  and  lights,  open  the  jaws  of  the 
head,  and  wash  them  thoroughly,  put  them  in  a  pot 
with  some  beef  stock,  made  with  three  quarts  ofwater, 
and  two  pounds  of  shin  of  beef,  strained,  boil  very 
slowly  for  an  hour,  wash  and  string  two  or  three  good 
handsful  of  spinach  (or  Spinage),    put    it   in   twenty 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS.  263 

minutes  before  serving;,  add  a  little  parsley  and  one  or 
two  onions  a  short  time  before  it  comes  off  the  fire, 
season  with  pepper  and  salt,  and  serve  all  together  in  a 
tureen. 

Scotch  Erase.— (So.  205^) 

*'  This  favourite  Scotch  dish  is  generally  made  with 
the  liquor  meat  has  been  boiled  in. 

*'  Put  half  a  pint  of  Oatmeal  into  a  porringer  with  a 
httle  salt,  if  there  be  not  enough  in  the  broth, — of 
which,  add  as  much  as  will  mix  it  to  the  consistence  of 
hasty-pudding,  or  a  little  thicker, — lastly,  take  a  little 
of  the  fat  that  swims  on  the  broth,  and  put  it  on  the 
Crowdie,  and  eat  it  in  the  same  way  as  hasty-pudding." 

Obs. — This  Scotsman's  dish,  is  easily  prepared,  at 
very  little  expense,  and  is  pleasant  tasted  and  nutri- 
tious. To  dress  a  Haggies,  see  (No.  488*),  and 
Minced  Collops  following  it. 

N.  B.  For  various  methods  of  making  and  flavouring 
Oatmeal  Gruel,  see  (No.  572). 

Cat-rot  Soup.— (No.  212.) 

Scrape  and  wash  half  a  dozen  large  Carrots,  peel  off 
the  red  outside  (which  is  the  only  part  that  should  be 
used  for  this  soup);  put  it  into  a  gallon  stewpan,  with 
one  head  of  Celery,  and  Hn  Onion,  cut  into  thin  pieces; 
take  two  quarts  of  Beef,  Veal,  or  Mutton  broth,  or  if 
you  have  any  cold  Roast  Beef  Bones,  (or  liquor,  in  which 
Mutton  or  Beef  has  been  boiled),  you  may  make  very 
good  broth  for  this  soup : — when  you  have  put  the 
broth  to  the  roots,  cover  the  stewpan  close,  and  set  it 
on  a  slow  stove  for  two  hours  and  a  half,  when  the 
Carrots  will  be  soft  enough,  (some  Cooks  put  in  a  Tea- 
cupful  of  Bread-cnuTibs,)  boil  for  two  or  three  minutes, 
rub  it  through  a  tammis,  or  hair  sieve,  with  a  wooden 
spoon,  and  add  as  much  broth  as  will  make  it  a  proper 
thickness,  z\  e.  almost  as  thick  as  pease  soup :  put  it 
into  a  clean  stewpan,  make  it  hot,  season  it  with  a 


264  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOL  PS. 

little  salt,  and  send  it  up  with  some  toasted  bread,  cut 
into  pieces,  half  an  inch  square.  Some  put  it  into  the 
soup;  but  the  best  way  is  to  send  it  up  on  a  plate,  as  a 
side  dish. 

Obs. — This  is  neither  expensive  nor  troublesome  to 
prepare; — in  the  Kitchens  of  some  opulent  Epicures, 
to  make  this  Soup  make  a  little  stronger  impression  on 
the  gustatory  Organs  of  "  Grands  Gourmands,^'  the 
Celery  and  Onions  are  sliced,  and  fried  in  Butter  of  a 
light  brown,  the  Soup  is  poured  into  the  Stewpan  to 
them,  and  all  is  boiled  up  together :  — but  this  must  be 
done  ver)'  carefully  with  Butter  or  very  nicely  clarified 
felt;  and  the  "  Grand  Ciiisinicr'  add  spices,  »S:c.  "  ad 
/i  hi  turn." 

Turnip  and  Parsnip  Suups — (No.  213.) 

Are  made  in  the  same  manner  as  the  Carrot  soup 
(No. -21 2.) 

Cc/cfi/  Suup.—{^o.  214.) 

Split  half  a  dozen  heads  of  Celery  into  slips  about 
two  inches  long,  wash  them  well,  lay  them  on  a  hair 
sieve  to  drain,  and  put  them  into  three  quarts  of 
(No.  200)  in  a  gallon  soup  pot;  set  it  by  the  side  of 
the  fire,  to  stew  very  gently  till  the  celery  is  tender  ; 
(this  will  take  about  an  hour).  If  any  scum  rises, 
take  it  off,  season  with  a  little  salt. 

Obs.  —  When  Celery  cannot  be  procured,  Ila/f  a 
Drachm  of  the  Seed,  pounded  fine,  which  may  be  con- 
sidered as  the  Essence  of  Celery,  (costs  only  one- 
third  of  a  farthing,  and  can  be  had  at  any  season,)  put 
in  a  quarter  of  an  hour  before  the  soup  is  done,  will 
give  as  much  flavour  to  half  a  gallon  of  Soup,  as  two 
heads  of  Celery,  weighing  seven  ounces  and  costing  2i/.; 
or  add  a  little  Essence  of  Celery  (No.  409.) 

Green  Pease  Soup.  —  (No.  216.) 
A  peck  of  Pease  will  make  you  a  good  tureen  of 


BROTHS,    GRAVIES,    AND    SOUPS.  265 

Soup,  —  in  shelling  them  put  the  old  ones  in  one  Basin, 
and  the  young  ones  in  another, —  and  keep  out  a  pint 
of  them,  and  boil  them  separately  to  put  into  your  Soup 
%vhen  it  is  finished  ;  put  a  large  saucepan  on  the  fire 
half  full  of  water,  —  when  it  boils,  put  the  Pease  in, 
with  a  handful  of  salt ;  let  them  boil  till  they  are  done 
enough,  i.  e.  from  twenty  to  thirty  minutes,  according 
to  their  age  and  size,  then  drain  them  in  a  cullender, 
and  put  them  into  a  clean  gallon  stewpan,  and  three 
quarts  of  plain  Veal  or  Mutton  broth  (drawn  from  meat 
without  any  Spices  or  Herbs,  &c.  which  would  over- 
power the  flavour  of  the  Soup),  cover  the  stewpari  close, 
and  set  it  over  a  slow  fire  to  stew  gently  for  an  hour : 
add  a  teacupful  of  bread-crumbs,  and  then  rub  it 
through  a  tammis  into  another  stewpan,  stir  it  with 
a  v^ooden  spoon,  and  if  it  is  too  thick,  add  a  little  more 
broth  ;  have  ready  boiled  as  for  eating,  a  pint  of  young 
pease,  and  put  tliem  into  the  soup  ;  season  with  a  little 
salt  and  sugar. 

N.B.  Some  Cooks,  while  this  Soup  is  going  on,  slice 
a  couple  of  Cucumbers,  (as  you  would  for  eating,);  take 
out  the  seeds,  lay  tliem  on  a  cloth  to  drain,  and  then 
flour  them,  and  fry  them  a  light  brown  in  a  little  butter  ; 
put  them  into  the  soup  the  last  thing  before  it  goes  to 
table. 

Obs.  —  If  the  Soup  is  not  Green  enough,  pound  a 
handful  of  Pea-hulls  or  Spinage,  and  squeeze  the  juice 
through  a  cloth  into  the  soup  ;  some  leaves  of  mint 
may  be  added  if  approved. 

Pkin  Green  Pease  Soup,  liit/ioiit  Meat.  —  (No.  217.) 

Take  a  quart  of  Green  Pease,  (keep  out  half  a  pint 
of  the  youngest,  boil  them  separately,  and  put  them  in 
the  Soup  when  it  is  finished,)  put  them  on  in  boiling 
water,  boil  them  tender,  and  then  pour  off  the  water 
and  set  it  by  to  make  the  soup  with;  put  the  pease 
into  a  mortar,  and  pound  them  to  a  mash.  Then  put 
them  in  two  quarts  of  the  water  you  boiled  the  pease 

N 


266  BROTHS,    GRAVIES,  AND    SOUPS. 

in,  stir  all  well  together,  let  it  boil  up  for  about  five 
minutes,  and  then  rub  it  through  a  hair  sieve  or  tammis. 
If  the  pease  are  good,  it  will  be  as  thick  and  fine  a 
vegetable  soup  as  need  be  sent  to  Table. 

Pease  Soup.  — (No.  218.) 
The  common  way  of  making  Pease  Soup'  is,  —  to  a 
Quart  of  Split  Pease  put  three  quarts  of  cold  soft  water, 
not  more,  (or  it  will  be  what  **  jack  ros-bif"  calls 
"  Soup  ,Uajgre")not\Nithstanding  Mother  Glasse  orders 
^  gallon,  (and  her  Ladyship's  directions  have  been 
copied  by  almost  every  Cookery  book-maker,  who  has 
strung  receipts  together  since),  with  half  a  pound  of 
Bacon,  (not  very  fat),  or  Roast  Beef  bones,  or  four 
Anchovies:  or  instead  of  the  water,  three  quarts  of  the 
Liquor  in  whicliBcef,  Mutton,  Pork,  or  Toultry  has  been 
boiled,  tastinj;  it  first,  to  make  sure  it  is  not  too  salt.f 

Wash  two  l;f  ad-i  of  Celeryt,  cut  it,  and  put  it  in, 
with  two  Onions  peeled,  and  a  sprig  of  Savory,  or 
sweet  Marjoram,  or  Lemon-'I  hyme  ;  set  it  on  the  trivet, 
and  let  it  simmer  very  gently  over  a  slow  fire,  stirring 
it  every  rpjarter  of  an  hour  (to  keep  the  pease  from 
sticking,-  to  and  burning  at  the  bottom  of  the  Soup-pot,) 
till  the  Pease  are  tender,  which  will  be  in  about  three 
hours ;  —  some  Cooks  now  slice  a  head  of  Celery,  and 
half  an  ounce  of  Oi. ions,  and  fry  them  in  a  little  butter, 
and  put  tiiem  into  the  Soup,  till  they  are  lightly 
browned,  then  work  the  whole  through  a  coarse  hair 
sieve,  and  then  through  a  fine  sieve,  or  (what  is  better) 
through  a  tammis,  with  the  back  of  a  wooden  spoon;  — 
put  it  into  a  clean  stew  pan,  with  half  a  teaspoonful  of 


•  To  make  Pease  Pottaoe,  doable  the  quantity.  Those  Mho  often  make 
Pease  Sonp,  »honl<l  have  a  Mill,  and  grind  the  Pfatc,  Jast  before  they  diess 
ihem,  — a  lot  qt.aulity  will  sufiice,  and  the  Soup  will  be  much  »ooner 
made. 

t  If  ihe  I,iqni.r  is  very  salt,  the  Pc-ige  will  never  boil  tender. —Therefore, 
when  ><.u  make  Pe.ise  Soup  with  ihi;  liquor  in  which  salted  Poik  or  Beef  has 
been  boiled,  lie  up  the  Pea2e  in  a  cloth,  and  boil  them  first  for  an  hoar  in 
»oft  Wilier. 

J  Hal/  a  drarhm  nf  Celfry  Seed,  pounded  fine,  and  put  into  the  Soup  a 
q'larter  of  an  hour  before  it  it  finished,  will  flavour  three  quarts. 


BROTHS,    GRAVIES,  AND    SOUPS.  267 

ground  Black  Pepper*,  let  it  boil  again  for  ten  minutes, 
and  if  any  fat  arises,  skim  it  off. 

Send  up  on  a  plate.  Toasted  Bread  cut  into  little 
pieces  a  quarter  of  an  inch  square,  or  cut  a  slice  of 
Ijread  (that  has  been  baked  two  days)  into  dice  not 
more  than  half  an  inch  square;  put  half  a  pound  of 
clean  drippings  or  lard  into  an  iron  frying  pan  ;  when  it 
is  hot,  Fry  the  Bread,  take  care  and  turn  it  about 
with  a  slice,  or  by  shaking  of  the  pan  as  it  is  frying, 
that  it  may  be  on  each  side  of  a  delicate  light  brown, 
see  (No.  319);  take  it  up  with  a  fish-slice,  and  lay  it 
on  a  sheet  of  paper,  to  drain  the  fat :  be  careful  that 
this  is  done  nictlii :  send  these  up  in  one  side  dish,  and 
dried  and  powdered  Mint  or  Savory,  or  Sweet  Mar- 
joram, &c.  in  another. 

Those  who  are  for  a  double  Relish,  and  are  true  lovers 
of  "  Haut  Gout  J'  may  have  some  Bacon  cut  into  small 
squares  like  the  bread,  and  fried  till  it  is  crisp,  or  some 
little  lumps  of  boiled  pickled  Pork, — or  put  Cucumber 
fried  into  this  soup,  as  you  have  directions  in  (No.  216  ) 

Obs.  —  The  most  Economical  method  of  making  pease 
SOUP,  is  to  save  the  bones  of  a  joint  of  Roast  beef,  and 
put  them  into  the  liquor  in  which  Mutton,  or  Beef,  or 
Pork,  or  Poultry  has  been  boiled,  and  proceed  as  in  the 
above  receipt.  A  hock,  or  shank  bone  of  Ham,  a  ham 
bone,  the  root  of  a  Tongue,  or  a  red  or  pickled  Herring, 
are  favourite  additions  with  some  Cooks  ;  others  send 
up  Rice,  or  Vermicelli,  with  Pease  Soupf. 

•  Some  put  in  dried  Mint  rnbhed  to  fine  powder;  but  as  every  body  does 
not  like  Mint,  it  is  best  to  send  it  up  on  a  phtle,  see  Pea  Powder  (^o.  458), 
Essence  of  Celery  {lio.  409),  and  (Nos.  457  and  45y.) 

t  My  witty  predecessor,  Dr.  Hunter,  {see  Cnlina,  page  97),  says,  "  If  a 
proper  quan'ity  of  Curry  powder  (No.  455)  be  added  to  Pease  Soup,  a  good 
soup  miglit  be  made,  under  the  litle  of  Lurry  Pease  Sovp.  Ilelioi^abalus 
offered  rewards  for  the  discovery  of  a  new  dis-b,  and  the  Biiiish  Parliament 
!iave  given  notoriety  to  inveniions  of  much  less  importance  than  'Curry 
Pease  Soup.'" 

K.  P.  Celery,  or  Carrots, —  or  Turnips, —  shredded  or  cot  in  squares,  Cor 
Scotcli  Barley, in  llie  hUter  case  the  soup  must  be  rather  thinner),  or  cut  into  bits 
about  an  inch  long,  and  boiled  separately,  and  iln<nvn  into  the  tureen  when 
llie  soup  is  going  to  table,  will  give  anoilun  agreeable  variety,  and  may  be 
called  Celery  and  Tease  Sodp.  Read  Oks.  to  (No.  214.) 
N  2 


268  BROTHS,    GRAVIES;    AND    SOUPS. 

N.  B.  To  make  Pease  Soup  Extempore,  see 
(No.  555.) 

If  you  wish  to  jiake  Soup  the  same  day  you 
Boil  Meat  or  Poultry,  prepare  the  pease  the  same 
as  for  Pease  Vuddivg  (No.  555),  to  wjiich  you  may  add 
an  Onion  and  a  head  of  Celery,  when  you  rub  the  pease 
tliroujih  tlie  sieve,  —  instead  of  putting  Eggs  and 
Butter,  add  some  of  the  hquor  from  the  pot  to  make  it  a 
proper  thickness,  —  put  it  on  to  boil  for  five  minutes, 
and  it  is  ready. 

Obs.  —  Tlus  is  by  far  the  easiest,  and  the  best  rrcty  of 
making  Pease  Soup. 

Pease  Soup  may  be  made  savoury  and  agreeable 
to  the  palate,  without  any  Meat, —  by  incorporating 
two  ounces  of  fresh  and  nicely  clarified  Beef,  Mutton, 
or  Pork  drippings,  see  (No.  83 \  with  two  ounces  of 
Oatmeal,  and  mixing  this  well  into  the  gallon  of 
Soup,  made  as  above  directed,  see  also  (No.  229.) 

Pease  Soup  and  Pickled  Pork.  —  (No,  220.) 

A  couple  of  pounds  of  the  belly  part  of  Pickled  Pork 
will  make  very  good  broth  for  Pease  Soup,  if  the  pork 
be  not  too  salt,  —  if  it  has  been  in  salt  more  than  two 
days,  it  must  be  laid  in  water  the  night  before  it  is 
used. 

Put  on  the  ingredieiUs  mentioned  in  (No.  218),  in 
three  quarts  of  water  ;  boil  gently  for  two  hours,  then 
put  in  the  pork,  and  boil  very  gently  till  it  is  enough 
to  eat, — tins  will  take  about  an  hour  and  a  half  or 
two  hours  longer,  according  to  its  thickness  :  —  when 
done,  wash  the  pork  clean  in  hot  \vater,  send  it  up  in 
a  dish,  or  cut  it  into  mouthfuls,  and  put  it  into  the 
Soup  in  the  tureen,  with  the  accompaniments  ordered 
in  (No.  218.) 

Obs.  — The  Meat  being  boiled  no  longer  than  to  be 
done  enough  to  be  eaten,  —  you  get  excellent  Sou-p^ 
without  any  expense  of  Meal  destroyed. 


3BROTHS,    GRAVIES,   AND  SOUPS.  269 

Plain  Pease  Soup.  —  (No.  221.) 

To  a  quart  of  split  Pease,  and  two  heads  of  Celery, 
(and  most  Cooks  would  put  a  large  Onion,)  put  three 
quarts  of  Broth  or  soft  water ;  let  them  simmer  gently 
on  a  trivet  over  a  slow  fire  for  three  hours,  (stirring  up 
every  quarter  of  an  hour  to  prevent  the  pease  burning 
at  the  bottom  of  the  soup  kettle,  —  if  the  water  boils 
away  and  the  Soup  gets  too  thick,  add  some  boiling 
water  to  it) ;  —  when  they  are  well  softened,  work 
theni  through  a  coarse  sieve,  and  then  through  a  fine 
sieve  or  a  tammis,  wash  out  your  stew-pan,  and  then 
return  the  Soup  into  it,  and  give  it  a  boil  up;  take 
off  any  scum  that  comes  up,  and  it  is  ready.  Prepai'e 
fried  Bread  and  dried  Mint,  as  directed  in  (No.  218), 
and  send  them  up  with  it  on  two  side  dishes. 

Obs.  —  This  is  an  excellent  Family  Soup,  produced 
with  very  little  trouble  or  expense ;  —  i.  e. 

s.  d. 

Quart  of  Pease 0  8 

Two  Heads  of  Celery 0  2 

Pepper  and  Salt 0  1 

Pried  Mint 0  1 

1     0 

So  the  Two  Quarts  cost  One  Shilling;  —  half  a 
drachm  of  bruised  Celery  Seed,  which  costs  only  one- 
third  of  a  farthing,  and  a  little  Sugar,  added  just 
before  finishing  the  Soup,  —  will  give  it  as  much  fla- 
vour as  Two  Heads  of  the  fresh  Vegetable. 

Most  of  the  Receipts  for  Pease  Soup,  are  crowded 
with  ingredients  which  entirely  overpower  the  flavour 
of  the  Pease.     See  (No.  555.) 

Asparagus  Soup.  —  (No.  222.) 

This  is  made  with  the  points  of  Asparagus,  in  the 

same  manner  as  the  Green  Pease  Soup  (No.  216  or 

17)  is  with  pease;  let  half  the  Asparagus  be  rubbed 

through  a  sieve,  and  the  other  cut  in  pieces  about  aa 


270  BROTHS,    GRAVIES,  AND    SOUPS. 

inch  long,  and  boiled  till  done  enough,  and  sent  up  in 
the  soup  ;  to  make  two  quarts,  tiiere  must  be  a  pint  of 
heads  to  thicken  it,  and  half  a  pint  cut  in,  —  take  care 
to  preserve  these  green  and  a  little  crisp.  This  soup 
is  sometimes  made  by  adding  the  asparagus  heads  to 
common  Pease  soup. 

Obs.  —  Some  Cooks  fry  half  an  ounce  of  onion  in  a 
little  butter,  and  rub  it  through  a  sieve,  and  add  it 
with  the  other  ingredients,  —  the  haui-goiU  of  the 
Onion  will  entirely  overcome  the  delicate  flavour  of 
the  Asparagus,  and  we  protest  against  all  such  com- 
binations. 

Maigre  or  Vegetable  Gran/  Soup.*  —  (No.  224.) 

Put  in  a  gallon  stewpan  three  ounces  of  Butter,  set 
it  over  a  slow  fire  ;  while  it  is  melting,  slice  four  ounces 
of  Onion  ;  cut  in  small  pieces,  one  Turnip,  one  Carrot, 
and  one  head  of  Celery,  put  them  in  the  stewpan, 
cover  it  close,  let  it  fry  till  they  are  browned  ;  this  will 
take  about  25  minutes:  — have  ready  in  a  saucepan  a 
pint  of  Pease,  with  four  quarts  of  water;  when  the 
Roots  in  the  stewpan  are  quite  brown,  and  the  pease 
come  to  a  boil,  put  the  pease  and  water  to  them,  put 
it  on  the  fire,  when  it  boils  scum  it  clean,  and  put  in  a 
crust  of  bread  about  as  big  as  the  top  of  a  two-penny 
loaf,  24  berries  of  Allspice,  the  same  of  Black  Pepper, 
and  two  blades  of  Mace, — cover  it  close, — let  it  simmer 
gently  for  one  hour  and  a  half;  —  then  set  it  from  the 
fire  for  ten  minutes,  then  pour  it  off  very  gently  (so  as 
not  to  disturb  the  sediment  at  the  bottom  of  the  stew- 
pan) into  a  large  basin,  let  it  stand  (about  two  hours) 
till  it  is  quite  clear,  —  while  this  is  doing,  shred  one 
large  Turnip,  the  red  part   of  a  large  Carrot,    three 

•  fht:  French  call  this  "Soup  Maigre,"  —  ihe  English  acc-pt.ttion  of 
which  i*  "  }>o^/r  and  ualery,"  aud  does  not  at  all  accord  wilh  tin-  French, 
•which  is  Soup-,  &c.  made  with.>ut  ineai — Ihng,  J  lrtle,  tlie  rii  ht'st  riijli 
fhat  couies  lo  an  English  table  (^if  dressed  without  Meal  Gravy;,  ii  a  Maigre 
Dull, 


BROTHS,    GRAVIES,    AND    SOUPS.  271 

ounces  of  Onion  minced,  and  one  large  head  of  Celery 
cut  into  small  bits;  put  the  Turnips  and  Carrots  on 
the  fire  in  cold  water,  let  them  boil  five  minutes,  then 
drain  them  on  a  sieve,  —  then  pour  off  the  Soup  clear 
into  a  stewpan,  put  in  the  Roots,  put  the  Soup  on  the 
fire,  let  it  simmer  gently  till  the  herbs  are  tender,  from 
thirty  to  forty  minutes,  season  it  with  salt  and  a  little 
Cayenne,  and  it  is  ready. 

You  may  add  a  tablespoonful  of  Mushroom  Catsup 
(No.  439.) 

Ob.s.  —  You  will  have  Three  Quarts  of  Soup,  almost 
as  well  coloured  and  as  well  flavoured  as  if  made  with 
Gravy  JMeat,  —  for  1*.  I^d. 

s.  d. 

Carrots 0  1 

lurnips 0  1 

Celery    0  2 

Pease 0  3 

Onious U  Oi 

Butter 0  3 

Spice,  SaU,&c 0  3 

1     U 

N.B.  To  Fri/  the  herbs  requires  25  minutes, —  to 
Boil  all  together,  one  hour  and  a  half,  —  to  settle,  at 
the  least  two  hours,  —  when  clear,  and  put  on  the  fire 
again,  half  an  hour  or  forty  minutes. 

Fish  Soups.      (No.  225.) 
Eel  Soup. 

To  make  a  tureenful,  take  a  couple  of  middling-sized 
Onions,  cut  them  in  half,  and  cross  your  knife  over 
them  two  or  three  times  ;  put  two  ounces  of  Butter 
into  a  stewpan;  —  when  it  is  melted,  put  in  the  Onions, 
stir  them  about  till  they  are  lightly  browned,  —  cut  into 
pieces  three  pounds  of  unskinned  Eels,  —  put  them 
into  your  stewpan,  and  shake  them  over  the  fire  for 
five  minutes ;  then  add  three  quarts  of  boiling  water, 
and  when  they  come  to  a  boil,  take  the  scum  off  very 


272  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS. 

clean,  then  put  in  a  quarter  of  an  ounce  of  the  green 
leaves  (not  dried)  of  winter  Savory,  the  same  of  Lemon 
Thyme,  and  twice  the  quantity  of  Parsley,  two  drachms 
of  Allspice,  the  same  of  Black  Pepper,  —  cover  it  close, 
and  let  it  boil  gently  for  two  hours,  then  strain  it  oft', 
and  skim  it  very  clean.  To  Thicken  it,  put  three 
ounces  of  Butter  into  a  clean  stewpan;  when  it  is 
melted,  stir  in  as  much  flour  as  will  make  it  of  a  stiff* 
paste,  then  add  the  liquor  by  degrees,  let  it  simmer 
for  ten  minutes,  and  pass  it  tlirough  a  sieve,  then  put 
your  Soup  on  in  a  clean  stewpan,  —  and  have  ready 
some  little  square  pieces  of  Fish  fried  of  a  nice  light 
brown,  —  either  Eels,  Soles,  Plaice,  or  Skate  will  do; 
—  the  fried  Fish  sliould  be  added  about  ten  minutes 
before  the  Soup  is  served  up.  Forcemeat  Balls  (Nos. 
375,  378,  &'c.)  are  sometimes  added. 

OI)s.  —  ExcF.LLENT  Fisii  Suups  may  be  made  with 
a  Cod's  Skull,  —  or  Skate, —  or  Flousiders,  &c.  boiled 
in  no  more  water  than  will  just  cover  them,—  and 
the  liquor  thickened  with  Oatmeal,  <SlC. 

Cheap  Soups.  — (No.  229.) 

Among  the  variety  of  schemes  that  have  been 
suggested  for  bctteting  the  condition  of  the  Poor, 
a  more  useful  or  extensive  Charity  cannot  be  devised, 
than  that  of  instructing  them  in  Economical  Cookery:- — 
it  is  one  of  the  most  important  objects  to  which  the 
attention  of  any  real  well-wisher  to  the  public  interest 
can  possibly  be  directed. 

The  best  and  cheapest  method  of  making  a  nourish- 
ing Soup  —  is  least  known  to  those  wb.o  have  most 
need  of  it ;  —  it  will  enable  those  who  have  small  in- 
comes and  large  families — to  make  the  most  of  the  little 
they  possess,  without  pinching  their  children  of  that 
wholesome  nourishment  which  is  necessary,  for  the 
urpose  of  rearing  them  up  to  maturity  in  Health  and 
Strength, 


^: 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS.  273 

The  labouring  classes  seldom  purchase  what  are 
called  the  coarser  pieces  of  Meat,  because  they  do  not 
know  how  to  dress  them,  but  lay  out  their  money  in 
pieces  for  Roasting,  &c.,  of  which  the  bones,  &c. 
enhance  the  price  of  the  actual  meat  to  nearly  a 
shilhng  per  pound,  and  the  diminution  of  weight  by 
Roasting  amounts  to  32  per  cent.  This,  for  the  sake 
of  saving  time,  trouble,  and  fire,  is  generally  sent  to  au 
oven  to  be  baked,  the  nourishing  parts  are  evaporated 
and  dried  up,  its  weight  is  diminished  nearly  one-third, 
and  all  that  a  poor  man  can  afford  to  purchase  with  his 
week's  earnings,  perhaps  does  not  lialf  satisfy  the  ap- 
petites of  himself  and  family  for  a  couple  of  days. 

If  a  hard-working  man  cannot  get  a  comfortable 
meal  at  home,  —  he  soon  finds  the  way  to  the  Public- 
house,  —  the  poor  Woman  contents  herself  with  Tea 
and  Bread  and  Butter,  —  and  the  children  are  half 
starved. 

Dr.  Kiichiner's  Receipt  to  make  a  cheap,  nutritive, 
and  palatable  Soup,  fully  adequate  to  satisfy  Appe- 
tite, and  support  Strength,  will  open  a  new  source  to 
those  benevolent  Housekeepers,  who  are  disposed  to 
relieve  the  poor,  —  will  show  the  industrious  classes 
how  much  they  have  it  in  their  power  to  assist  them- 
selves, and  rescue  them  from  being  dependent  on  the 
precarious  bounty  of  others,  by  teaching  them  how 
they  may  obtain  an  abundant,  salubrious,  and  agree- 
able aliment  for  themselves  and  families,  for  One 
Penny  per  Quart.     See  page  274. 

For  various  Economical  Soups,  see  (Nos.  204,  239 
and  40,  224,  221),  and  Obs,  to  (No.  244),  (No.  252;;, 
and  (Nos.  493  and  502.) 

Obs.  —  Dripping  intended  for  Soup,  should  be  taken 
out  of  the  Pan  almost  as  soon  as  it  has  dropped  from 
the  meat ;  —  if  it  is  not  quite  clean,  clarify  it.  See 
receipt  (No.  83.) 

Dripping  thus  prepared,  is  a  very  different  thing 
from  that  which  has  remained  in  the  Dripping-pan  ail 
N  5 


274  BROTHS,  GKAVIES,   AND  SOUPS. 

the  time   the  meat  has  been  roasting  —  and   perhaps 
live  coals  have  dropped  into  it*. 

Distributing  Sour,  does  nut  answer  half  so  we/!  an 
teaching  people  how  to  make  it^  and  improve  their  comfort 
at  Home,  —  the  time  lust  in  waiting  at  the  Soup  House 
is  seldom  less  than  three  hours  ;  in  which  time,  by 
any  industrious  occupation,  however  poorly  paid,  they 
could  earn  more  money  than  the  quart  of  Soup  is 
worth. 

Dr.  Kitciiinlr's  Receipt  to  make  a  Gallon  of  Barlet/ 
Broth  for  a  Groat. 

Put  four  ounces  of  Scotch  barley  (previously  washed 
in  cold  water),  and  four  ounces  of  sliced  Onions,  into 
five  (juarts  of  water; — boil  gently  for  one  hour,  and 
pour  it  into  a  pan,  then  put  nito  the  saucepan  from 
one  to  two  ounces  of  clean  Beef  or  xMutton  Drippings, 
or  melted  Suet:  (to  clarify  these,  see  (No.  83,)  or  two 
or  three  ounces  of  fat  Bacon  minced);  when  melted, 
stir  into  it  four  ounces  of  Oatmeal,  rub  these  together 
till  you  make  a  ])aste,  (if  this  be  properly  managed,  the 
whole  of  the  fat  will  combine  with  the  barley  broth, 
and  not  a  particle  appear  on  the  surface  to  oftend  the 
most  delicate  stomach;,  now  add  the  Barley  Broth,  at 
first  a  spoonful  at  a  time,  then  tlie  rest  by  degrees, 
stirring  it  well  together  till  it  boils.  — lo  season  it,  put 


•  We  copied  ibe  following  Receipt  from  Ihe  Morning  Post,  January 
1820  — 

Winter  Sot  p.  — (No.  CCJ.) 
eiOlbs.  ol"  Beef,  fore  quailtrs.     |  I'J  Buiidlosof  Lo,  ks. 

yOlbs.  of  Lei^s  of  Beef.  |  6  I'-uutlh-s  of  Celei^  . 

3  Busliels  of  best  Split  Pease.      i  lClb.«.  of  Salt. 

1  Bushel  of  Fl'.nr.  |  nibs,  of  Blat  k  Pepper. 

These  E<'<'d  ingreili  nts  will  make  1000  quarts  of  uonrisliing  aii«l  agreeable 
Soup,  at  ail  expense  (Establishment  avoided)  of  little  less  than  2 id.  per 
quart. 

Of  this,  C600  qiiisrts  a  day  have  been  delivered  during  the  late  iiiclemerit 
weather  and  ihe  cessation  of  ordinary  employment,  at  tuo  stations  in  the 
inrisli  of  Bernionds'.y,  at  one  penny  per  quart,  by  which  GoO  families  have 
been  daily  assisted,  and  it  thankfully  received.  Such  a  nourishment  and 
comfort  could  not  have  been  provided  by  themselves  separately  for  fourpence 
a  quart,  if  at  all,  and  reckoning  little  for  their  fire,  nothing  for  their  time. 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,   AND  SOUPS.  275 

a  drachm  of  finely  pounded  Celery,  or  Cress  Seed,  (or 
half  a  drachm  of  each,)  and  a  quarter  of  a  drachm  of 
finely  pounded  Cayenne  (No.  404),  or  a  drachm  and  a 
half  of  ground  Black  Pepper,  or  Allspice,  into  a  tea- 
cup, and  mix  it  up  with  a  little  of  the  soup,  and  then 
pour  it  into  the  rest,  stir  it  thoroughly  together,  let  it 
simmer  gently  a  quarter  of  an  hour  longer,  season  it 
with  salt,  and  it  is  ready. 

The  flavour  may  be  varied  by  doubling  the  portion 
of  Onions,  or  adding  a  clove  of  Garlic  or  Eschallot, 
and  leaving  out  the  Celery  Seed,  see  (No.  572),  or  put 
in  shredded  Roots  as  in  (No.  224.) 

This  preparation,  excellent  as  it  is,  would,  without 
variety,  soon  become  less  agreeable. 

Nothing  tends  so  much  to  disarm  poverty  of  its 
sting,  as  the  means  of  rendering  a  scanty  pittance 
capable  of  yielding  a  comfortable  variety. 

Change  of  Food  is  absolutely  necessary — not  only 
as  a  matter  of  pleasure  and  comfort,  but  also  of  health 
—  Toujour s  Perdrix  is  a  true  proverb. 

It  will  be  much  improved,  if,  instead  of  water,  it  be 
made  with  the  liquor  Meat  has  been  boiled  in;  —  at 
Tripe,  Cow-heel,  and  Cook  shops,  this  may  be  had  for 
little  or  nothing. 

This  Soup  has  the  advantage  of  being  very  soon  and 
easily  made,  with  no  more  fuel  than  is  necessary  to 
warm  a  room  —  those  who  have  not  tasted  it,  cannot 
imagine  what  a  Savoury  and  Satisfying  Meal  is  pro- 
duced by  the  combination  of  these  cheap  and  homely 
ingredients. 

If  the  generally  received  opinion  be  true,  that  Animal 
and  V^egetable  foods  afford  nourishment  in  proportion 
to  the  quantity  of  Oil,  Jelly,  and  Mucilage  that  can  be 
extracted  from  them,  this  Soup  has  strong  claims  to 
the  attention  of  Rational  Economists. 

Crai^  Fish  Soup.  —  (No.  235.) 

This  soup  is  sometimes  made  with  Beef,  or  Veal 
broth,  —  or  with  Fish,  in  the  following  manner. 


276  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS. 

Take  Flounders,  Eels,  Gudgeons,  &c.  and  set  them 
on  to  boil  in  cold  water  ;  when  it  is  pretty  nigh  boihng, 
scum  it  well,  and  to  three  quarts  put  in  a  couple  of 
Onions,  and  as  many  Carrots  cut  to  pieces,  some 
Parsley,  a  dozen  berries  of  black  and  Jam-aica  pepper, 
and  about  half  a  hundred  Cray-fish  ;  take  otf'the  small 
claws,  and  shells  of  the  tails,  pound  them  fine,  and 
boil  them  with  the  broth  about  an  hour ;  strain  otf, 
and  break  in  some  crusts  of  bread  to  thicken  it,  and  if 
you  can  get  it,  the  spawn  of  a  lobster,  pound  it,  and 
put  to  the  soup,  let  it  simmer  very  gently  for  a  couple 
of  minutes,  put  in  your  cray-fish  to  get  hot,  and  the 
soup  is  ready. 

Uf)s.  —  One  of  my  predecessors  recommends  Cray- 
TISII  poiindtd  aiive,  to  sarcten  the  sliarpntss  of  the  Blood . 
—  Vide  Clermont's  Cookery,  p.  5,  London,  1776. 

*'  Un  (Its  grands  Homines  de  Bouchc  de  France'  says  : 
"  Un  hon  Coil /is  d'FA:revisses  est  le  Paradls  siir  la  ttrre, 
(t  digue  de  la  table  des  Ditux ;  and  of  all  the  tribe 
of  Sliell-fish,  which  our  Industry  and  our  Sensuahty 
bring  from  the  bottom  of  the  Sea,  the  River,  or  the 
Pond,  the  Craw-fish  is  incomparably  the  most  useful 
and  the  most  delicious." 

Lobster  Soup.  — (No.  237.) 

You  must  have  three  fine  lively*  Young  Hen  Lobsters, 
and  boil  them,  see  (No.  176);  when  cold,  split  the  tails, 
take  out  the  fish,  crack  the  claws,  and  cut  the  meat 
into  mouthfuls  :  take  out  the  coral,  and  soft  part  of 
the  body,  bruise  part  of  the  coral  in  a  mortar,  pick  out 
the  fish  from  the  chines,  beat  part  of  it  with  the  coral, 
and  with  this  make  forcemeat  balls,  finely  flavoured 
with  mace  or  nutmeg,  a  little  grated  lemon-peel,  An- 
chovy and  Cayenne ;  pound  these  with  the  yolk  of  an 

Egg. 

Have  three  quarts  of  Veal  Broth;  bruise  the  small 

•  Read  (No.  176.) 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS.  277 

legs  and  the  chine,  and  put  them  into  it,  to  boil  for 
twenty  minutes,  then  strain  it ;  and  then  to  thicken  it, 
take  the  live  spawn  and  bruise  it  in  a  mortar  with  a 
little  Butter  and  Flour,  rub  it  through  a  sieve,  and  add 
it  to  the  soup  with  the  meat  of  the  lobsters,  and  the 
remaining  coral;  let  it  simmer  very  gently  for  ten 
minutes ;  do  not  let  it  boil,  or  its  fine  red  colour  will 
immediately  fade;  turn  it  into  a  tureen,  add  the  juice 
of  a  good  lemon,  and  a  little  Essence  of  Anchovy. 

Soup  and  Boinlli.—{^o.  238.) — See  also  (No.  5.) 

The  best  parts  for  this  purpose,  are  the  Leg  or  Shin, 
or  a  piece  of  the  middle  of  a  Brisket  of  Beef,  of  about 
seven  or  eight  pounds  weight;  lay  it  on  a  fish  drainer, 
or  when  you  take  it  up,  put  a  slice  under  it,  which  will 
enable  you  to  place  it  on  the  dish  entire ;  put  it  into  a 
soup-pot  or  deep  stewpan,  witli  cold  water  enough  to 
cover  it,  and  a  quart  over,  set  it  on  a  quick  fire  to  get 
the  scum  up,  which  remove  as  it  rises ;  then  put  in  two 
carrots,  two  turnips,  two  leeks,  or  two  large  onions, 
two  heads  of  celery,  two  or  three  cloves,  and  a  faggot 
of  parsley  and  sweet  herbs  ;  set  the  pot  by  the  side  of 
the  fire  to  simmer  very  gently,  till  the  meat  is  just 
tender  enough  to  eat;  this  will  require  about  four  or 
five  hours. 

Put  a  large  carrot,  a  turnip,  a  large  onion,  and  a 
head  or  two  of  celery,  into  the  soup  whole, — take 
them  out  as  soon  as  they  are  done  enough,  lay  them  on 
a  dish  till  they  are  cold,  then  cut  them  into  small 
squares  : — when  the  Beef  is  done,  take  it  out  care- 
fully,— to  dibh  it  up,  see  (No.  204,  or  493),  strain  the 
Soup  through  a  hair  sieve  into  a  clean  stewpan,  take 
off  the  Fat,  and  put  the  Vegetables  that  are  cut  into 
the  Soup,  the  flavour  of  which  you  may  heighten,  by 
adding  a  tablespoonful  of  mushroom  catsup. 

If  a  Thickened  Soup  is  preferred,  take  four  large 
tablespoonsful  of  the  clear  Fat  from  the  top  of  the  pot, 
and  four  spoonsful  of  Flour;  mix  it  smooth  together, 


278  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS. 

then  by  degrees  stir  it  well  into  the  soup,  which  simmer 
for  ten  minutes  longer  at  least, — skim  it  well,  and  pass 
it  through  a  tanimis,  or  fine  sieve,  and  add  the  Vege- 
tables and  seasoning  the  same  as  directed  in  the  clear 
soup. 

Keep  the  Beef  hot,  and  send  it  up  (as  a  remove  to 
the  Soup)  with  finely  chopped  Parsley  s[)rinklcd  on  the 
top,  and  a  Sauce-boat  of  (No.  328.) 

Ox- Head  Soup— (So.  239.) 

Should  be  prepared  the  day  before  it  is  to  be  eaten, 
as  you  cannot  cut  the   meat  off  the  head   into  neat 
mouthfuls  unless  it  is  cold  -.  —  therefore,  the  day  before 
you  want  this  Soup,  put  half  an  Ox  Cheek  into  a  tub 
of  cold  water  to  soak  for  a  couple  of  hours,  then  break 
the  bones  that  have  not  been  broken  at  the  butcher's, 
and  wash  it  very  well  in  warm  water;  put  it  into  a  pot, 
and  cover  it  with   cold  water;  when  it  boils,  skim  it 
very  clean,  and  then  put  in  one  head  of  celery,  a  couple 
of  carrots,  a  turnip,  two  large  onions,  two  dozen  berries 
of  black  pepper,   same   of  allspice,  and   a  bundle  of 
sweet  herbs,  sucli  as  marjoram,  lemon-thyme,   savory, 
and   a  handful  of  parsley;  cover  the  soup-pot  close, 
and  set  it  on  a  slow  tire;  take  off  the  scum,  which  will 
rise  when  it  is  coming  to  a  boil,   and  set  it  by  the  fire- 
side to  itcii  xery  gcnthj  for  about  three  hours ;  take  out 
the  head,  lay  it  on  a  dish,  pour  the  soup  through  a  fine 
sieve  into  a  stone-ware  pan,  and  set  it  and  the  head  by 
in  a  cool  place  till  the  next  day;  —  then,  cut  the  meat 
into  neat  mouthfuls,  skim  and  strain  off  the  Broth, — 
put  two  quarts  of  it  and  the  Meat  into  a  clean  stew- 
pan, — let    it   simmer   very    gently   for   half   an  hour 
longer,   and  it  is  ready.  If  you  wish  it  thickened, 
(which  we  do  not  recommend, — for  the  reasons  given 
in  the  7th  Chapter  of  the  Rudiments  of  Cookery); — 
put  two  ounces  of  butter  into  a  stewpan;  when  it  is 
melted,  throw  in  as  much  flour  as  will  dry  it  up;  when 
they  are  well  mixed  together,  and  browned  by  degrees, 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS.  279 

pour  to  this  your  soup,  and  stir  it  well  together,  let  it 
simmer  for  half  an  hour  longer,  strain  it  through  a  hair 
sieve  into  a  clean  stewpan,  and  put  to  it  the  meat  of 
the  head, — let  it  stew  half  an  hour  longer,  and  season 
it  with  Cayenne  pepper,  salt,  and  a  glass  of  good  wine, 
or  a  tablespoonful  of  brandy.  See  Ox-Cheek  Stewed 
(No.  507.) 

Ol)s, — Those  who  wish  this  Soup  still  more  savoury, 
&c.  for  the  means  of  making  it  so  we  refer  to  (No.  247.) 

N.  B.  This  is  an  Excellent  and  Economical  Soup, — 

s.  d. 

Half  an  Ox  Cheek 1  6 

Celery 0  1 

Herbs 0  2 

Carrots  and  Turnips 0  3 

Onions 0  1 

Allspice,  and  Black  Pe^jper  and  Salt  ......  0  1 

2     2 

and  costs  those  who  have  not  a  garden  of  their  own, 
only  2*.  2d. ;  and  is  a  good  and  plentiful  dinner  for  half 
a  dozen  people ;  see  also  (No.  204),  and  (No.  229.) 

If  you  serve  it  as  Soup  for  a  dozen  people,  thicken 
one  Tureen,  and  send  up  the  Meat  in  that, — and  send 
up  the  other  as  a  clear  Gravy  Soup,  with  some  of  the 
carrots  and  turnips  shredded  or  cut  into  shapes. 

Ox  Tail  Soup.— {"So,  240.) 

Two  Tails,  costing  about  Id.  each,  will  make  a 
Tureen  of  Soup ;  (desire  the  Butcher  to  divide  them  at 
the  joints),  lay  them  to  soak  in  warm  water,  while  you 
get  ready  the  Vegetables. 

Put  into  a  gallon  stewpan,  eight  Cloves,  tv/o  or 
three  Onions,  half  a  drachm  of  Allspice,  and  the  same 
of  Black  Pepper,  and  the  Tails*;  cover  them  with  cold 
water,  skim  it  carefully,  when  and  as  long  as  you  see 
any  scum  rise;  —  then  cover  the  pot  as  close  as  pos- 
sible, and  set  it  on  the  side  of  the  fire  to  keep  gently 


*  Some  lovers  of  Haut-Goiit  fry  the  Tails  before  Ihey  put  ihem  iulo  the 
Soup-pot. 


280  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,   AND    SOUPS. 

simmering  till  the  meat  becomes  tender^  and  will  leave 
the  bones  easily,  because  it  is  to  be  eaten  with  a  spoon, 
without  the  assistance  of  a  knife  or  fork  ;  see  N.  B.  to 
(No.  244);  this  will  require  about  two  hours;  mind  it 
is  not  done  tuo  much:  when  perfectly  tender,  take  out 
the  meat  (which  some  Cooks  cut  off  the  bones,  in  neat 
mouthfuls,  which  is  the  best  way  of  serving;  it),  skim  the 
broth,  and  strain  it  though  a  sieve:  —  if  you  prefer  a 
Thicken  ED  Soup,  put  Hour  and  butter,  as  directed  in 
the  preceding  ilt-ceipt, — or  put  two  tablespoons ful  of 
the  Fat  you  have  taken  otf  tlie  Broth  into  a  clean  stew- 
pan,  with  as  much  flour  as  will  make  it  into  a  paste  ;  set 
this  over  the  fire,  and  stir  them  well  together,  then  pour 
in  the  Broth  by  degrees,  stirring  it  and  mixing  it  with 
the  thickening; — let  it  sjmmcr  for  another  half  hour, 
and  when  you  have  well  skimmed  it  and  it  is  quite 
smooth,  then  strain  it  through  a  tammis  into  a  clean 
stewpan,  put  in  the  Meat,  with  a  tablespoonful  of 
Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439),  a  glass  of  Wine,  and 
season  it  with  salt. 

For  increasing  the  l*i<iuance  of  tliis  Soup,  read 
(No,  247.) 

0/»5,_See  N.  B.  to  (No.  244);  if  the  Meat  is  cutoff 
the  Bones,  you  must  have  three  Tails  for  a  Tureen,  see 
N.  B.  to  (No.  244) ;  some  put  an  Ox  Check  or  Tails  in 
an  earthen  pan  with  all  the  ingredients  as  above,  and 
send  them  to  a  slow  oven  for  five  or  six  hours. 

N.B.  This  IS  even  more  economical  than  the  pre- 
ceding Soup: — 

*.  d. 

Two  Tails I     2 

Onions  aud  Spice u    2 

'Tiitiii.Q\:>LV.j%  of  ticellent  Soup  cost  only l    4 

To  Stew  Ox  Tails,  see  (No.  531.) 

Ox  Heel  Soup— {"So.  240.*) 

Must  be  made  the  day  before  it  is  eaten.  Procure 
an  Ox  Heel  undressed,  or  onlv  scalded,  (not  orio  that 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS.  261 

has  been  already  boiled,  as  they  are  at  the  Tripe  shops, 
till  almost  all  the  gelatinous  parts  are  extracted),  and 
Two  that  have  been  boiled  as  they  usually  are  at  the 
Tripe  shops. 

Cut  the  meat  off  the  boiled  heels  into  neat  mouthfuls, 
and  set  it  by  on  a  plate ;  put  the  trimmings  and  bones 
into  a  stewpan,  with  three  quarts  of  water,  and  the  un- 
boiled heel  cut  into  quarters;  —  furnish  a  stewpan  with 
two  onions  and  two  turnips  pared  and  sliced,  pare  off 
the  red  part  of  a  couple  of  large  carrots,  add  a  couple 
of  eshallots  cut  in  half,  a  bunch  of  savory,  or  lemon- 
thyme,  and  double  the  quantity  of  parsley  ;  set  this 
over  or  by  the  side  of  a  slow  steady  fire,  and  keep  it 
closely  covered  and  simmering  very  gently  (or  the  soup- 
liquor  will  evaporate),  for  at  least  seven  hours;  during 
which,  take  care  to  remove  the  fat  and  scum  that  will 
rise  to  the  surface  of  the  soup,  which  must  be  kept  as 
clean  as  possible. 

Now  strain  the  liquor  through  a  sieve,  and  put  two 
ounces  of  butter  into  a  clean  stewpan ;  when  it  is  melted, 
stir  into  it  as  much  flour  as  will  make  it  a  stiff  paste, 
add  to  it  by  degrees,  the  soup  liquor,  give  it  a  boil  up, 
strain  it  through  a  sieve,  and  put  in  the  peel  of  a  lemon 
pared  as  thin  as  possible,  and  a  couple  of  bay-leaves, 
and  the  meat  of  the  boiled  heels, — let  it  go  on  simmer- 
ing for  half  an  hour  longer,  i.  e.  till  the  meat  is  tender. 
Put  in  the  juice  of  a  Lemon,  a  glass  of  Wine,  and  a 
tablespoonful  of  Mushroom  Catsup,  and  the  soup  is 
ready  for  the  tureen. 

Obs.  —  Those  who  are  disposed  to  make  this  a  more 
substantial  dish,  may  introduce  a  couple  of  sets  of 
Goose  or  Duck  Giblets,  or  Ox  tails,  or  a  pouad  of 
Veal  cutlets,  cut  into  mouthfuls. 

Hare,  B,abbU,  or  Partridge  Soup,  —  (No.  241.) 

An  old  Hare,  or  Birds,  when  so  tough  as  to  defy  the 
teeth  in  any  other  form,  will  make  very  good  Soup. 
Cut  off  the  legs  and  shoulders,  divide  the  body 


282  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS. 

crossways,  and  sYer;'  them  icn/  gentiij  in  three  quarts  ot 
water,  with  one  carrot,  about  one  ounce  of  onion,  with 
four  cloves,  two  blades  of  pounded  mace,  24  black 
peppers,  and  a  bundle  of  sweet  herbs,  till  the  Hare  is 
tender,  (most  C  ooks  add  to  the  above  a  couple  of  slices 
of  Ham  or  Bacon,  and  a  Bay  Leaf,  &c.  but  my  Palate 
and  I'ursc  both  plead  against  such  extravagance,  the 
Hare  makes  sufficiently  savoury  Soup  without  them); 
the  time  this  will  take  de[)ends  very  much  upon  its 
age,  and  how  long  it  has  been  kept  before  it  is  dressed ; 
as  a  general  rule,  about  three  hours;  in  the  mean  time, 
make  a  dozen  and  a  half  of  nice  forcemeat  balls  (as  big 
as  Nutmegs)  of  (No.  379);  when  the  Hare  is  quite 
tender,  take  the  meat  oft' the  Back,  and  the  upper  joint 
of  the  Legs,  cut  it  into  neat  moulhfuls,  and  lay  it  aside  ; 
cut  the  rest  of  the  meat  oft"  the  legs,  shoulders,  &c. 
mince  it,  and  pound  it  in  a  mortar,  with  an  ounce  of 
butter,  and  two  or  three  tablcspoonsful  of  flour  moistened 
with  a  little  Soup  ;  rub  this  through  a  hair  sieve,  and 
put  it  into  the  Soup  to  thicken  it ; — let  it  simmer  slowly 
half  an  hour  longer,  skinmiing  it  well,  —  put  it  through 
the  Tammis,  into  the  pan  again,  —  and  put  in  the  meat 
with  a  glass  of  claret  or  Port  wine,  and  a  tablespoonful 
of  Currant  Jelly  to  each  quart  of  Soup, — season  it  with 
salt,  put  in  the  forcemeat  balls,  and  when  all  is  well 
warmed,  the  Soup  is  ready. 

Obs.  —  Cold  Roast  Hake  will  make  excellent 
soup.  Chop  it  in  pieces,  and  stew  it  in  water  (accord- 
ing to  the  quantity  of  Hare)  for  about  an  hour,  and 
manage  it  as  in  the  above  receipt ;  the  stuffing::  of  the 
hare  will  be  a  substitute  for  sweet  herbs  and  seasoning. 

N.B.  This  Soup  may  be  made  with  Mock  Harc, 
see  (No.  66*.) 

Game  Soup.  —  (No.  242.) 

In  the  Game  Season,  it  is  easy  for  a  Cook  to  give 
her  master  a  very  good  Soup  at  a  very  little  expense, 
by  taking  all  the  Meat  off  the  Breasts  of  any  cold 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS.  283 

Birds  which  have  been  left  the  preceding  day,  and 
pounding  it  in  a  mortar,  and  beating  to  pieces  the  legs 
and  bones,  and  boiling  them  in  some  broth  for  an 
hour.  Boil  six  turnips,  mash  them,  and  strain  them 
through  a  tammis  cloth  with  the  meat  that  has  been 
pounded  in  a  mortar,  strain  your  broth,  and  put  a  little 
of  it  at  a  time  into  the  tammis,  to  help  you  to  strain  all 
of  it  through.  Put  your  soup-kettle  near  the  fire,  but 
do  not  let  it  boil ;  when  ready  to  dish  your  dinner, 
have  six  yolks  of  eggs  mixed  with  half  a  pint  of  cream, 
strain  through  a  sieve,  put  your  soup  on  the  fire,  and 
as  it  is  coming  to  a  boil,  put  in  the  eggs,  and  stir  well 
with  a  wooden  spoon;  do  not  let  it  boil,  or  it  will 
curdle. 

Goose  or  Duck  Gihlet  Soup.*  —  (No.  244.) 

Scald  and  pick  very  clean  a  couple  sets  of  Goose,  — 
or  four  of  Duck  Gibltts,  (the  fresher  the  better),  wash 
them  well  in  warm  water,  in  two  or  three  waters;  cut 
off  the  Noses  and  split  the  Heads,  dkide  the  Gizzards 
and  Necks  into  Mouthjuls.  —  If  the  Gizzards  are  not  cut 
into  pieces,  —  before  they  are  done  enough,  the  rest  of 
the  meat,  &c.  will  be  done  too  n^uch ;  —  and  Knives 
and  Forks  have  no  business  in  a  Soup  plate.  Crack 
the  bones  of  the  Legs,  put  them  into  a  stewpan, — 
cover  them  with  cold  water:  when  they  boil,  take  off 
the  scum  as  it  rises,  then  put  in  a  bundle  of  herbs,  such 
as  Lemon  Thyme,  Winter  Savory,  or  Marjorum,  about 
three  sprigs  of  each,  —  and  double  the  quantity  of 
Parsley,  —  twenty  berries  of  Allspice,  the  same  of 
black  pepper,  tie  them  all  up  in  a  muslin  bag,  and  set 
them  to  stexcvery  gently,  till  the  Gizzards  are  tender; — 
this  will  take  from  an  hour  and  a  half,  to  two  hours, 
according  to  the  size  and  age  of  the  Giblets  :  —  take 
them  up  with  a  skimmer,  or  a  spoon  full  of  holes,  put 


*  Fqwls'  or  TcRKEYs'  Heads  make  g>od  and  clieaj)  Sony  ij  the  s.imu 
laiiiier. 


284  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS. 

them  into  the  tureen,  and  cover  down  close,  to  keep 
warm  till  the  Soup  is  ready; 

To  Thicken  the  Soup.  —  Melt  an  ounce  and  a  half 
of  butter  in  a  clean  stewpan,  stir  in  as  much  Flour  as 
will  make  it  into  a  paste ;  then  pour  to  it  by  degrees 
a  ladleful  of  the  Giblet  liquor,  add  the  remainder  by 
degrees,  let  it  boil  about  ten  minutes,  stirring  it  all  the 
while,  for  fear  it  should  burn, — skim  it  and  strain  it 
through  a  fine  sieve  into  a  Basin,  —  wash  out  the 
stewpan,  —  then  return  the  Soup  into  it,  and  season  it 
with  a  Glass  of  wine,  a  tablespoonful  of  Mushroom 
Catsup,  and  a  little  salt,  —  let  it  have  one  boil  up, — 
and  then  put  the  Giblets  in  to  get  hot,  and  the  Soup  is 
ready. 

Obs.  —  Thus  managed,  one  set  of  Goose  or  two  of 
DucJc  Giblets,  (which  latter  may  sometimes  be  had  for 
3d.),  will  make  a  Quart  of  healthful,  nourishing  Soup : 
if  you  think  the  Giblets  alone  will  not  make  the  Gravy 
savoury  enough,  add  a  pound  of  Beef>  or  Mutton,  or 
bone  of  a  knuckle  of  Veal,  and  heighten  its  "  piquance"* 
by  adding  a  few  leaves  of  sweet  Basil,  the  juice  of  half 
a  Seville  orange  or  lemon,  and  half  a  glass  of  Wine, 
and  a  little  of  (No.  343*)  to  each  quart  of  Soup. 

Those  who  are  fond  of  Forcemeat,  may  slip  the 
skin  off  the  neck,  and  fill  it  with  (No.  378),  tie  up  the 
other  end  tight,  put  it  into  the  soup  about  half  an  hour 
before  you  take  it  up,  or  make  some  nice  savoury  Balls 
of  tlie  Duck  stuffing  (No.  61.) 

Obs.  —  Bespeak  the  Giblets  a  couple  of  days  before 
yoFU  desire  to  have  them ;  this  is  a  favourite  Soup  when 
the  Giblets  are  done  till  nicely  tender,  but  yet  not 
overboiled.  Giblets  may  be  had  from  July  to  January, 
—  ih^frtsher  they  are,  the  better. 

N.  B.  This  is  rather  a  family  dish  than  a  company 
one,  —  the  Bones  cannot  be  \vell  picked,  without  the 
help  of  Alive  Pincers. 

Since  Tom  Cory  at  introduced  Forks,  A.D.  1 642,  it  has 
not  been  the  fashion  to  put "  pickers  and  stealers*'  into  Soup. 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS.  285 

Mock  Mock  Turtle, — (No.  245.)  as  made  by  Eliza- 
beth Lister,  (latt  Cook  to  Dr.  KitchinerJ,  No.  6, 
Queen  Street,  Oxford  Street,  near  the  Pantheon.  —  Goes 
out  to  Dress  Dinners  on  reasonable  Terms. 

Line  the  bottom  of  a  stewpan  that  will  hold  five  pints, 
with  an  ounce  of  nice  lean  Bacon,  or  Ham,  a  pound 
and  a  half  of  lean  gravy  beef,  a  Cow  Heel,  the  inner 
rind  of  a  carrot,  a  sprig  of  lemon-thyme,  winter  savory, 
three  times  the  quantity  of  parsley,  a  few  green  leaves 
of  sweet  basil*",  and  two  shallots;  put  in  a  large  Onion, 
with  four  cloves  stuck  in  it,  18  corns  of  allspice,  tlie 
same  of  black  pepper;  pour  on  these  a  quarter  of  a  pint 
of  cold  water,  cover  the  stewpan,  and  set  it  on  a  slow 
fire,  to  boil  gently  for  a  quarter  of  an  hour ;   then,  for 
fear  the  meat  should  catch,  take  off  the  cover,  and 
watch  it ;  and  when  it  has  got  a  good  brown  colour, 
fill  up  the  stewpan  with  boiling  water,  and  let  it  simmer 
very  gently  for  two  hours;  — if  you  wish  to  have  the 
full  benefit  of  the  meat,  only  stew^  it  till  it  is  just  tender, 
cut  it  into  mouthfuls,  and  put  it  into  the  soup.     To* 
Thicken  it,    pour  to  two  or  three  tablespoonsful  of 
Flour,  a  ladleful  of  the  gravy,  and  stir  it  quick  till  it  is 
well  mixed;  pour  it  back  into  the  stewpan  where  the 
gravy  is,   and  let  it  simmer  gently  for  half  an   hour 
longer,  skim  it,  and  then  strain  it  through  a  tammis  into 
the  stewpan :  cut  the  cow-heel  into  pieces  about  an  inch 
square,  squeeze  through  a  sieve  the  juice  of  a  lemon, 
a  tablespoonful  of  mushroom  catsup,  a  teaspoonful  of 
salt,   half  a  teaspoonful   of  ground  black  pepper,  as 
much  grated  nutmeg  as  will  He  on   a  sixpence,   and 
a  glass  of  Madeira  or  sherry  wine;  let  it  all  simmer 
together  for  five  minutes  longer. 


*  To  this  fiue  aromatic  Ueib,  Turtle  Sonp  Is  much  indebted  for  its  spicy- 
flavour,  and  tlie  high  esteem  it  is  held  in  by  the  good  citizens  of  London,  who, 
I  believe,  ar«  pretty  generally  of  the  same  opinion  as  Dr.  Salmon.  See  his 
'  Household  Dictionary  a7id  Essay  on  Cookery,"  8vo.  London,  1710,  page 
31,  article  •  Basil.'  "  This  comforts  the  heart,  expels  melancholy,  atTd 
olearnses  the  lungs."    See  (No.  397.) 


286  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS. 

Forcemeat  or  Egg  balls  may  be  acUled  if  you  please'; 
you  will  find  a  receipt  for  these  (No.  380,  drc.) 

*^*  A  pound  of  real  Cut/cts,  or  the  bt/h/  part  of 
pickled  Pork,  or  tike  double  Tripe  cut  into  pi(ces  about  en 
inch  S(juare,  and  half  an  inch  thick,  and  rounded  and 
trimmed  neafli/  fiom  all  skin,  gnstle,  i^-f.  and  itciued  till 
they  are  tender,  nill  be  a  gnat  addition. 

s.  d. 

One  pound  and  a  half  of  gravy  bet/  1  0 

Cow  Heel '. 0  7 

Rin>ts  and  //<  rbs,  Jyc 0  3 

Hiitterandjfottr o  4 

nine    0  6 

Half  a  lemon    0  1 

Bacon,  S^c.  S^c o  4 

Tuo  quarts  cost  only 3     1 

Mock  Turtle— (No.  247.) 

Is  the  "  Uonne  Bovche"'  which  '*  the  Officers  of  the 
Mouth"  of  Old  England*  prepare,  when  they  choose 
to  rival  "  les  Grands  Cuisiniers  de  France"  in  a  *'  Ragout 
nans  Partil.'' 

The  following  Receipt  is  an  attempt  (and  the  Com- 
mittee of  Taste  pronounced  it  a  successful  one),  to 
imitate  the  excellent  and  generally  approved  Mock 
Turtle  made  by  Messrs.  Birch,  Cornhill. 

indeavour  to  have  the  Head,  and  the  Broth  ready  for 
the  Soupi,  the  day  before  it  is  to  he  eaten. 

It  will  take  Eight  Hours  to  prepare  it  properly. 

hours. 

Cleaning  and  soaking  (he  head 1 

Tu  parbxil  it  to  cut  up 1 

C«olii.g,  nearly 1 

Making  the  Krolh  and  fiuisliing  the  Soup  ....  5 

8  hours. 

Get  a  Calf's  head  with  the  skin  on,  (the  fresher  the 
better),  take  out  the  brains,  wash  the  head  several  times 


*  "  Tout  It  mon<ie  sail  qne  touB  les  Ragouts  qui  (  uitentie  noni  de  Tobtue, 
sent  d'oiigii.e  Ai.glHise." — Manuel  (les  .imphdryotis,&\o.  1808,  p.  229. 

t  ihose  who  do  not  like  th«  trouble,  &c.  ot  making  Muck  lurile,  may  be 
8U(^plitd  \^iih  it  leady  made,  in  bi<^h  peileclion,  at  BlRCU's  in  Cornhill. 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS.  287 

in  cold  water,  let  it  soak  for  about  an  hour  in  spring 
water,  then  lay  it  in  a  stewpan  ;  and  cover  it  with  cold 
water,  and  half  a  gallon  over ;  as  it  becomes  warm, 
a  great  deal  of  scum  will  rise,  which  must  be  imme- 
diately removed,  —  let  it  boil  gently  for  one  hour,  take 
it  up,  and  when  almost  cold,  cut  the  head  into  pieces 
about  an  inch  and  a  half  by  an  inch  and  a  quarter,  and 
the  tongue  into  mouthfuls,  or  rather  make  a  side  dish 
of  the  Tongue  and  Brains,  as  in  (No.  10.) 

When  the  Head  is  taken  out,  put  in  the  Stx)ck  Meat*^ 
about  five  pounds  of  Knuckle  of  Veal,  and  as  much 
Beef,  add  to  the  stock  all  the  Trimmings  and  Bones  of 
the  Head,  skim  it  well,  and  then  cover  it  close,  and  let 
it  boil  five  hours,  (reserve  a  couple  of  quarts  of  this  to 
make  Gravy  Sauces,  &c.  see  (No.  307),  then  strain  it 
off,  and  let  it  stand  till  the  next  morning, — then  take  off 
the  fat,  set  a  large  stewpan  on  the  fire  with  half  a 
pound  of  good  fresh  butter,  twelve  ounces  of  Onions 
shced.  and  four  ounces  of  green  Sage,  chop  it  a  little, 
let  it  fry  one  hour,  then  rub  in  half  a  pound  of  flour, 
and  by  degrees  add  your  Broth,  till  it  is  the  thickness 
of  Cream,  season  it  with  a  quarter  of  an  ounce  of 
ground  Allspice  and  half  an  ounce  of  Black  Pepper 
ground  very  fine,  salt  to  your  taste,  and  the  rind  of  one 
Lemon  peeled  very  thin  ;  let  it  simmer  very  gently  for 
one  hour  and  a  half,  then  strain  it  through  a  hair 
sieve, — do  not  rub  your  Soup  to  get  it  through  the 
sieve,  or  it  will  make  it  grouty;  if  it  does  not  run 
through  easily,  —  knock  your  wooden  spoon  against 
the  side  of  your  sieye, — put  it  in  a  clean  stewpan  with 
the  Head,  and  season  it  by  adding  to  each  gallon  of 
Soup  half  a  pint  of  Wine  —  this  should  be  Madeira,  or 
if  you  wish  to  darken  the  colour  of  your  Soup,  Claret, 
and  two  tablespoonsful  of  Lemon  juice,  see  (No.  407  *), 

•  The  reader  may  have  remarked,  that  Mock  Turtle  and  Potted  Beef 
always  come  into  season  together. 

See  Obs.  to  (No.  503.*)  This  Gravy  Meat  will  make  an  excellent 
savoury  Potted  Relish,  as  it  will  be  impregnated  with  the  flavour  of  the 
herbs  and  spice  that  are  boiled  with  it. 


288  BROTHS;  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS. 

let  it  simmer  gently  till  the  Meat  is  tender ;  this  may- 
take  from  half  an  hour  to  an  hour  ;  —  take  care  it  is  not 
overdone ;  —  stir  it  frequently  to  prevent  the  meat 
sticking  to  the  bottom  of  the  stewpan,  and  when  the 
meat  is  quite  tender  the  soup  is  ready. 

A  Head  weighing  twenty  pounds,  and  ten  pounds  of 
stock  meat,  will  make  Ten  quarts  of  excellent  Soup, — 
besides  the  two  quarts  of  stock  you  have  put  by  for 
Made  Dishes,  &c. 

Obs.  —  If  there  is  more  meat  on  the  head  than  yo!i 
wish  to  put  in  the  soup,  prepare  it  for  a  Pie,  and  with 
the  addition  of  a  Calf's  foot,  boiled  tender,  it  will  make 
an  excellent  Ragout  pie;  season  it  with  Zest,  and  a 
little  minced  Onion,  put  in  half  a  teacupful  of  stock, 
cover  it  with  puff  paste,  and  bake  it  one  hour :  when 
the  soup  comes  from  table,  if  there  is  a  deal  of  meat 
and  no  soup,  put  it  into  a  pie- dish,  season  it  a  little, 
and  add  some  thin  stock  to  it,  then  cover  it  with  paste, 
bake  it  one  hour,  and  you  have  a  good  Mock  Turtle 
Pie. 

This  Soup  was  eaten  by  the  Committee  of  Taste  with 
unanimous  applause,  and  they  pronounced  it  a  very 
satisfactory  substitute*"  for  "  the  far  fetcht  and  dear 
bought"  1'urtle;  which  itself  is  indebted  for  its  Title 
of  "  Sovereign  of  Savouriness,"  to  the  rich  Soup 
with  which  it  is  surrounded  ; — without  its  paraphernalia 
of  subtle  Double  Relishes,  a  '*  STARRED  TURTLE,'' 
has  not  more  intrinsic  sapidity  than  a  "  FA'^FTllO 
CALF."  See  Essence  of  Turtle,  (No.  343 0,  and 
Obs.  to  (No.  493).     To  warm  this  Soup,  see  (No.  485.) 

*  ••  Many  Go7<r??;c^AaudGastro  ogers  prefer  the  copy  to  the  original, — we 
confess  that  when  none  as  it  ought  to  be,  the  Mock  Turtle  is  exceedingly 
interesting."— IV/^f/Za  Cibaria,mZ0,  p.  30. 

"  Turtles  often  become  emaciated  and  sickly  before  they  reach  this  coutitry, 
in  which  case  the  Soup  would  be  incomparably  improved,  by  leaving  out  tlie 
Turtli?,  and  substituting  a  good  Calf's  Head." — Supplement  to  Encyc.  Brit. 
Edinburgh^  vol.  iv.  p.  331. 

Turtle  prepared  in  the  West  Indies,  may  be  had  at  Morrison's  Patent 
Preserved  Provision  Warehouse,  ;No.  3,  Charlotte  Row,  Mansion  House, 
at  the  rate  of  £l.  \s.  for  three  Quarts.  The  Editor  tasted  some  Beef  Stock, 
and  some  Veal  stewed  in  its  own  Jelly,  which  had  been  cooked  six  months, — 
it  was  excellent,  and  continued  so  after  being  opened  three  days. 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS.  289 

The  following  is  the  Receipt  given  in  the  former 
Edition  of  this  work.  Put  about  two  ounces  of  butter 
into  a  stock  pot,  and  three  large  Onions  (such  as 
weigh  about  three  ounces  each)  cut  in  half;  stir  these 
about  till  they  get  a  little  browned,  then  chop  a  Shin 
of  Beef  of  fifteen  pounds  weight  into  pieces,  and  lay 
them  on  the  onions, — and  fill  up  the  stewpan  with  the 
liquor  in  which  the  Calf's  head  was  boiled;  when  it 
boils,  and  you  have  skimmed  it  well,  put  in  two  Car- 
rots, two  Turnips,  two  heads  of  Celery,  eight  Cloves,  a 
quarter  of  an  ounce  (avoirdupois  weight)  of  Eshallots, 
cut  in  half,  and  a  bundle  of  equal  parts  of  Green  winter 
Savory,  Lemon  Thyme,  knotted  Marjoram,  and  Basil, 
and  twice  the  quantity  of  Parsley;  put  in  a  quarter  of  an 
ounce  of  Allspice,  sam.e  of  whole  Black  Pepper,  tYie 
trimmings  and  bones  of  the  Calf's  head;  cover  it  close, 
and  let  it  stew  gently  for  about  four  hours,  (there 
should  be  nine  quarts  of  soup  when  it  is  finished) :  strain 
it  off,  and  reserve  a  couple  of  quarts  of  this  Broth  to  make 
Gravy  Sauces  yb/-  the  rest  of  the  Dinner;  see  (No. 
307).  And  save  some  of  the  thickened  Soup,  for 
Sauce  for  Fish,  Ragouts,  &c.  ;  this  hint  will  save 
you  much  expense,  and  much  time  and  trouble. 

Take  four  drachms  of  Lemon  peel,  two  of  Eshallot, 
six  drachms  of  the  leaves  of  Sage,  and  six  of  Winter 
savory,  chop  it  together  quite  fine,  then  put  it  on  the 
fire  in  half  a  pint  of  the  stock,  let  it  boil  till  it  is  quite 
tender,  (about  half  an  hour),  then  strain  it  through  a 
sieve,  and  with  the  back  of  a  spoon  rub  the  herbs 
through,  aad  put  it  in  the  Soup  when  you  have  thick- 
ened it. 

To  Thicken  it,  put  about  six  ounces  of  Butter  into 
a  clean  stewpan ;  when  it  is  melted,  gradually  stir  in 
eight  ounces  of  Flour,  rub  it  up  well,  and  moisten  it  with 
a  ladleful  of  your  Soup  liquor,  and  mix  all  well  together, 
till  they  are  smoothly  united,  then  add  the  remainder 
by  degrees,  stirring  it  all  the  while  till  thoroughly 
o 


!2f90  BROTHS,  CRAVIES,  AND  SOUPar. 

incorporated;  (if  it  is  at  all  lumpy,  pass  it  throup^h  a 
sieve);  let  it  stew  half  an  hour  longer,  taking  off"  tlu- 
scum  as  it  rises  ;  then  strain  it  through  a  tammis  into 
a  clean  stewpan,  put  in  the  Head,  and  let  it  simmer 
gently  till  the  Meat  is  tender,  (this  inuy  riquire  about  ati 
hour ;  —  take  care  it  is  not  orcrdont ). 

To  Season  it,  to  each  Gallon  of  Soup  put  two 
tablespoonsful  of  Lemon  Juice,  see  (No.  407*),  same 
of  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439),  and  one  of  Essence  of 
Anchovy  (No.  433),  half  a  pint  of  Wine,  (this  should 
be  Madeira,  or  if  you  wish  to  darken  the  colour  of  your 
soup.  Claret),  a  teaspoonful  of  Curry  Powder  (No.  455), 
or  a  quarter  of  a  drachm  of  Cayenne,  and  the  peel  of  a 
Lemon  pared  as  thin  as  possible ;  let  it  simmer  five 
minutes  more,  take  out  the  Lemon  Peel,  and  the  Soup 
i<i  ready  for  the  Tureen. 

\N  hile  the  Soup  is  doing,  prepare  for  each  tureen,  a 
dozen  and  a  half  of  Mock  Turtle  Forcemeat  Balls,  (to 
make  these,  see  (No.  375)  or  (No.  376),  (No.  390  to 
No.  396),  we  prefer  the  stuffing  ordered  in  (No.  61), 
and  a  dozen  Y.^^  balls;  and  put  them  into  the  tureen. 
Br.aix  Balls,  or  cakes,  are  a  very  elegant  addition, 
and  are  made  by  boiling  the  brains  for  ten  minutes, 
then  putting  them  in  cold  water,  and  cutting  them  into 
pieces  about  as  big  as  a  large  nutmeg;  take  Savoury, 
or  Lemon-thyme  dried  and  finely  powdered,  nutmeg 
grated,  and  pepper  and  salt,  and  pound  them  all  to- 
gether; beat  up  an  q^i^,  dip  the  brains  in  it,  and  then 
roll  them  in  this  mixture,  and  make  as  much  of  it  as 
possible  stick  to  them,  dip  them  in  the  egg  again,  and 
then  in  finely  grated  and  sifted  bread  crumbs,  fry  them 
in  hot  fat,  and  send  them  up  as  a  side  dish. 

A  VEAL  SWEETBREAD,  prepared  as  in  (No.  89),  not 
too  much  done  or  it  will  break),  cut  into  pieces  the  same 
size  as  you  cut  the  calf's  head,  and  put  in  the  soup, 
just  to  get  warin  before  it  goes  to  table,  is  a  superb 
*'  Honne  Bmche ;'  and  Pickled  Tongue,  stewed  till  very 
tender,  and  cut  into  mouthfuls,  is  a  favourite  addition. 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS.  29l 

We  order  the  meat  to  be  cut  into  INIouthfuls,  that  it 
may  be  eaten  with  a  spoon ;  the  Knife  and  Fork  ha\e  no 
business  in  a  Soup  plate. 

*^*  Some  of  our  culinary  cotemporaries,  order  the  Haui- 
gout  of  this  fas  above  directed,  sufficiently  relishing)  Soup, 
to  be  cofnbustiblcd  and  be-deiilled,  nith  a  copious  addition 
of  Anchovies, — Mushrooins, — Truffles, — Morells, — Curry- 
povoder, — Artichokehottoms, — Salmons  heads  and  livers, — 
or  the  soft  part  of  Oysters  or  Lobsters, — Soles  cut  in 
mouthfuls. — a  bottle  of  Madeira, — apitit  of  Brandy,  t^r., 
and  to  complete  their  surfeiting  and  burn-gullet  Olio,  they 
put  in  such  a  tremendous  quantity  of  Cayenne  pepper, — that 
only  af  re-proof  palate,  lined  xvith  Asbestos,  or  indurated  by 
Indian  Diet,  can  endure  it.  See  Note  under  (No.  493). 

N.  B.  In  helping'  this  Soup,  the  distributor  of  it 
should  serve  out  the  Meat, — Forcemeat — and  Gravy, — 
in  equal  parts  ;  however  trifling  or  needless  this  remark 
may  appear,  the  writer  has  often  suffered  from  the 
want  of  such  a  hint  being  given  to  the  Soup-server,  who 
has  sometimes  sent  a  plate  of  mere  Gravy  without 
Meat, — at  others,  of  Meat  without  Gravy,  and  some- 
times scarcely  any  thing  but  Forcemeat  Balls. 

Obs. — This  is  a  delicious  Soup,  within  the  reach  of 
those  who  "  eat  to  live;"  but  if  it  had  been  composed 
expressly  for  those  who  only  ''  live  to  eat,''  I  do  not 
know  how  it  could  have  been  made  more  agreeable : 
as  it  is,  the  lover  of  good  eating  will  "  wish  his  Throat 
a  mile  long,  and  every  inch  of  it  Palate." 
English  Turtle.— {"No.  248.) 

See  (No.  50-2.)     "  Alamode  Beef." 

Curry,  or  Mullaga-Tauny*  Soup. — (No.  249.) 

•  MuiUfga-Tairny—s'igmfies  Pepper  Water.  The  progress  nfincxpcrienccrl 
peripatetic  Palaiici;nis  has  lately  been  arrested  bylhi*  otiilaiuiish  word  beiiia: 
pasted  on  the  window?  of  onr  Coffeo-Honses :  it  has,  we  believe,  answerrd 
the  "  Restaurateurs'"  purpose,  and  often  excited  John  Bull  to  walk  in 
and  taste;— the  n  ore  familiar  name  of  Curry  .Sn/i>— would,  perhaps,  not 
have  hal  snlticient  of  the  charms  of  novelty  — to -e'diice  him  from  his  niucii- 
lovcd  :Mock  Tuktlk. 

It  is  a  fashionable  Sonp,  and  a  great  favonrite  with  our  East  Indian  frien  !>, 
and  we  ijiveth*  best  receipt  we  could  pn  cure  for  it. 

o  2 


292  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS. 

Cut  4lbs.  of  a  Breast  of  Veal  into  pieces,  about  two 
inches  by  one  ;  put  the  trimmings  into  a  st^wpan  with 
two  quarts  of  water,  with  twelve  corns  of  Black  Pepper, 
and  the  same  of  Allspice ;  when  it  boils,  skim  it  clean, 
■and  let  it  boil  an  hour  and  a  half,  then  strain  it  off; — 
while  it  is  boiling,  fry  of  a  nice  brown  in  butter  the  bits 
of  Veal  and  four  Onions ;  when  they  are  done,  put  the 
Broth  to  them,  put  it  on  the  fire  ;  when  it  boils,  skim  it 
clean,- let  it  simmer  half  an  hour,  then  mix  two 
spoonsful  of  Curry  and  the  same  of  Flour,  with  a  little 
cold  water  and  a  teaspoonful  of  salt;  add  these  to  the 
soup,  and  simmer  it  gently  till  the  Veal  is  quite  tender, 
and  it  is  ready; — or  bone  a  couple  of  Fowls  or  Rabbits, 
and  stew  them  in  the  manner  directed  above  for  the 
Veal, — and  vou  may  put  in  a  bruised  Eshallot,  and 
some  Mace  and  Ginger,  instead  of  Black  Pepper  and 
Allspice. 

O/M.-Read  (No.  497). 

Tiirtk*  .So///).— (No.  250.) 

As  it  u  our  wish  that  this  work  should  be  given  to 
the  Public  at  the  lowest  possible  price — the  Receipt  for 
dressing  a  Turtle  is  taken  out — as  a  professed  Cook  is 
always  hired  for  the  purpose  of  dressing  it.  The  space 
this  long  receipt  occupied  is  now  filled  with  directions 
for  making  useful  Pickles.     See  (No.  462). 


•  "  The  usual  allo'vance  at  a  Turtle  Fevst,  is  Six  Pounds  live  weight 
per  Head: — at  Uie  Spanish  biimei ,  at  the  (Jity  of  London  J  avern,  in  August, 
18u8,  4<)t)  Gue?t.«  afttJiidcd,  and  £500  pounds  of  Tonle  were  cousuriied."  See 
Bell's  Weekly  Messenger  for  August  'th,  1808. 

The  Ljicure  Qlin  used  to  say,  it  was  "  not  safe,  to  sit  down  to  a  Turtle 
Feast  ai  one  of  the  Citj  iialls,  without  a  basket-hilted  Knife  and  Fork." 

We  recuinmeud  our  frieuds,  before  encounterinij  such  a  temptation,  to  read 
our  I'tPTic  Fricepts.  Nothing  is  more  diliiculi  of  ditjesiion,  or  oftener 
requiri  -  the  aid  of  Peristaltic  Persuaders,  (see  page  4.3  of  this  work),  than 
(he  gluiiiiuus  Callipash  which  is  considered  ihe  "  Oonne  bouche"  of  this  Soup. 

Turtle  is  generally  spoiled  by  being  over-dressed.  If  the  Header  has 
ary  etirosMy  io  know  huw  it  is  prepared  in  the  most  superlative  style, — it 
wi,ll  he  gra<iiied  in  the  highest  degree,  if  he  paysa  visit  to  Albion  tlou:>£,  iu 
AUieiS!i;ite  Stree:. 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS.  293 

Portable*  Soup, — or  Glaze. —  (No.  252.) 

Desire  the  Butcher  to  break  the  bones  of  a  Leg 
or  a  Shin  of  Beef,  of  10  pounds  weight  (the  fresher 
killed  the  better),  put  it  into  a  Soup-pot  (a  Di- 
OESTER-j-  is  the  best  utensil  for  this  purpose)  that 
will  well  hold  it ;  just  cover  it  with  cold  water,  and 
set  it  on  the  fire  to  heat  gradually  till  it  nearly 
boils,  (this  should  be  at  least  an  hour) ;  —  skim  it 
attentively  while  any  scum  rises,  —  pour  in  a  little 
cold  water,  to  throw  up  the  scum  that  may  remain,  — 
let  it  come  to  a  boil  again,  and  again  skim  it  care- 
fully :  when  no  more  scum  rises,  and  the  broth  ap- 
pears clear,  (put  in  neither  Roots  nor  Herbs  nor  Salt,) 
let  it  boil  for  eight  or  ten  hours,  and  then  strain  it 
through  a  hair  sieve  into  a  brown  stone  pan ;  set  the 
Broth  where  it  will  cool  quickly ;  put  the  meat  into  a 
sieve,  let  it  drain,  make  Potted  Beef  (No.  503),  —  or  it 
will  be  very  acceptable  to  many  poor  families.  Next 
day  remove  every  particle  of  Fat  from  the  top  of  it,  and 
pour  it  through  a  Tammis  or  fine  sieve  as  quietly  as 
possible  into  a  Stewpan,  taking  care  not  to  let  any  of 
the  settlings  at  the  bottom  of  the  stone  pan  go  into  the 
Stewpan,  which  should  be  of  thick  Copper,  perfectly 
well  tinned  ;  add  a  quarter  of  an  ounce  of  whole  Black 
Pepper  to  it,  let  it  boil  briskly,  with  the  stewpan 
uncovered,  on  a  quick  fire :  if  any  scum  rises,  take  it 
off  with  a  skimmer  ;  when  it  begins  to  thicken,   and  is 


•  "  A  pound  of  meat  contains  about  an  ounce  of  gelatinous  matter  ;  it  thence 
follows,  that  1500  poiuids  of  the  same  meat,  which  is  the  whole  weight  of  a 
bullock,  would  s;ive  only  Qi  pounds,  which  might  be  easily  contrine  1  in  an 
earthen  Jar."  —  Dr.  Hui ton's  Rational  Recreations,  vol.  iv.  p.  iy4. 

In  wjiat  degree  Portable  or  other  Soup  be  nutritious,  we  know  not ;  but 
refer  the  reader  to  our  note  under  (No.  185  '.) 

t  This  machine  was  invented  by  Dr.  Denys  Papin,  F.R.S.,  about  the  year 
l681,  as  appears  by  his  Essay  on  "  The  New  Digester,  or  Engine  /or 
Softening  Bones  ;" —  '•  by  the  help  of  which,  (he  says)  the  oldest  and  hardest 
Cow  Beef  may  be  made  as  tender  and  as  savoury  as  young  and  choice  Meat." 
Cast  Iron  Digesters  are  made  at  Jackson  and  Moser's,  in  Frith  Street,  Soho. 

Although  we  have  not  yet  found  that  they  do  what  Dr.  Papin  says,  "  malce 
old  and  tough  Meat  —  young  and  tender,"  they  are,  however,  excellent 
t^in^s   to  maJie  Broths  and  Soups  ic. 


^4  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,   AND   SOIPS. 

reduced  to  about  a  quart,  put  it  into  a  smaller  stew- 
pan  ;  set  it  over  a  <i:entler  fire,  till  it  is  reduced  to  the 
thickness  of  a  very  thick  Syrup  ;  take  care  that  it  does 
not  burn,  —  a  moment's  inattention  nan  icill  lose  you  all 
your  labour,  ami  the  .soup  xiill  he  spoiled: — take  a  little 
of  it  out  in  a  spoon  and  let  it  cool ;  if  it  sets  into 
strons;  Jelly,  it  is  done  enough  ;  —  if  it  does  not,  boil  it 
a  little  longer,  till  it  does;  —  have  ready  some  little 
pots,  such  as  are  used  for  Potted  Meats,  about  an  inch 
and  a  half  deep,  takinji;  care  that  they  are  quite  dry  ; — 
we  recommend  it  to  be  kept  in  these  pots,  if  it  is  for 
home  consumption — {the  less  it  is  reduced,  the  better 
is  the  Jlaiour  of  the  Soup)  —  if  it  be  sufficiently  con- 
centrated to  keep  for  six  months ;  —  if  you  wish  to 
preserve  it  lonj^er,  put  it  into  such  bladders  as  are 
used  for  German  Sausaj^es,  —  or  if  you  prefer  it  in  the 
form  of  Cakes,  pour  it  into  a  dish  about  a  quarter  of 
an  Inch  deep  ;  when  it  is  cold,  turn  it  out  and  weigh 
the  Cake,  and  divide  it  with  a  ])aste-cutter  into  pieces 
of  half  an  ounce  and  an  ounce  each;  place  them  in  a 
wajin  room,  and  turn  them  frequently  till  they  are 
tht»rou^diiy  dried  ;  —  this  will  take  a  week  or  ten  days  ; 
tmn  them  twice  a  day;  —  when  well  hardened,  and 
kept  in  a  dry  place,  they  may  be  preserved  for  several 
years  in  any  climate. 

This  extract  of  Meat  makes  excellent  "  Tablettes  de 
Bouillon,''  for  those  who  are  obliged  to  endure  long 
fasting. 

If  the  surface  becomes  mouldy,  wipe  it  with  a  httle 
waiTTi  water —  the  mouldy  taste  does  not  penetrate  the 
mass. 

If,  after  several  days'  drying,  it  does  not  become  so 
hard  as  vou  wish,  put  it  into  a  Bainmarie  Stewpan,  or 
a  Milk-boiler,  (these  are  made  by  Lloyd,  Tinman,  near 
Norfolk-Street,  Strand),  till  it  is  evaporated  to  the  con- 
sistence you  wish  — or,  set  the  Pots  in  a  cool  Oven,  or  in 
a  Cheese  Toaster,  at  a  considerable  distance  from  the 
fire  ;  this  is  the  only  safe  way  of  reducing  it  very  much, 


BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND   SOUPS, 


295 


Without  the  risk  of  its  burning,  and  acquiring  an  ex- 
tremely disagreeable  acrid  flavour,  &c. 

Ohs. — The  uses  of  this  concentrated  Essence  of  Meat 
are  numerous.  It  is  equally  economical  and  conve- 
nient for  making  extempore  the  Broths  enumerated  in 
the  Obs,  to  (No.  200),  Sauces  and  Gravies  for  Hashed 
or  Stewed  Meat,  Game,  or  Poultry,  &c. 

You  may  thicken  it  and  flavour  it  as  directed  in 
(No.  329) ;  — to  make  Gravy,  Sauces,  &c.  take  double 
the  quantity  ordered  for  Broth. 

If  you  have  time  and  opportunity,  as  there  is  no 
seasoning  in  the  Soup,  either  of  Roots,  Herbs,  or 
Spice,  boil  an  Onion  vt^ith  or  vrithout  a  bit  of  Parsley 
and  Sweet  Herbs,  and  a  few  corns  of  Allspice,  or  other 
Spice,  in  the  water  you  melt  the  Soup  in,  which  may 
be  flavoured  with  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439), — or 
Eshallot  Wine  (No.  402),  —  Essence  of  Sweet  Herbs 
(No.  417),  — Savoury  Spice  (No.  421,  or  457),  — Es- 
sence of  Celery  (No.  409),  &c.  or  Zest  (No.  255);  — 
these  may  be  combined  in  the  proportions  most  agree- 
able to  the  palate  of  the  Eater  —  and  are  as  portable 
as  Portable  Soup,  for  a  very  small  portion  will  flavour 
a  Pint. 

The  Editor  adds  nothing  to  the  solution  of  this 
Soup,  but  a  very  little  ground  Black  Pepper  and  some 
Salt. 

N.  B.  If  you  are  a  careful  manager,  you  need  not 
always  purchase  Meat  on  purpose  to  make  this,  —  when 
you  dress  a  large  Dinner,  you  can  make  Glaze  at  very 
small  cost,  by  taking  care  of  the  trimmings  and  parings 
of  the  meat,  game,  and  poultry  you  use ;  wash  them 
well,  put  them  into  a  Stewpan,  cover  them  with  the 
liquor  you  have  boiled  Meat  in,  and  proceed  as  in  the 
above  Receipt;   and  see  Obs.  on  (No.  185.) 

Mem.  This  Portable  Soup  is  a  most  convenient 
article  in  Cookery  —  especially  in  Small  Families^  where 
it  will  save  a  great  deal  of  time  and  trouble.  It  is 
also  Economical,  for  no  more  will  be  melted  than  is 
wanted  —  so  there  is  no  waste. 


296  BROTHS,  GRAVIES,  AND  SOUPS. 

Nine  pounds  of  Neck  of  Beef  costing  2*.  l^d.  pro- 
duced nine  ounces  of  very  nice  Soup  ;  the  Bones,  when 
boiled,  weighed  10  ounces. 

Half  an  Ox  Cheek,  costing  \s.  9(1.  and  weighing  14^ 
pounds,  produced  13  ounces  — but  not  so  hrni  or  clear, 
a':d  far  inferior  in  flavour  to  that  obtained  from  a 
Shin  of  Beef. 

yi  Sheep s  Head,  costing  Or/.,  ])roduced  tluee  ounces 
and  a  half. 

Tiio  pounds  of  lean  Meat^  from  the  Blade  Bone  of 
Beef,  produced  hardly  an  ounce. 

The  addition  of  an  ounce  of  Guin  Arabic^  and  two 
ounces  of  Isinglass,  to  four  ounces  of  the  extract  from 
a  Leg  of  Beef,  considerably  diminished  the  consistence 
of  the  mass,  without  adding  to  its  bulk. 

It  has  been  thoui^dit  that  the  Portable  Soup  which 
is  manufactured  for  sale  —  is  partly  made  with  Ox 
Heels;  but  the  experiment  (No.  198),  proves  this  can- 
not be,  as  an  ounce  of  the  Jelly  from  Ox  Heel  costs 
5d.  For  flie  cheapest  method  oj  jmtcuring  a  hard  Jelly, 
gee  N.  B.  to  (No.  4S1);  —  19  Bones,  costing  ^d.  pro- 
duced three  ounces :  —  almost  as  cheap  as  Salisbury 
Glue. 

We  are  informed,  that  there  is  now  for  sate  at 
Leipsig  —  some  Tuns  of  Portable  Soup  —  for  Two 
shillings  per  pound.  During  the  late  war,  there  was 
a  great  deal  imported  mto  this  country  from  Russia. 

A  Knuckle  of  Veal,  weighing  4^  pounds,  and  costing 
Is.  4d.  produced  Kve  ounces. 

A  Shin  of  Beef,  weighing  nine  pounds,  and  cost- 
ing 1*.  I04rd.  produced  nine  ounces  of  concentrated 
Soup,  gufticiently  reduced  to  keep  for  several  months. 
After  the  boiling,  the  bones  in  this  joint  weighed  two 
pounds  and  a  quarter,  and  the  Meat  two  pounds  and  a 
quarter. 

The  result  of  these  experiments  is,  that  the  product 
from  l^gs  and  Shins  of  Beef  was  almost  as  large  in 
quantity,  and  of  much  superior  quality  and  flavour,  to 
that  obtained  from  any  of  the  other  materials ;  —  the 


liROTHS,  GUAVIES,  AND   SOUPS.  297 

flavour  of  the  product  from  Mutton,  Veal,  &c.  is  com- 
paratively insipid. 

As  it  is  difficult  to  obtain  this  ready-made  of  good 
quality — and  we  could  not  find  any  proper  and  circum- 
stantial directions  for  making  it,  which  on  trial  answered 
the  purpose,  —  and  it  is  really  a  great  acquisition  to 
the  Army  and  Navy  —  to  Travellers,  Invalids,  &c.  — 
the  Editor  has  bestowed  some  time,  &c.  in  endeavouring 
to  learn  —  and  to  teach  how  it  may  be  prepared  in  the 
easiest,  — most  economical,  and  perfect  manner. 

The  ordinary  seUing  price  is  from  lOs.  to  125.  —  but 
you  may  make  it  according  to  the  above  Receipt  for 
Zs.  6d.  per  Pound— f  e.  for  2^d.  per  Ounce,  which  will 
make  you  a  Pint  of  Broth. 

yhose  who  do  not  regard  the  expense,  and  like  the 
flavour,  may  add  the  lean  of  Ham,  in  the  proportion  of 
a  pound  to  eight  pounds  of  Leg  of  Beef. 

Jl.t  may  also  be  flavoured,  by  adding  to  it,  at  the 
t^me  you  put  the  Broth  into  the  smaller  Stewpan, 
Mushroom  Catsup,  Shallot  Wine,  Essences  of  Spice 
or  Herbs,  &c. ;  —  we  prefer  it  quite  plain  —  it  is  then 
ready  .to  be  converted  in  an  instant  into  a  basin  cff 
Beef  Tea  for  an  Invalid,  and  any  flavour  may  be 
jn^mediately  communicated  to  it  by  the  Magazine  of 
Taste  (No.  463.) 

To  Clarify  Broth  or  Gravi/. —  (^o,  252*.) 

Put  on  the  Broth  in  a  clean  Stewpan,  break  the 
white  and  Shell  of  an  Egg,  beat  them  together,  put 
tjiem  into  the  Broth,  stir  it  with  a  whisk ;  when  it  has 
boiled  a;few  minutes,  strain  it  through  a  Tammis  or  a 
napkin. 

^Obs. — A  careful  Cook  will  seldom  have  occasion  to 
clarify  her  Broths,  &c.  if  prepared  according  to  the 
.•directions  given  in  (No.  200.) 


o5 


THE 

COOK^S  ORACLE. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 

Melted  Butter 

Is  so  simple  and  easy  to  prepare,  it  is  a  matter  of 
general  siirj)rise,  that  what  is  done  so  often,  in  every 
English  kitchen,  is  so  seldom  done  right, —  Foreigners 
may  well  say,  that  although  we  have  only  One  Saucl 
for  Vegetables,  Fish,  Flesh,  Fowl,  ike.  —  we  hardly 
ever  make  that  good. 

It  is  spoiled  nine  times  out  of  ten,  move  from  Idleness y 
than  from  I<!;norance,  and  rather  because  the  Cook  won't 
than  because  she  can't  do  it,  —  which  can  only  be  the 
rase  when  Housekeepers  will  not  allow  Butter  to  do  it 
with. 

Good  mi.lted  Butter  cannot  be  made  with  mere 
flour  and  water;  t/iere  must  be  a  full  and  proper  proportion 
of  Butter.  —  As  it  must   be  alicaj/s  on  the  Table,  and 

is    THE    FOUNDATION    OF     ALMOST   ALL    OUR    ENGLISH 

SAUCES,  I  have  tried  ever)'  way  of  making  it ;  and  I  trust, 
at  last,  that  I  have  written  a  receipt,  which  if  the  Cook 
will  carefully  observe,  she  will  constantly  succeed  in 
giving  satisfaction. 

In  the  quantities  of  the  larious  Sauces  I  have  ordered, 
I  have  had  in  view  the  providing  for  a  Family  of  half 
a  dozen  moderate  people. 

Never  pour  Sauce  over  Meat,  or  even  put  it  into  the 
dish;  —  however  well  made,  some  of  the  Company 
may  have  an  antipathy  to  it;  —  Tastes  are  as  different 
as  Faces;  —  moreover,  if  it  is  sent  up  separate  in  a 
boat,  it  will  keep  hot  longer,  and  what  is  left  may  be 
put  by  for  another  time,  or  used  for  another  purpose. 


GRAVIES    AJ^D    SAUCES.  299 

Lastly.  —  Observe,  that  in  ordering  the  proportions 
of  Meat,  Butter,  Wixe,  Spice,  &c.  in  the  following 
receipts,  the  proper  quantity  is  set  doivn^  and  that  a  less 
quantity  will  not  do ;  —  and  in  some  instances,  those 
Palates  which  have  been  used  to  the  extreme  of  Pi- 
quance,  will  require  additional  excitement*. — If  we  have 
erred,  it  has  been  on  the  right  side,  from  an  anxious 
wish  to  combine  Economy  with  Elegance,  and  the 
Wholesome  with  the  Toothsome.  The  following  we 
recommend  as  an  elegant  Relish  to  finish  Soups  and 
Sauces. 


ZEST, 

For  Chops,  Sauces, 

AND 

Made  Dishes. 
(No.  255.) 

This  piquante  quintessence  of  Ragout,  imparts  to  whatever  it 
touches  the  most  delicious  ilelisb  ever  imagined; — it  awakens 
the  Palate  with  delight,  —  refreshes  Appetite,  —  and  instantly 
excites  the  good  humour  of  (every  man's  master)  the  Stomach. 

Soon  made  Savoury  Sauce. 

stir  two  drachms  of  ZEST,  into  half  a  pint  of  melted  butter 
(No.  256.)  Let  it  boil  up  and  strain  it  through  a  sieve; — or 
each  Guest  may  add  it  at  table  like  Salt,  and  adjust  the  vibration 
of  his  Palate  to  his  own  Fancy. 

Sold  at  Butleh's  Herb-shop,  opposite  Henrietta  street,  Co- 
vent  Garden. 

It  will  keep,  for  any  time,  in  any  Climate. 


•  This  may  be  easily  accomplished  by  the  aid  of  the  Whip  and  Spur  that 
Students  of  long  standing  in  the  School  of  Good  Living  are  generally  so  fond 
of  enlivening  their  palate  with,  i.  e.  Cayenne  and  Garlick. 

Parsley  (No.  26i),  Chervil  (No.  264),  Celery  (No.  289),  Cress 
(No.  397*),  Tarragon  (No.  396),  Burnet  (No.  399),  Basil  (No.  397), 
EsHALLOT(Nos.  295  and  403),  Capek  (Nos.  274  and  295,)  Fennel  (No.  265), 
Liver  (Nos.  287  and  288),  Curry  (Nos.  348  and  455),  Egg  (No.  267), 
Mushroom  (No.  403),  Anchovy  (Nos.  270  and  433),  Ragout  (Nos.  421 
and  457),  Shrimp  (No.  283),  Bonne  Bouche  (N>o.  341),  Superlative 
(No.  429),  and  various  Flavouring  Essences.     See  from  (No.  396  to  463). 

(Any  of  the  above  Vegetables,  &c.  may  be  minced  very  finely,  and  sent  to 
table  on  a  little  plate,  and  those  who  like  their  flavour  may  mix  them  with 
I^Ielted  Butter,  &c.  This  is  a  hint  for  Economists,  which  will  save  thewj 
many  pounds  of  Butter,  &c.    See  Mem,  to  (No.  2;56.) 


^00  GKAVIES  AND   SAVCE5. 

Melted  Butter.  —  (No.  256.) 

Keep  a  pint  stewpan*  for  this  purpose  only. 
Cut  two  ounces  of  butter,  into  little  bits,  that  it  may 
melt  more  easily,  and  mix  more  readily; — put  it  into 
the  stewpan  with  a  large  teaspoonful  (?'.  e.  about  three 
drachms)  of  Flour,  (some  prefer  Arron-  Root  or  Potatoe 
Starch  (No.  448),  and  two  tablespoonsful  of  Milk. 

When  thoroughly  mixed,  —  add  six  tablespoonsful 
of  water  ;  hold  it  over  the  fire,  and  shake  it  round  every 
minute,  (all  the  while  the  same  way),  till  it  just  begins 
to  simmer,  then  let  it  stand  quietly  and  boil  up.  It 
should  be  of  the  thickness  of  good  cream. 

N.  B.  Two  tablespoonsful  of  (No.  439)  instead  of  the 
milk,  will  make  as  good  Mushroom  Sauce  as  need  be, 
and  is  a  Superlative  accompaniment  to  either  Fish,  — 
Flesh,  —  or  Fowl. 

Obs.  —  This  is  the  best  wav  of  preparing  melted 
butter;  —  Milk  mixes  with  the  butter  much  more  easily 
and  more  intimately  than  water  alone  can  be  made  to  do. 
This  is  of  proper  thickness  to  be  mixed  at  table  with 
Flavourins:  Fssences,  Anchovy,  Mushroom,  or  Cavice, 
&c.  If  made  merely  to  pour  over  vegetables,  add  a 
little  more  milk  to  it. 

N.  B.  If  the  Burn.ii  Oils,  put  a  spoonful  of  cold 
water  to  it  and  stir  it  with  a  spoon,  —  if  it  is  very  much 
oiled,  it  must  be  poured  backwards  and  forwards  from 
the  stewpan  to  the  Sauceboat  till  it  is  right  again. 

Mkm.  Melted  Butter  made  to  be  mixed  with  fla- 
vouring Essences,  Catsups,  &c.  should  be  of  the 
thickness  of  light  Batter,  thdt  it  may  adhere  to  the 
Fish,  &IC. 

Thickenmg.  —  (No.  257.) 
Clarified  butter  is  best  for  this  purpose ;  but  if  you 
have  none  ready,  put  some  Fresh  Butter  into  a  stewpan 

*  A  Silver  Saucepan  is  Infinitely  the  best,  — you  mny  tare  one  big 
enough  to  melt  butter  for  a  moderate  family  for  four  or  five  pounds. 


GRAVIES   AND  SAUCES.  SOl 

over  a  slow  clear  fire  ;— when  it  is  melted,  add  fine  Flour 
sufficient  to  make  it  the  thickness  of  paste  ;  —  stir  it 
well  together  with  a  wooden  spoon  for  fifteen  or  t-veoty 
minutes,  till  it  is  quite  smooth,  and  the  colour  of  a 
Guinea  :  this  must  be  done  very  gradually  and  patiently, 
if  you  put  it  over  too  fierce  a  fire  to  hurry  it,  it  will 
become  bitter  and  empyreumatic;  pour  it  into  an 
earthen  pan,  and  keep  it  for  use.  It  will  keep  good  a 
fortnight  in  Summer,  and  longer  in  Winter. 

A  large  spoonful  will  generally  be  enough  to  thicken 
a  Quart  of  Gravy. 

0/,,y.  —  This  in  the  French  kitchen  is  called  ilo^x. 
Be  particularly  attentive  in  making  of  it;  if  it  gets 
any  burnt  smell  or  taste,  it  will  spoil  every  thing  it  is 
put  into,  see  Obs.  to  (No.  322).  When  cold,  it  shoukl 
be  thick  enough  to  cut  out  with  a  knife,  like  a  solid 
paste. 

It  is  a  very  essential  article  in  the  kitchen,  and  is 
the  basis  of  consistency  in  most  made  dishes,  soups, 
sauces,  and  ragouts  :  —  if  the  Gravies,  &c.  are  too  thin, 
add  this  Thickening,  more  or  less,  according  to  the 
consistence  you  would  wish  them  to  have. 

Mem.  In  making  Thickening,  —  the  less  Butter,  and 
the  more  Flour  you  use  the  better ;  —  they  must  be  tho- 
roughly worked  together,  and  the  broth,  or  soup,  &c.  you 
put  them  to,  added  by  degrees  ;  — take  especial  care  to 
incorporate  them  v/ell  together,  or  your  sauces,  &c.  will 
taste  floury,  and  have  a  disgusting,  greasy  appearance  ; 
—  therefore  after  you  have  thickened  your  sauce,  add 
to  it  some  broth,  or  warm  water,  in  the  proportion  of 
two  tablespoonsful  to  a  pint,  and  set  it  by  the  side  of 
the  fire,  to  raise  any  fat,  &c.  that  is  not  thoroughly  in- 
corporated with  the  gravy,  which  you  must  carefully 
remove  as  it  comes  to  the  top.  This  is  called  cleass- 
ing,.or  finishing  the  sauce. 

%*  Half  an  ounce  of  Butter,  and  a  tabkspoonful  of 
Flour,  are  about  the  proportion  for  a  pint  of  Same,  to 
make  if  as  thick  as  Cream. 


302  GRAVIES   AND  SAUCES. 

N.  B.  The  Fat  .S'Aiw//i///o.s  offthe  top  of  the  Broth  Pot 
are  sometimes  substituted  for  Butter,  see  (No.  240), 
—  some  Cooks  merely  thicken  their  Soups  and  Sauces 
with  F/uur,  as  we  have  directed  in  (No.  -4.5),  or  Po- 
tatoe  Farina  (No.  448.) 

Clarified  Butler.— {^0.  2,59.) 
Put  the  Butter  in  a  nice  clean  stewpan,  over  a  very 
clear  slow  fire,  watch  it,  and  when  it  is  melted  carefully 
skim  oft'  the  buttermilk,  &c.  which  will  swim  on  the 
top  ;  —  let  it  stand  a  minute  or  two,  for  the  impurities 
to  sink  to  the  bottom,  —  then  pour  the  clear  butter 
throug^h  a  sieve,  into  a  clean  basin,  leaving  the  sedi- 
ment at  the  bottom  of  the  stewpan. 

Ohs.  —  Butter  thus  purified,  will  be  as  sweet  as 
Marrow,  —  a  very  useful  covering;  for  Potted  Meats, 
&c.  and  for  fryini^  Fish,  c(|ual  to  tlie  finest  Florence  oil, 
for  whicli  purjtose  it  is  commonly  used  by  Catholics, 
and  those  whose  religious  tenets  will  not  allow  them  to 
eat  viands  fried  in  animal  oil. 

Bur/it  lU/tttr.  —(No.  260.) 

Put  two  ounces  of  fresh  butter  into  a  small  fry^ingpaa, 
when  it  becomes  a  dark  brown  colour,  add  to  it  a 
tablespoonful  and  a  half  of  good  vinegar,  and  a  little 
pepper  and  salt. 

Obs.  —  'I  his  is  used  as  sauce  for  boiled  Fish,  or 
poached  Eggs. 

Oiled  Butter.  — (So.  260*.) 

Put  two  ounces  of  fresh  Butter  into  a  saucepan,  set  it 
at  a  distance  from  the  fire  so  that  it  may  melt  gradually, 
till  it  comes  to  an  Oil,  —  and  pour  it  off  quietly  from 
the  dregs. 

Obs. —  This  will  supply  the  place  of  Olive  Oil,  and 
by  some  is  preferred  to  it,  either  for  Salads,  or  Frying. 

Parsk}/  and  Butter.  —  (No.  261.) 
Wash  some  Parsley  very  clean,  and  pick  it  carefully 


GRAVIES   AND  SAUCES.  "503 

leaf  by  leaf;  put  a  teaspoonful  of  salt  into  half  a  pint 
of  boiling  water,  boil  the  Parsley  about  ten  minutes, 
drain  it  on  a  sieve,  mince  it  quite  fine,  and  then  bruise 
it  to  a  pulp. 

The  delicacy  and  excellence  of  this  elegant  and 
innocent  Relish,  depends  upon  the  Parsley  being  minced 
very  fine  ;  put  it  into  a  sauce-boat,  and  mix  with  it 
by  degrees  about  half  a  pint  of  good  melted  butter, 
(No.  256),  only  do  not  put  so  much  flour  to  it,  as  the 
Parsley  will  add  to  its  thickness,  —  never  pour  Parsley 
and  Butter  over  boiled  things,  but  send  it  up  in  a  Boat. 

Obs. —  In  French  Cookery  Books,  this  is  called 
'*  Melted  Butter,  English  Fashion,"  and,  with  the  addi- 
tion of  a  slice  of  lemon  cut  into  dice,  a  little  Allspice 
and  Vinegar,  "  Dutch  Sauce." 

N.  B.  To  PRESERVE  Parsley  through  the  winter, — 
in  May,  June,  or  July,  take  fine  fresh  gathered  sprigs, 
pick  and  wash  them  clean,  set  on  a  stewpan  half  full 
of  water,  put  a  little  salt  in  it,  boil  and  skim  it  clean, 
and  then  put  in  the  Parsley  and  let  it  boil  for  a  couple 
of  minutes,  and  take  it  out,  and  lay  it  on  a  sieve  before 
the  fire,  that  it  may  be  dried  as  quick  as  possible, — 
put  it  by  in  a  Tin  Box,  and  keep  it  in  a  dry  place, — 
when  you  want  it,  lay  it  on  a  Basin,  and  cover  it  with 
warm  water  a  few  minutes  before  you  use  it. 

Gooseberry  Sauce.— {'No.  263.) 

Top  and  tail  them  close,  with  a  pair  of  scissors,  and 
scald  half  a  pint  of  green  Gooseberries,  drain  them  on 
a  hair  sieve,  and  put  them  into  half  a  pint  of  melted 
Butter  (No.  256.) 

Some  add  grated  Ginger  and  Lemon  Peel,  and  the 
French,  minced  Fennel,  —  others  send  up  the  Goose- 
berries whole,  or  mashed,  without  any  butter,  &c. 

Chervil, — Basil, — Tarragox, — Burnet, — 

Cress, — and  Butter. — (No.  264.) 
This  is  the  first  time  that  Chervil,  which  has  so  long 


304  GRAVIES    AND    SAUCES. 

been  a  favourite  with  tUe  sao^acious  French  Cook,  has 
been  introduced  into  an  Eng:Hsh  book. — Its  flavour  is  a 
&trono^  concentration  of  the  combined  taste  of  Parsley 
and  Fennel,  but  more  aromatic  and  agreeable  than 
either  ;  and  is  an  excellent  sauce  with  boiled  Poultry 
or  Fish.  Prepare  it,  &c.  as  we  have  directed  for 
Parsley  and  Butter,  (No.  2G1.) 

Femx'l  and  Butter  for  Mackarclj  c]c.  —  (No.  265.) 

Is  prepared  in  the  same  manner  as  we  have  just 
described  in  (No.  261.) 

Obs.  —  For  Mackarel  sauce,  or  boiled  Soles,  &c. — 
some  people  take  equal  parts  of  Fennel  and  Parsley  ;  — 
others  add  a  sprig;  of  Mint,  or  a  couple  of  young 
Onions  minced  very  fine. 

Mackarel  Roc  Sana.  — (No.  266.) 

Boil  the  Iloes  of  Mackarel,  (soft  roes  are  best,)  bniise 
them  with  a  spoon  with  the  yolk  of  an  Egg,  beat  up 
with  a  very  little  pepper  and  salt,  and  some  Fennel 
and  Parsley  boiled  and  chopped  very  fine,  mixed  with 
almost  half  a  pint  of  thin  melted  butter,  see  (No.  256.) 

Mushroom  catsup,  Walnut  pickle,  or  Soy,  may  be 
added. 

Egg  Sauce.  —  (No.  267.) 

This  agreeable  accompaniment  to  roasted  Poultry, — 
or  salted  Fish,  —  is  made  by  putting  three  Eggs  into 
boiling  water,  and  boiling  them  for  about  twelve  minutes, 
when  they  will  be  hard,  put  them  into  cold  water  till  you 
want  them. — This  will  make  the  Yolks  firmer,  aud  pre- 
vent their  surface  turning  black,  and  you  can  cut  them 
much  neater,  —  use  only  two  of  the  Whites;  cut  the 
Whites  into  small  dice,  —  the  Yolks,  into'bits  about  a 
quarter  of  an  inch  square,  — put  them  into  a  Sauce- 
boat,  pour  to  them  half  a  pint  of  melted  Butter,  and 
stir  them  together. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  'SOS 

Obs. — The  Melted  Butter  for  Egg  Sauce  need  not  be 
made  qvite  so  thick  as  (No.  256. ) 

N.B.  Some  Cooks  garnish  Salt  Fish  with  hard  boiled 
eggs  cut  in  half. 

Plum  Pudding  Sauce.  — {^o.  269.) 
A  glass  of  Sherry,  half  a  glass  of  Brandy,  (or 
"  Cherry-Bounce,")  or  CuraQoa  (No.  474),  or  Essence 
of  Punch  (No.  471  and  479,)  and  two  teaspoonsful  of 
pounded  lump  sugar,  (a  very  little  grated  Lemon 
Peel  is  sometimes  added),  in  a  quarter  of  a  pint  of 
Thick  Melted  butter :  grate  Nutmeg  on  the  top. 
See  Pudding  Catsup  (No.  446.) 

Anchovy  Sauce,  —  (No.  270.) 

Pound  three  Anchovies  in  a  mortar  with  a  little  bit 
of  Butter,  rub  it  through  a  double  Hair  sieve,  with  the 
back  of  a  wooden  spoon,  and  stir  it  into  almost  half  a 
pint  of  Melted  butter  (No.  2o6) ;  or  stir  in  a  table- 
spoonful  0^  Essence  of  Anchovy  (No.  433.) — To  the  above 
many  cooks  add  Lemon  juice  and  Cayenne. 

06.5. — Foreigners  make  this  sauce  with  good  Brown 
Sauce  (No.  329),  or  White  Sauce  (No.  364,)  instead 
of  melted  Butter,  —  and  add  to  it  Catsup, — Soy,— 
and  some  of  their  flavoured  Vinegars,  as  Elder  or 
Tarragon,  —  Pepper  and  fine  Spice,  —  sweet  herbs, — 
Capers,  —  Eshallots,  —  &c.  They  serve  it  with  most 
Roasted  Meats. 

N.B.  Keep  your  Anchovies  well  covered,  first  tie 
down  your  Jar  with  Bladder  moistened  with  vinegar, 
and  then  wiped  dry,  tie  Leather  over  that :  when  you 
open  a  Jar,  moisten  the  bladder,  and  it  will  come  off 
easily,  —  as  soon  as  you  have  taken  out  the  Fish, 
replace  the  coverings,  the  air  soon  rusts  and  spoils 
Anchovies.     See  (No.  433,  &c.) 

Garlick  Sauce.  —  (No.  272.) 
Pound  two  cloves  of  Garlick  with  a  piece  of  fresh 


306 


GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES. 


Butter  about  as  big  as  a  Nutmeg:  rub  it  through  a 
double  hair  sieve,  and  stir  it  into  half  a  pint  of  melted 
butter,  or  Beef  Gravy  ;  or  make  it  with  Garlick  Vinegar 
(No.  400),  (Nos.  401  and  402.) 

Lemon  Sauce.  —  (No.  273.) 

Pare  a  Lemon,  and  cut  it  into  slices  twice  as  thick 
as  a  half-crown  piece ;  divide  these  into  Dice,  and  put 
them  into  a  quarter  of  a  pint  of  Melted  Butter  (No.  256.) 

Obs. — Some  Cooks  mince  a  bit  of  the  Lemon  Peel 
(pared  very  thin)  very  fine,  and  add  it  to  the  above. 

Caper  Sauce.  — {^o.  274.)  — See  also  (No.  295.) 

To  make  a  Quarter  Pint,  —  take  a  tablespoonful  of 
Capers,  and  two  teaspoonsful  of  Vinegar. 

The  present  fashion  of  cutting  Capers,  —  is  to  mince 
one  third  of  them  very  fine,  and  divide  the  others  in 
half;  put  them  into  a  quarter  of  a  pint  of  melted  Butter, 
or  good  thickened  Gravy  (No.  329),  —  stir  them  the 
same  way  as  you  did  the  melted  butter,  or  it  will  oil. 

Obs.  —  Some  boil,  and  mince  fine  a  few  leaves  of 
Parsley,  or  Chervil,  or  Tarragon,  and  add  these  to  the 
sauce  ;  —  others  the  juice  of  half  a  Seville  Orange,  or 
Lemon. 

Mem.  —  Keep  the  Caper  bottle  very  closely  corked, 
and  do  not  use  any  of  the  Caper  liquor ; — if  the  Capers 
are  not  well  covered  with  it,  they  will  immediately 
spoil,  and  it  is  an  excellent  ingredient  in  Hashes,  &c. 
The  Dutch  use  it  as  a  Fish  Sauce,  mixing  it  with 
Melted  butter. 

Mock  Caper  Sauce.  —  (No.  275  or  295.) 

Cut  some  pickled  Green  Pease,  —  French  Beans,— 
Gherkins, — or  Nasturtiums,  into  bits  the  size  of  Capers ; 
put  them  into  half  a  pint  of  melted  butter,  with  two 
teaspoonsful  of  Lemon  juice,  or  nice  Vinegar. 


GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES.  307 

Oyster  Sauce.  — (^o.  278.) 

Choose  Plump  and  Juicy  Natives  for  this  purpose  ; — 
dont  take  them  out  of  their  Shell  till  you  put  them  into  the 
Stewpan,  see  Ob.s.  to  (No.  181.) 

To  make  good  Oyster  Sauce  for  half  a  dozen  hearty 
Fish-Eaters,  you  cannot  have  less  than  three  or  four 
dozen  Oysters. — Save  their  liquor,  strain  it,  and  put  it 
and  them  into  a  stewpan  ;  as  soon  as  they  boil,  and  the 
fish  plump,  take  them  off  the  Fire,  and  pour  the  contents 
of  the  stewpan  into  a  sieve  over  a  clean  basin,  wash  the 
stewpan  out  with  hot  water,  and  put  into  it  the  strained 
liquor,  with  about  an  equal  quantity  of  Milk,  and  about 
two  ounces  and  a  half  of  Butter,  with  which  you  have 
well  rubbed  a  large  tablespoonful  of  Flour,  —  give  it  a 
boil  up,  and  pour  it  through  a  sieve  into  a  basin,  (that 
the  Sauce  may  be  quite  smooth),  and  then  back  again 
into  the  saucepan,  —  now,  shave  the  Oysters,  and  (if 
you  have  the  honour  of  making  sauce  for  '-  a  Committee 
of  Taste,'"  take  away  the  gristly  part  b.Uo,)  put  in  only 
the  soft  part  of  the  Oysters,  (if  they  are  very  large 
cut  them  in  half),  and  set  them  by  the  side  of  the  fire 
to  keep  hot,  "  if  they  boil  after,  they  will  become 
hard." 

If  you  have  not  Liquor  enough,  add  a  little  Melted 
Butter,  or  Cream,  see  (No.  388),  or  Milk  beat  up  with 
the  yolk  of  an  Egg,  (this  must  not  be  put  in  till  the 
sauce  is  done.)  Some  barbarous  Cooks  add  Pepper, 
—  or  Mace,  —  the  juice  or  peel  of  a  Lemon,  —  Horse- 
radish, —  Essence  of  Anchovy,  —  Cayenne,  &c. ;  — 
Vlain  Sauces  are  only  to  taste  of  the  Ingredient  from 
which  they  derive  their  name. 

Obs.  —  It  will  very  much  heighten  the  flavour  of  this 
Sauce,  to  pound  the  soft  part  of  half  a  dozen  (unboiled) 
Oysters,  rub  it  through  a  hair  sieve,  and  then  stir  it 
into  the  sauce;  —  this  Essence  of  Oyster  (and  for 
some  palates  a  few  grains  of  Cayenne)  is  the  only 
addition  we  recommend.     See  (No.  441.) 


308  GRAVIES   AND    SAUCES. 

Pre&eried  Oysters.  —  (No.  280.) 

Open  the  Oysters  carefully,  so  as  not  to  cut  them 
except  in  dividing  the  gristle  which  attaches  the  shells, 
—  put  them  into  a  Mortar,  and  when  you  have  got 
as  many  as  you  can  conveniently  pound  at  once,  add 
about  two  drachms  of  Salt  to  a  dozen  Oysters, — pound 
them  and  rub  them,  through  the  back  of  a  hair  sieve, 
and  put  them  into  a  mortar  again,  with  as  much  Flour 
(which  has  been  previously  thoroughly  dried)  as  will 
make  them  into  a  paste,  roll  it  out  several  times,  and 
lastly,  flour  it  and  roll  it  out  the  thickness  of  a  half 
crown,  and  divide  it  into  pieces  about  an  inch  square, 
lay  them  in  a  Dutch  oven,  where  they  will  dry  so  gently 
as  not  to  get  burned,  —  turn  them  every  half  hour,  and 
when  they  begin  to  dry,  crumble  them, — they  will  take 
about  four  hours  to  dry, — then  pound  them  fine, — sift 
them  and  put  into  bottles   and  seal  them  over. 

N.  B.  Three  dozen  Natives  required  71  ounces 
of  dried  Flour  to  make  them  into  a  paste,  which  then 
weighed  11  ounces,  —  when  dried  and  powdered,  6J 
ounces. 

To  make  half  a  pint  of  Sauce,  put  one  ounce  of  Butter 
into  a  stewpan,  with  three  drachms  of  Oyster  powder, 
and  six  tablespoon sful  of  milk ;  set  it  on  a  slow  fire, 
stir  it  till  it  boils,  and  season  it  with  salt. 

This  Powder,  if  made  with  Plump  Juicy  Natives, 
will  abound  with  the  flavour  of  the  Fish,  and  if  closely 
corked,  and  kept  in  a  dry  place,  will  remain  good  for 
some  time. 

Obs.  —  This  Extract,  is  a  welcome  succedaneum 
while  Oysters  are  out  of  season,  and  in  such  inland 
parts  as  seldom  have  any,  is  a  valuable  addition  to  the 
list  of  Fish  sauces:  it  is  equally  good  with  boiled 
Fowl,  or  Rump  Steak,  —  and  sprinkled  on  bread  and 
Butter  makes  a  very  good  Sandwich,  and  is  especially 
worthy  the  notice  of  Country  Housekeepers  —  and  as 
a  Store  Sauce  for  the  Army  and  Navy.  See  Anchovy 
Powder  (No.  435.) 


GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES.  809 

Shrimj)  Sauce.-— (^o.  283.) 
Shell   a  pint  of  Shrimps,   pick   them   dean,   wash 
them,  and  put  them  into  half  a  pint  of  good  Melted 
Butter. 

Obs.  —  Some  stew  the  Heads  and  shells  of  the 
Shrimps,  (with  or  without  a  blade  of  bruised  Mace),  for 
a  quarter  of  an  hour,  and  strain  off  the  liquor  to  melt 
the  butter  with,  and  add  a  little  Lemon  Juice, — 
Cayenne,  —  and  Essence  of  Anchovy,  —  or  Soy, — 
Cavice,  &c. ; — but  the  Flavour  of  the  Shrimp  is  so 
delicate,  it  will  be  overcome  by  any  of  those  ad- 
ditions. 

Lobster  Sauce.  —  (No.  284.) 
Choose  a  tine  spawny  Hen  Lobster*,  be  sure  it  is 
fresh,  so  get  a  live  one  if  y<Ji^  can,  (one  of  my  culinary 
predecessors  says,  '•  let  it  be  /leavu  and  lively,'')  and  boil 
it  as  (No.  176),  pick  out  the  Spawn  and  the  Red  Coral 
into  a  mortar,  add  to  it  half  an  ounce  of  Butter,  pound 
it  quite  smooth,  and  rub  it  through  a  hair  sieve  with 
the  back  of  a  wooden  spoon ;  cu^t  the  meat  of  the 
Lobster  into  small  squares,  or  pull  it  to  pieces  with  a 
fork,  put  the  pounded  Spawn  into  as  much  melted 
Butter  (No.  256)  as  you  think  will  do,  and  stir  it 
together  till  it  is  thoroughly  mixed,  —  now  put  to  it 
the  meat  of  the  Lobster,  and  warm  it  on  the  fire,  take 
care  it  does  not  hoil^  uhich  ivill  spoil  its  complexion,  and  its 
brilliant  Red  colour  uill  immediately  fade. 

The  above  is  a  very  easy  and  excellent  manner  of 
making  this  Sauce. 

Some  use  strong  Beef  or  Veal  Gravy  instead  of 
melted  Butter,  adding  Anchovy,  Cayenne,  Catsup, 
Cavice,  Lemon  juice  or  pickle,  or  Wine,  &c. 

•  Yon  mast  have  a  Hen  Lobster,  on  account  of  the  Live  Spawn,  —  some 
Fishmongers  have  a  cruel  custom  of  tearing  this  from  the  Fish,  before  they 
are  boiled; — lift  up  the  tail  of  the  Lobster,  and  see  that  it  has  not  been  robbed 
of  its  Eggs  ;  — the  goodness  of  your  Sauce  depends  upon  its  having  a  full 
share  of  the  Spauii  in  it,  to  which  it  owes  not  merely  its  brilliant  Red 
Colour,  but  the  finest  part  of  its  Flavour. 


310  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

Obs. —  Save  a  little  of  the  inside  Red  Coral  Spawn, 
and  rub  it  through  a  sieve  (without  butter) :  —  it  is  a 
yery  ornamental  garnish  to  sprinkle  over  Fish  ;  and  if 
the  skin  is  broken,  (which  will  sometimes  happen  to 
the  most  careful  Cook,  when  there  is  a  large  dinner  to 
dress,  and  many  other  things  to  attend  to),  you  will 
find  it  a  convenient  and  elegant  Veil,  to  conceal  your 
misfortune  from  the  prying  eyes  of  piscivorous  Gour- 
mands. 

N.B.  Various  methods  have  been  tried  to  preservk 
Lobsters,  see  (No.  178),  and  Lobster  Spawn,  for  a 
Store  Sauce.  The  Live  Spawn  may  be  kept  some 
time  in  strong  Salt  and  Water —  or  in  an  Ice-liouse. 

The  following  process  might,  perhaps,  preserve  it 
longer:  —  Put  it  into  a  Saucepan  of  boiling  water, 
with  a  large  spoonful  of  Salt  in  it,  and  let  it  boil  quick 
for  five  minutes  ;  then  drain  it  on  a  hair  sieve,  spread 
it  out  thin  on  a  plate,  and  set  it  in  a  Dutch  Oven  till  it 
is  thoroughly  dried,  —  grind  it  in  a  clean  mill,  and 
pack  it  closely  in  well-stopped  Bottles.  See  also 
Potted  Lobsters,  (No.  178.) 

Sauce  for  Lobster,  (^c— (No.  285.)— See  also  (No.  372.) 

Bruise  the  yolks  of  two  hard  boiled  Eggs  with  the 
back  of  a  wooden  spoon,  or  rather  pound  them  in  a 
mortar,  with  a  teaspoonful  of  water,  and  the  soft  inside 
and  the  spawn  of  the  lobster,  rub  them  quite  smooth, 
with  a  teaspoonful  of  made  Mustard,  two  tablespoonsful 
of  Salad  Oil,  and  five  of  Vinegar;  season  it  with  a  very 
little  Cayenne  pepper  and  some  salt. 

Obs.  —  To  this,  Elder  or  Tarragon  Vinegar  (No.  396), 
or  Anchovy  Essence  (No.  433),  is  occasionally  added. 

Liier  and  Parsley  Sauce,  —  (No.  287.)  —  or  Liver 
and  Le?non  Sauce. 

Wash  the  Liver  (it  must  be  perfectly  fresh)  of  a  Fowl 
or  Rabbit,  and  boil  it  five  minutes  in  five  tablespoonsful 


ghavies  and  sauces.  311 

of  water;  —  chop  it  fine;  or  pound  or  bruise  it  in  a 
small  quantity  of  the  liquor  it  was  boiled  in,  and  rub  it 
through  a  sieve:  — wash  about  one-third  the  bulk  of 
Parsley  leaves,  put  them  on  to  boil  in  a  little  boiling 
water,\vith  a  teaspoonful  of  salt  in  it ;  lay  it  on  a  hair 
sieve  to  drain,  and  mince  it  lery  fine;  mix  it  with  the 
liver,  and  put  it  into  a  quarter  pint  of  melted  butter, 
and  warm  it  up  ;  —  do  not  let  it  boil. 

Or, 

To  make  Lemon  and  Liver  Sauce. 

Pare  off  the  rind  of  a  Lemon,  or  of  a  Seville  Orange, 
as  thin  as  possible,  so  as  not  to  cut  off  any  of  the 
White  with  it;  —  now  cut  off  a//  the  White,  and  cut 
the  Lemon  into  slices,  about  as  thick  as  a  couple  of 
half-crowns  ;  pick  out  the  pips,  and  divide  the  slices 
into  small  squares ;  add  these,  and  a  httle  of  the  peel 
minced  very  fine,  to  the  Liver,  prepared  as  directed 
above,  and  put  them  into  the  melted  Butter,  and  warm 
them  together,  —  but  do  not  let  them  boil. 

N.B.  The  Poulterers  can  always  let  you  have/rci^ 
Livers  —  if  that  of  the  Fowl  or  Rabbit  is  not  good,  or 
not  large  enough  to  make  as  much  Sauce  as  you  wish. 

Qls. —  Some  Cooks,  instead  of  pounding,  — mince 
the  Liver  very  fine  (with  half  as  much  Bacon),  and 
leave  out  the  Parsley,  —  others  add  the  juice  of  half  a 
Lemon,  and  some  of  the  Peel  grated,  —  or  a  teaspoon- 
ful of  Tarragon  or  Chili  Vinegar,  a  tablespoonful  of 
White  Wine,  or  a  little  beaten  Mace  or  Nutmeg,  or 
Allspice :  —  if  you  wish  it  a  little  more  lively  on  the 
palate,  pound  a  Shallot,  or  a  few  leaves  of  Tarragon  or 
Basil,  with  Anchovy  or  Catsup,  or  Cayenne. 

Liver  Sauce  for  Fish.  —  (No.  288.) 

Boil  the  Liver  of  the  Fish,  and  pound  it  in  a  mortar 
with  a  little  flour,  stir  it  into  some  Broth,  or  some  of 
the  liquor  the  fish  was  boiled  m,    or  melted  Butter, 


312  GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 

Parsley,  and  a  few  grains  of  Cayenne, — a  little  Essence 
of  Anchovy  (No.  433),  or  Soy,  or  Catsup  (No.  439)  ;  — 
give  it  a  boil  up,  and  rub  it  through  a  sieve :  —  you 
may  add  a  little  Lemon  Juice  —  or  Lemon  cut  in  dice. 

Cekri/ Sauce,  White.  — (No.  2S9.) 

Pick  and  wash  two  heads  of  nice  White  Celery,  cut 
it  into  pieces  about  an  inch  long;  stew  it  in  a  pint  of 
water,  and  a  teaspoonful  of  salt,  till  the  Celery  is 
tender*  ;  roll  an  ounce  of  butter  with  a  tablespoonful 
of  flour ;  add  this  to  half  a  pint  of  cream,  and  give  it  a 
boil  up. 

N.B.  See  (No.  409.) 

Celery  Sauce,  Puree,  for  boiled  Turkey,  Veal,  Fowls,  8fC. 
(No.  290.) 

Cut  small  half  a  dozen  heads  of  nice  White  Celery 
that  is  quite  clean,  and  two  Onions  sliced ;  put  in  a 
two-quart  Stewpan,  with  a  small  lump  of  Butter ; 
sweat  them  over  a  slow  fire  till  quite  tender,  then  put 
in  two  spoonsful  of  flour,  half  a  pint  of  water  (or  Beef 
or  Veal  Broth),  salt  and  pepper,  and  a  little  cream  or 
milk  ;  boil  it  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  and  pass  through  a 
fine  hair  sieve  with  the  back  of  a  spoon. 

If  you  wish  for  Celery  sauce,  when  Celery  is  not 
in  season,  a  quarter  of  a  drachm  of  Celery-seed,  or  a 
little  Essence  of  Celery  (No.  409),  will  impregnate  half 
a  pint  of  sauce  with  a  suflScient  portion  of  the  flavour 
of  the  Vegetable. 

See  Obs.ioi^o.  214.) 

Green,  or  Sorrel  Sauce.  —  (No.  291.) 
Wash  and  clean  a  large  Ponnet  of  Sorrel,  put  it 
into  a  Stewpan  that  will  just  hold  it,  with  a  bit  of 
Butter  the  size  of  an  Egg,  cover  it  close,  set  it  over 


*  So  mncli  depends  upon  the  age  of  the  Celery,  we  cannot  give  any  precise 
time  r'or  this.  Youi  g  ti  tsh-^athered  Celery  will  be  enough  in  three  quarters 
of  an  hour;  old  will  fomeiiines  take  twice  as  long. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  313 

a  slow  fire  for  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  pass  the  Sorrel 
with  the  back  of  a  wooden  spoon  through  a  hair  sieve, 
season  with  Pepper,  Salt,  and  a  small  pinch  of  pow- 
dered Sugar,  make  it  hot,  and  serve  up  under  Lamb, 
Veal,  Sweetbreads,  &c.  &c.  Cayenne,  Nutmeg,  and 
Lemon  Juice,  are  sometimes  added. 

Tomata,  or  Love-apple  Sauce.  — (No.  292.)     See  also 
(No.  443.) 

Have  twelve  or  fifteen  Tomatas,  ripe  and  red; 
take  off"  the  stalk;  cut  them  in  half;  squeeze  them 
just  enough  to  get  all  the  water  and  seeds  out;  put 
them  in  a  stewpan,  with  a  Capsicum,  and  two  or  three 
tablespoonsful  of  Beef  Gravy ;  set  them  on  a  slow 
stove  for  an  hour,  or  till  properly  melted ;  then  rub 
them  through  a  taramis  into  a  clean  stewpan,  with  a 
little  white  pepper  and  salt,  and  let  them  simmer 
together  a  few  minutes. 

N.B.  To  the  above  the  French  Cook  adds  an  Onion 
or  Eshallot,  a  Clove  or  two,  or  a  little  Tarragon 
Vinegar. 

Mock  Tomata  Sauce.  —  (No.  293.) 

The  only  difference  between  this,  and  genuine  Love- 
apple  Sauce,  is  the  substituting  the  pulp  of  Apple  for 
that  of  Tomata,  colouring  it  with  Turmeric,  and  com- 
municating an  acid  flavour  to  it  by  vinegar. 

S/iallot  Sauce.  —  (No.  294.) 

Take  four  Shallots,  and  make  it  in  the  same  manner 
as  Garlic  Sauce  (No.  272.) 

Or, 

You  may  make  this  sauce  more  extemporaneously, 
by  putting  two  tablespoonsful  of  Shallot  Wine  (No.  403), 
and  a  sprinkling  of  Pepper  and  Salt,  into  (almost)  half 
a  pint  of  thick  m.elted  Butter. 

Obs.  —  This   is  an   excellent  Sauce  for   Chops,  or 


314  GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 

Steaks,  —  many  are  very  fond  of  it  with   roasted   or 
Boiled  Meat,  Poultry,  &c. 

Shallot  Sauce,  for  Boiled  Mi(ifon.  —  (No.  295.) 

This  is  a  very  frequent  and  satisfactory  substitute 
for  "  Caper  Sauce  J" 

Mince  four  Shallots  very  fine,  and  put  them  into  a 
small  saucepan,  with  almost  half  a  pint  of  the  liquor 
the  Mutton  was  boiled  in  ;  let  them  boil  up  for  five 
minutes;  —  then  put  in  a  tablespoonful  of  Vinegar,  a 
quarter  teaspoonful  of  Pepper,  a  little  Salt,  and  a  bit 
of  Butter  (as  big  as  a  walnut)  rolled  in  flour;  shake 
together,  till  it  boils.     See  (No.  402),  Eshalloi  H'inc. 

Obs. — We  like  a  little  Lemon  Peel  with  Shallot ;— the 
Haut-Guut  of  the  latter  is  much  ameliorated  by  the 
delicate  Aroma  of  the  former. 

Some  Cooks  add  a  little  finely  chopped  Parsley. 

Youn^  Onion  Sauce. — (No.  296.) 

Peel  a  pint  of  Button  Onions,  and  put  them  in  water 
till  you  want  to  put  them  on  to  boil;  put  them  in  a 
stewpan,  with  a  quart  of  cold  water;  let  them  boil  till 
tender;  they  will  take  (according  to  their  size  and 
age)  from  half  an  hour  to  an  hour.  You  may  put  them 
into  half  a  pint  of  (No.  307.)     See  also  (No.  137.) 

Onion  Sauce. —  (No.  297.) 

Those  who  like  the  full  flavour  of  Onions,  only  cut 
oft^  the  strings  and  tops  (without  peeling  off"  any  of  the 
skins),  put  them  into  salt  and  water,  and  let  them  lie 
an  hour;  then  wash  them,  put  them  into  a  kettle  with 
plenty  of  water,  and  boil  them  till  they  are  tender: 
now  skin  them,  pass  them  through  a  cullender,  and 
mix  a  little  melted  Butter  with  them. 

N.  B.  Some  mix  the  pulp  of  Apples,  or  Turnips, 
with  the  Onions,— others  add  Mustard  to  them. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  315 

THike  Onion  Sauce.— {^o.  298.) 

The  following  is  a  more  mild  and  delicate*  prepara- 
tion:— Take  half  a  dozen  of  the  largest,  and  whitest 
Onions,  (the  Spanish  are  the  mildest,  but  these  can 
only  be  had  from  August  to  December,)— peel  them, 
and  cut  them  in  half,  and  lay  them  in  a  pan  of  spring 
water  for  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  and  then  boil  them 
tender,  which  will  sometimes  take  an  hour,  drain  them 
well  on  a  hair  sieve,  lay  them  on  the  chopping-board 
and  chop  and  bruise  them,  put  them  into  a  clean 
saucepan,  with  some  Butter  and  Flour,  half  a  tea- 
spoonful  of  salt,  and  some  Cream,  or  good  milk;  stir 
it  till  it  boils ;  then  rub  the  whole  through  a  tammy  or 
sieve,  adding  cream  or  milk,  to  make  it  the  consistence 
you  wish. 

Obs. — This  is  the  usual  sauce  for  boiled  Rabbits, — 
Mutton,  —  or  Tripe.  —  There  must  be  plenty  of  it;  the 
usual  expression  signifies  as  much;,  for  we  say,  smother 
them  with  it. 

Brown  Onion  Sauce,  or  Onion  Gravy. — (No.  299.) 
Peel  and  slice  the  Onions  (some  put  in  an  equal 
quantity  of  Cucumber  or  Celery)  into  a  quart  stewpan, 
with  an  ounce  of  Butter  ;  set  it  on  a  slow  fire,  and  turn 
the  Onion  about  till  it  is  very  lightly  browned ;  now 
gradually  stir  in  half  an  ounce  of  Flour ;  add  a 
little  broth,  and  a  little  pepper  and  salt,  boil  up  for  a 
few  minutes,  add  a  tablespoonful  of  Claret,  or  Port 
wine,  and  same  of  Mushroom  Catsup,  —  (you  may 
sharpen  it  with  a  little  Lemon  Juice  or  Vinegar) — and 
rub  it  through  a  tammy,  or  fine  sieve. 

Curry  Powder  (No.  348),  will  convert  this  into 
excellent  Curry  Sauce. 

N.  B.  If  this  Sauce  is  for  Steaks,  shred  an  ounce 
of  Onions,  fry  them  a  nice  brown,  and  put  them  to  the 

•  If  you  wish  to  have  them  very  mild,  cut  them  in  quarters,  boil  them  for 
five  minutes  in  plenty  of  water,  and  then  drain  them,  and  cook  them  in  fresh 

water. 

p2 


316  GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES. 

sauce  you  have  rubbed  through  a  tammy;  —  or  some 
very  .small  round  young  silver  Button  Onions,  see  (No. 
296),  peeled  and  boiled  tender,  and  put  in  whole  when 
your  Sauce  is  done,  will  be  an  acceptable  addition. 

Obs.  —  If  you  have  no  Broth,  put  in  half  a  pint  of 
water,  and  see  (No.  252); — just  before  you  give  it  the 
last  boil  up,  add  to  it  another  tal)lesp()onful  of  Mush- 
room Catsup,  or  the  same  quantity  of  Port  Wine  or 
good  Ale. 

The  Havour  of  this  Sauce  may  be  varied  by  adding 
Tarragon  or  Burnet  Vinegar,  (Nos.  396  and  399.) 

Sage  and  Onion^  or  Goose-it uffmg  Sauce.  — (No.  300.) 

Chop  very  fine  an  ounce  of  Onion  and  half  an  ounce 
of  fjreen  Sage  leaves,  put  them  into  a  stcwpan  with 
tour  spoonsful  of  water,  simmer  gently  for  ten  minutes, 
full  put  in  a  tea^poonful  of  pepper  and  salt,  and  one 
ounce  of  line  bread-crumbs ;  mix  well  together ;  — 
tiieh  pour  to  it  a  quarter  of  a  |)inl  of  (Broth,  or  Gravy, 
or)  Melted  Butter,  stir  well  together,  and  simmer  it  a 
fcw  minutes  longer. 

0/m. — 1  his  is  a  very  relishing  Sauce  for  Roast  Pork, 
Geese,  or  Ducks;  or  Green  Pease  on  Maigrt  Days. 

See  also  Dunne  Bouchc  for  the  above,  (No.  341.) 

Green  Mint  Sauce.  —  (No.  303.) 

Wash  half  a  handful  of  nice  young  fresh-gathered 
Green  Mint,  (to  this  some  add  one-third  the  quantity 
of  Parsley,)  pick  the  leaves  from  the  stalks,  mince 
them  very  fine,  and  put  them  into  a  sauceboat,  with  a 
teaspoonful  of  moist  Sugar,  and  four  tablespoonsful  of 
Vinegar. 

Obs. —  This  is  the  usual  accompaniment  to  Hot 
Lamb ;  —  and  an  equally  agreeable  relish  with  Cold 
Lamb. 

If  Green  Mint  cannot  be  procured,  this  sauce  may 
be  made  with  Mint  Vinegar,  (No.  398.) 


GRAVIES   AND  SAUCES.  317 

Apple  Sauce.  — {"^o.  304.) 

Pare  and  core  three  good  sized  baking  Apples,  put 
Ihem  into  a  well-tinned  pint  saucepan,  with  two  table- 
ispoonsful  of  cold  water;  cover  the  saucepan  close, 
and  set  it  on  a  trivet  over  a  slow  fire  a  couple  of  hom's 
before  dinner, —  some  Apples  will  take  a  long  time 
stewing, — others  will  be  ready  in  a  quarter  of  an 
hour:  —  when  the  Apples  are  done  enough,  pour  off 
the  water,  let  them  stand  a  few  minutes  to  get  dry ; 
then  beat  them  up  with  a  Fork,  with  a  bit  of  Butter 
about  as  big  as  a  Nutmeg,  and  a  teaspoonful  of  pow- 
dered Sugar. 

N.  B.  Some  add  Lemon  Peel,  grated,  or  minced 
fine,  —  or  boil  a  bit  with  the  Apples. 

Mushroom  Sauce. — (No.  305.) 

Pick  and  peel  half  a  pint  of  Mushrooms  (the  smaller 
the  better),  wash  them  very  clean,  and  put  them  into  a 
saucepan  with  half  a  pint  of  Veal  Gravy  or  Milk,  a 
little  Pepper  and  Salt,  and  an  ounce  of  Butter  rubbed 
with  a  tablespoonful  of  Flour,  stir  them  together,  and 
set  them  over  a  gentle  fire,  to  stew  slowly  till  tender; 
—  skim  and  strain  it. 

Obs.  —  It  will  be  a  great  improvement  to  this,  and 
the  two  following  Sauces,  to  add  to  them  the  juice  of 
half  a  dozen  Mushrooms,  prepared  the  day  before,  by 
sprinkling  them  with  salt,  the  same  as  when  you  make 
Catsup;  or  add  a  large  spoonful  of  good  Double 
Mushroom  Catsup,  (No.  439.) 

See  Quintessence  of  Mushrooms,  (No.  440.) 

N.  B.  Much  as  we  love  the  flavour  of  Mushrooms, — 
we  must  enter  our  protest  against  their  being  eaten  in 
substance, — when  the  morbid  effects  they  produce  too 
often  prove  them  worthy  of  the  appellations  Seneca 
gave  them,  "  Voluptuous  Poison,"  "  lethal  luxury," 
&c.  ;  and  we  caution  those  who  cannot  refrain  from 
indulging  their  palate  with  the  seducing  rehsh  of  this 
deceitful  Fungus,  to  masticate  it  diligently. 


318  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

We  du  not  believe  that  Mushrooms  are  nutritive, — 
every  one  knows  they  are  often  dangerously  indi- 
gestible, —  therefore  the  Rational  Epicure  will  be  con- 
tent with  extracting  the  flavour  from  them  —  which  is 
obtained  in  the  utmost  perfection  by  the  process 
directed  in  (No.  439.) 

Mus/iruom  Sauce,  Broiin.  —  (No.  306.) 
Put  the  Muslirooms  into  half  a  pint  of  Beef  Gravy 
(No.  186),  or  (No.  329);   tliicken  with  Flour  and  But- 
ter; and  proceed  as  above. 

Mushroom  Sauce,  Extempore.  —  (No.  307.) 

Proceed  as  directed  in  (No.  2.56),  to  melt  Butter, — 
only,  instead  of  two  tablespoonsful  of  Milk,  put  in  two 
of  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439  or  40) ;  —  or  add  it  to 
thickened  Broth,  Gravy,  or  iNIock  Turtle  Soup,  &c. — 
or  put  in  (No.  296.) 

Ohs.  This  is  a  welcome  Relish  with  Fish — Poultry 
—  or  Chops  and  »Steaks,  &c.  A  couple  of  Quarts  of 
good  Catsup  (No.  439),  will  make  more  good  Sauce 
than  ten  times  its  cost  of  Meat,  &c. 

Walnut  Catsup  will  give  you  another  variety ;  and 
Ball's  Cavice,  which  is  excellent,  and  sold  at  No. 
81,  New  Bond  Street. 

Voor  Mans  Sauce.  — {^o.  310.) 

Pick  a  handful  of  Parsley  leaves  from  the  stalks, 
mince  them  very  fine,  strew  over  a  little  salt ;  shred 
fine  half  a  dozen  young  green  Onions,  add  these  to  the 
Parsley,  and  put  them  into  a  sauceboat,  with  three 
tablespoonsful  of  Oil,  and  five  of  Vinegar  ;  add  some 
prround  Black  Pepper  and  Salt;  stir  together,  an^l 
send  it  up. 

Pickled  French  Beans  or  Gherkins,  cut  fine,  may  be 
added  —  or  a  little  grated  Horseradish. 

06^.  —  This  Sauce  is  in  much  esteem  in  France, 
where  people  of  taste,  weary  of  rich  dishes^  to  obtain 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  319 

the  charm  of  variety,  occasionally  order  the  fare  of  the 

Peasant. 

"  the  Rich,  tir'd  with  continual  Feasts, 

For  change  become  their  next  poor  Tenant's  guests ; 
Drink  hearty  draughts  of  Ale  from  plain  brown  bowls. 
And  snatch  the  homely  Rasher  from  the  Coals." 

DuYDEN's  Prologue  to  "  All  for  Love." 

The  Spaniard's  Gar  lick  Gravy.  —  (No.  311.) — See  also 
(No.  272.) 

Slice  a  pound  and  a  half  of  Veal,  or  Beef,  pepper 
and  salt  it,  lay  it  in  a  stewpan  v/ith  a  couple  of  Carrots 
split,  and  four  cloves  of  Garlick  sliced,  a  quarter  pound 
of  sliced  Ham,  and  a  large  spoonful  of  water  ;  —  set 
the  stewpan  over  a  gentle  fire,  and  watch  v/hen  the 
meat  begins  to  stick  to  the  pan ;  when  it  does,  turn  it, 
and  let  it  be  very  well  brov/ned,  (but  take  care  it  is  not 
at  all  burnt ;)  then  dredge  it  with  flour,  and  pour  in 
a  quart  of  broth,  a  bunch  of  Sweet  Herbs,  a  couple 
of  Cloves  bruised,  and  slice  in  a  Lemon;  set  it  on 
again,  and  let  it  simmer  gently  for  an  hour  and  a  half 
longer;  then  take  off  the  fat,  and  strain  the  gravy 
from  the  ingredients,  by  pouring  it  through  a  napkin, 
straining,  and  pressing  it  very  hard. 

Obs.  —  This,  it  is  said,  was  the  secret  of  the  Old 
Spaniard,  who  kept  the  House  called  by  that  name  on 
Hampstead  Heath. 

Those  who  love  Garlick,  will  find  it  an  extremely 
rich  relish. 

Mr.  Michael  Kelly's*  Sauce  for  Boiled  Tripe, 
Calf-head,  or  Cow-heel— (No.  311*.) 

Garlick  Vinegar,  a  tablespoonful, —  of  Mustard, 
Brown  Sugar,  and  Black  Pepper,  a  teaspoonful  each ; 
stirred  into  half  a  pint  of  oiled  melted  butter. 

Mr.  Kelly's  Sauce  Piquante. 

Pound   a   tablespoonful   of  Capers,  —  and   one   of 

*  Composer  and  Director  of  the  Music  at  the  Theatre-Royal,  Drury  Lane, 
and  the  Italian  Opera. 


320  GRAVIES  AND  SAUOES. 

minced  Parsley,  —  as  fine  as  possible ;  then  add  the 
yolks  of  three  hard  Eggs,  rub  them  well  together  with 
a  tablespoonful  of  Mustard,  —  bone  six  Anchovies, 
and  pound  them,  rub  them  through  a  hair  sieve,  and 
mix  with  two  tablespoonsful  of  Oil,  one  of  Vinegar, 
one  of  Shallot  ditto,  and  a  few  grains  of  Cayenne 
Pepper;  rub  all  these  well  together  in  a  mortar,  till 
thoroughly  incorporated,  then  stir  them  into  half  a 
pint  of  good  Gravy,  or  melted  Butter,  and  put  the 
whole  through  a  sieve. 

Fried  Parsley.  —  (No.  317.) 

Let  it  be  nicely  picked  and  washed,  then  put  into  a 
cloth,  and  swung  backwards  and  forwards  till  it  is 
perfectly  dry ;  —  put  it  into  a  pan  of  hot  fat,  fry  it 
quick,  and  have  a  slice  ready  to  take  it  out  the  moment 
it  is  crisp,  (in  another  moment  it  will  be  spoilt;)  put  it 
on  a  sieve,  or  coarse  cloth,  before  the  fire  to  drain. 

Criq)  Parsley.  — (No.  318.) 

Pick  and  wash  young  Parsley,  shake  it  in  a  dry  cloth 
to  drain  the  water  from  it;  spread  it  on  a  sheet  of 
clean  paper,  in  a  Dutch  oven  before  the  fire,  and  turn 
it  frequently  until  it  is  quite  crisp.  —  This  is  a  much 
more  easy  way  of  preparing  it  than  Frying  it,  —  which 
is  not  seldom  ill  done. 

Obs. — A  very  pretty  garnish  for  Lamb  Chops,  Fish, 
&c. 

Fried  Bread  Sippets. —(No.  319.) 

Cut  a  slice  of  Bread  about  a  quarter  of  an  inch 
thick,  divide  it  with  a  sharp  knife  into  pieces  two 
inches  square  ;  —shape  these  into  Triangles  or  Crosses  : 
—  put  some  very  clean  Fat  into  an  iron  Fryingpan ; 
when  it  is  hot,  put  in  the  sippets,  and  fry  them  a 
delicate  light  brown ;  take  them  up  with  a  Fish-slice, 
and  drain  them  well  from  Fat,  turning  them  occasion- 
ally ; — this  will  take  a  quarter  of  an  hour.     Keep  the 


GRAVIES   AND  SAUCES.  321 

pan  at  such  a  distance  from  the  fire,  that  the  fat  may 
be  hot  enough  to  brown  without  burning ;  —  this  is 
a  requisite  precaution  in  frying  delicate  thin  things. 

Obs.  —  These  are  a  pretfi/  ganiis/i,  and  very  welcome 
accompaniment  and  improvement  to  the  finest  made 
Dishes  :  —  they  may  also  be  sent  up  with  Pease  and 
other  Soups; — but  when  intended  for  Soups,  the 
Bread  must  be  cut  into  bits,  about  half  an  inch  square. 

N.  B.  If  these  are  not  done  very  ddkately  clean  and 
dry,  they  are  uneatable. 

Fried  Bread  Crumbs.  —  (No.  320.) 

Rub  Bread  (which  has  been  baked  two  days)  through 
a  wire  sieve,  or  Cullender;  —  or  you  may  rub  them  in 
a  cloth  till  they  are  as  fine  as  if  they  had  been  grated, 
and  sifted ;  put  them  into  a  stewpan  with  a  couple 
of  ounces  of  Butter,  place  it  over  a  moderate  fire,  and 
stir  them  about  with  a  wooden  spoon  till  they  are  the 
colour  of  a  Guinea;  spread  them  on  a  sieve,  and  let 
them  stand  ten  minutes  to  drain,  turning  them  fre- 
quently. 

Obs.  —  Fried  Crumbs  are  sent  up  with  roasted  Sweet- 
breads, —  or  Larks,  —  Pheasants,  —  Partridges,  — - 
Woodcocks,  —  and  Grouse,  —  or  Moor  Game,  —  espe- 
cially if  they  have  been  kept  long  enough. 

Bread  Sauce.— (No.  321.) 

Put  a  small  teacupful  of  Bread-Crumbs  into  a  stew- 
pan,  pour  on  it  as  much  milk  as  it  will  soak  up,  and  a 
little  more;  or,  instead  of  the  milk,  take  the  Giblets, 
head,  neck,  and  legs,  &c.  of  the  Poultry,  &c.  and 
stew  themj  and  moisten  the  bread  with  this  liquor; 
put  it  on  the  fire  with  a  middling  sized  Onion,  and  a 
dozen  hemes  of  Pepper  or  Allspice,  or  a  little  Mace  ; 
let  it  boil,  then  stir  it  well,  and  let  it  simmer  till  it  is 
quite  stiff,  and  then  put  to  it  about  two  tablespoonsful 
of  Cream  or  melted  Butter,  or  a  little  good  Broth; 
take  out  the  Onion  and  Pepper,  and  it  is  ready. 
p5 


322  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

Obs. — ^  This  is  an  excellent  accompaniment  to  Game 
and  Poultry,  &c.  and  a  good  vehicle  for  receiving 
various  flavours  from  the  Magazine  of  Taste  (No. 
463.) 

Rice  Sauce.  — (^0.  321*.) 

Steep  a  quarter  pound  of  Rice  in  a  pint  of  milk, 
with  Onion,  Pepper,  &ic.  as  in  the  last  receipt ;  when 
the  rice  is  quite  tender  (take  out  the  spice),  rub  it 
through  a  sieve  into  a  clean  stewpan  ;  if  too  thick,  put 
a  little  milk  or  cream  to  it. 

Oh.s.  —  This  is  a  very  delicate  White  sauce  ;  —  and 
at  elegant  ^tables,  is  frequently  served  instead  of  Bread 
Sauce. 

Browning  —  (No.  322.) 

Is  a  convenient  article  to  colour  those  Soups  or 
Sauces,  of  v.diich  it  is  supposed  their  deep  brown  com- 
plexion denotes  the  strength  and  savourioess  of  the 
composition. 

Burnt  Sugar  is  also  a  favourite  ingredient  with  the 
Brewers,  who  use  it  under  the  name  of  "  Essentia 
Bina"  to  colour  their  Beer ; — it  is  also  employed  by  the 
Brandy  makers,  in  considerable  quantity,  to  colour 
Brandy  ;  to  which,  besides  enriching  its  complexion, 
it  gives  that  sweetish  taste,  and  fulness  in  the  mouth, 
which  custom  has  taught  Brandy  drinkers  to  admire, 
and  prefer  to  the  finest  Cogniac  in  its  genuine  state. 

When  employed  for  Culinary  Purposes,  this  is  some- 
times made  with  strong  Gravy,  or  Walnut  Catsup. 
Those  who  like  a  gout  of  Acid  may  add  a  little  Walnut 
Pickle. 

It  will  hardly  be  told  from  what  is  commonly  called 
*'^  genuine  Japanese  Soy*,"  (for  which  it  is  a  very  good 
substitute.)     Burnt  Treacle,  or  Sugar,  —  the  Peels  of 

♦  "  By  the  best  accounts  T  can  find,  Sot  is  a  preparation  from  tlie  seeds  of  a 
species  of  the  Dotichos,  prepared  by  a  fermentation  of  the  farina  of  this  seed 
in  a  strong  lixivium  of  common  salt."--CuLLE?i's  3Iat.  Med,  vol.  i.  p.  430. 


GRAVIES  AND    SAUCES.  323 

Walnuts,  —  Cayenne  pepper,  —  or  Capsicums,  —  or 
Chilies,  —  Vinegar,  —  Garlick,  —  and  pickled  Her- 
rings, (especially  the  Dutch)  —  Sardinias,  —  or  Sprats, 
—  appear  to  be  the  bases  of  almost  all  the  Sauces 
which  now,  to  use  the  maker's  phrase,  —  stand  unri- 
valled. 

Although  indefatigable  research  and  experiment  has 
put  us  in  possession  of  these  compositions,  —  it  would 
not  be  quite  fair,  to  enrich  the  Cook,  at  the  expense 
of  the  Oilman,  &c.  —  we  hope  we  have  said  enough  on 
these  subjects,  to  satisfy  "  the  Rational  Epicure." 

Put  half  a  pound  of  pounded  Lump  Sugar,  and  a 
tablespoonful  of  water,  into  a  clean  iron  saucepan,  set 
it  over  a  slow  fire,  and  keep  stirring  it  with  a  wooden 
spoon  till  it  becomes  a  bright  brown  colour,  and 
begins  to  smoke;  then  add  to  it  an  ounce  of  salt, 
and  dilute  it  by  degrees  with  water,  till  it  is  the 
thickness  of  Soy;  let  it  boil,  take  off  the  scum, 
and  strain  the  liquor  into  bottles,  which  must  be  v/ell 
stopped  :  if  you  have  not  any  of  this  by  you,  and  you 
wish  to  darken  the  colour  of  your  sauces,  pound  a 
teaspoonful  of  lump  sugar,  and  put  into  an  iron  spoon, 
with  as  much  v/ater  as  will  dissolve  it;  hold  it  over  a 
quick  lire  till  it  becomes  of  a  very  dark  brov/n  colour  ; 
mix  it  with  the  soup,  &c.  while  it  is  hot. 

Obs.  —  Most  of  the  preparations  under  this  title  are 
a  medley  of  Burnt  Butter, —  Spices, — Catsup, — Wine, 
&c.  We  recommend  the  Rational  Epicure  to  be  content 
with  the  natural  colour  of  Soups  and  Sauces,  which,  to  a 
well-educated  Palate,  are  much  more  agreeable,  with- 
out any  of  these  empyreumatic  additions;  — however 
they  may  please  the  Eye,  they  plague  the  Stomach 
most  grievously,  so  ''  open  your  Mouth,  and  shut  your 
Eyesr 

For  the  sake  of  producing  a  pretty  colour,  "  Cheese,'^ 
— Cayenne  (No.  404), — ^'Essence  of  Anchovy,"  (No.  433), 
&c.  are  frequently  adulterated  with  a  colouring  matter 


324  GR.WIES   AND   SAUCES. 

cout^xums;  Red  Lend !  ! — See  Accum  on  the  Adu/iera^ 
tioii  of  Food,  2d  Edit.  l-2mo.  1820. 

A  scientific  "  hommc  dc  houclie  de  France'  observes  — 
"  The  uenerality  of  Cooks  calcine  Bones,  till  they  are 
as  black  as  a  Coal,  and  throw  thein  hissin^j;  hot  into 
the  stewpan,  to  give  a  brown  colour  to  their  Broths. 
These  ino:redients,  under  the  appearante  of  a  nourish- 
iui;  Gravy,  enveloj)«-  our  food  \vitli  stimulating;  acid  and 
corrosive  Poison. 

"  Roux  or  Thickening  (No.  257),  if  not  made  very 
carefully,  produces  exactly  the  same  effect;  and  the 
juices  of  Beef,  or  Veal,  burnt  over  a  hot  fire,  to  g;ive  a 
rich  colour  to  8ou|)  or  ^^auces,  grievously  offend  the 
Stomach,  and  create  the  most  distressing  Indigestions. 

'*  The  judicious  Cook  will  refuse  the  help  of  these 
incendiary  articles ;  which  ignorance,  or  quackery, 
only  employ,  —  not  only  at  the  expense  of  the  credit 
of  the  cook,  but  the  health  of  her  employers." 

N.  B.  Ihe  BEST  BROWNING  is  good  Home-made 
Glaze  (No.  252),  —  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439),  — or 
Claret,  or  Port  Wine.  See  also  (No.  257) ;  —  or  cut 
meat  into  slice>,  and  broil  them  brown,  and  then  stew 
them. 

Graivfnr  Roa.st  Meat.  —(No.  326.) 

Most  joints  will  afford  sufficient  trimmings,  &:c.  to 
make  half  a  pint  of  plain  Gravy,  which  you  may  colour 
with  a  few  drops  of  (No.  322;;  —  fur  those  that  do 
not,  about  half  an  hour  before  you  think  the  meat  will 
be  done,  mix  a  saltspoonful  of  Salt,  with  a  full  quarter 
pint  of  boiling  Water;  drop  this  by  degrc<'6  on  the 
brown  parts  of  the  joint;  set  a  dish  under  to  catch  it, 
(the  meat  will  soon  brown  again) ;  set  it  by,  —  as  it 
cools,  the  fat  will  settle  on  the  surface ;  when  the 
meat  is  ready,  remove  this,  and  warm  up  the  gravy, 
and  pour  it  into  the  dish. 

The   Common  Method  is,    when  the  meat   is  in  the 


GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES.  325 

dish  you  intend  to  send  it  up  in,  to  mix  half  a  tea- 
spoonful  of  Salt  in  a  quarter  pint  of  boiling  water, 
and  to  drop  some  of  this  over  the  corners  and  under- 
side of  the  meat,  and  to  pour  the  rest  through  the 
hole  the  spit  came  out  of,  -^  and  some  pierce  the 
inferior  parts  of  the  joint  with  a  sharp  skewer. 

The  following  Receipt  was  given  us  by  a  very  good 
Cook:  —  You  may  make  good  Browning  for  Roast 
Meat  and  Poultry,  by  saving  the  Brozvn  Bits  of  Roast 
Meat  or  Broiled  ;  cut  them  small,  put  them  into  a  basin, 
cover  them  with  boiling  water,  and  put  them  away  till 
next  day ;  then  put  it  into  a  saucepan,  let  it  boil  two  or 
three  minutes,  strain  it  through  a  sieve  into  a  basin,  and 
put  it  away  for  use.  When  you  want  Gravy  for  Roast 
Meat,  put  two  tablespoonsful  into  half  a  pint  of  boiling 
water  with  a  little  salt ;  —  if  for  Roasted  Veal,  put  three 
tablespoonsful  into  half  a  pint  of  thin  melted  Butter. 

N.  B.  The  Gravy  which  comes  down  in  the  dish,  the 
Cook  (if  she  is  a  good  housewife)  will  preserve  to  enrich 
Hashes  or  little  Made  Dishes,  &c. 

Obs.  —  Some  Culinary  professors,  who  think  nothing 
can  be  excellent,  that  is  not  extravagant,  —  call  this 
"  Scots  Gravy;"  not,  I  believe,  intending  it,  as  it 
certainly  is,  a  compliment  to  the  laudable,  and  rational 
frugality,  of  that  intelligent,  and  sober-minded  People. 

N.  B.  '1  his  gravy  should  be  brought  to  table  in  a 
Sauce-boat ;  preserve  the  intrinsic  Gravy  which  flows 
from  the  meat,  in  the  Argyll. 

Gravy  for  Boiled  Meat  —  (No.  327.) 

May  be  made  with  Parings  and  Trimmings,  —  or 
pour  from  a  quarter  to  half  a  pint  of  the  liquor  in 
which  the  Meat  was  boiled,  into  the  dish  with  it,  and 
pierce  the  inferior  part  of  the  joint  with  a  sharp  skewer. 

Wow  Wow  Sauce  for  Stewed  or  Bouilli  Beef.  — 
(No.  328.) 

Chop  some  Parsley  leaves  very  finely,  quarter  two 


326  GRAVIES   AND  SAUCES. 

or  three  pickled  Cucu?)ibers,  or  Walnuts,  and  divide 
them  into  small  squares,  and  set  them  by  ready ;  — 
put  into  a  saucepan  a  bit  of  Butter  as  big-  as  an  e2:g ; 
when  it  is  melted,  stir  to  it  a  tablespoonful  of  fine 
Flour,  and  al>out  half  a  pint  of  the  Broth  in  which  the 
Beef  was  boiled  ;  add  a  tablespoonful  of  Vineiz:ar,  the 
like  quantity  of  Mushroom  Catsup,  or  Port  Wine,  or 
both,  and  a  tcaspoonful  of  made  Mustard ;  let  it 
simmer  tun;cther  till  it  is  as  thick  as  you  wish  it,  put 
in  the  Parsley  and  Pickles  to  get  warm,  ani  pour  it 
over  the  Beef,  —  or  rather  send  it  ip  in  a  Sauce- 
tureen. 

Ob.s, — If  you  think  the  above  not  sufficiently  -piquantc, 
add  to  it  some  Capers,  or  a  minced  Shallot,  or  one 
or  two  teaspoonsful  of  Shal'ot  Wine  (No.  402),  —  or 
Essence  of  Anchovy,  —  or  Basil  (No  397),  —  Elder,  or 
Tarragon  (No.  396),  or  Horseradish  (No.  399*),  or 
Burnet  Vinei^ar  ;  or  strew  over  the  meat,  Carrots  and 
Turnips  cut  into  dice,  —  minced  Capers,  —  Walnuts,  — 
Red  Cabbaje,  —  pickled  Cucumbers,  —  or  French 
Beans,  &c. 

Beef   Gravy   Sauce, — (No.    329)  — or   Bro-u;n  Sauce 
for  Ragouts,  Game,   Poultry,  Fi^/i,  <!)c. 

If  you  want  Gravy  immediately,  see  (No.  307),  or 
(No.  252),  if  you  have  time  enough. 

Furnish  a  thick  and  well-tinned  Stewpan  with  a  tliin 
slice  of  fat  Ham  or  Bacon,  or  an  ounce  of  Butter,  and  a 
middling  sized  Onion  ;  on  this,  lay  a  pound  of  nice 
juicy  Gravy  Beet,  (as  the  object  in  making  Gravy  is  to 
extract  the  nutritious  succulence  of  the  Meat,  it  must 
be  beaten  to  comminute  the  containing  vessels,  and 
scored  to  augment  the  surface  to  the  action  of  the 
water),  cover  the  Stewpan,  and  set  it  on  a  slow  fire ; 
when  the  meat  begins  to  brown,  turn  it  about,  and  let 
it  get  slightly  browned,  (but  take  care  it  is  not  at  alt 
buntt :)  then  pour  in  a  pint  and  a  half  of  boiling  water, 
set  the  pan  on  the  fire ;  when  it  boils,  carefully  catch 


GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES.  327 

the  scum, — and  then  put  in  a  crust  of  Bread  toasted 
brown,  (don't  burn  it)— a  sprig  of  winter  Savory,  or 
Lemon  Thyme  and  Parsley — a  roll  of  thin  cut  Lemon 
Peel,  a  dozen  berries  of  Allspice,  and  a  dozen  of  Black 
Pepper ;  cover  the  stewpan  close,  and  let  it  stexv  verij 
gently  for  about  two  hours,  then  strain  it  through  a 
sieve  into  a  basin.  Now,  if  you  wish  to  thicken  it, 
set  a  clean  stewpan  over  a  slow  five,  with  about  an 
ounce  of  Butter  in  it ;  when  it  is  melted,  dredge  to  it 
(by  degrees)  as  much  flour  as  will  dry  it  up,  stirring 
them  well  together ;  when  thoroughly  mixed,  pour  in 
a  little  of  the  Gravy,  —  stir  it  well  together,  and  add 
the  remainder  by  degrees  ;  set  it  over  the  fire,  let  it 
simmer  gently  for  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes  longer,  and 
skim  ofi'  the  fat,  &c.  as  it  rises  ;  when  it  is  about  as 
thick  as  cream,  squeeze  it  through  a  tammis,  or  fine 
sieve, — and  you  will  have  a  fine  rich  Brown  Sauce,  at  a 
very  moderate  Expense,  and  without  much  trouble. 

Obs. — If  you  wish  to  make  it  still  more  Relishing, — if 
it  is  for  Poult ri/,  you  may  pound  the  Liver  with  a  bit  of 
Butter,  rub  it  through  a  sieve,  and  stir  it  into  the  Sauce 
when  you  put  in  the  thickening.  For  a  Ragout,  or 
Game,  add  at  the  same  time  a  tablespoonful  of  Mush- 
room Catsup,  or  (No.  343)*,  or  (No.  429),  or  a  few 
drops  of  (No.  422),  the  juice  of  half  a  Lemon,  and  a  roll 
of  the  rind  pared  thin,  a  tablespoonful  of  Port,  or  other 
wine,  (Claret  is  best),  and  a  few  grains  of  Cayenne 
Pepper; — or  use  double  the  quantity  of  Meat, — or  add 
a  bit  of  Glaze,  or  Portable  Soup  (No.  252),  to  it. 

You  may  vary  the  flavour,  by  sometimes  adding  a 
little  Basil,   or  Burnet  Wine,  (No.  397),  or  Tarragon 


*  One  of  "  les  Bonnes  homines  de  Boucke  de  Fraiice"  orders  the  follow- 
ing addition  for  Game  Gravy  : — "  For  a  pint,  par-roast  a  Partridge  or  a 
Pigeon;  cut  off  the  meat  of  it,  pound  it  in  a  mortar,  and  put  it  into  the  Stew- 
pan when  yon  thicken  xht.  Sauce." — IVe  do  not  recommend  either  -Soup  or 
>Saiice  to  be  thickened,— becanse  it  requires  (to  give  it  the  same  quickness 
on  the  Palate  it  had  before  it  was  thickened)  double  the  quantity  of  Piquante 
materials, — which  are  thus  smuggled  down  the  Red  Lane,  without  affording 
any  amusement  to  the  Mouth,  and  at  the  risk  of  highly  offending  the  Stomach^ 


328  GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES. 

Vinegar  (No.  396),  or  a  wine-glass  of  Quintessence  of 
Mushrooms  (No.  450). 

See  the  Magazine  of  Taste,  (No.  463). 

N.  B.  This  is  an  excellent  Gravy ;  and  at  a  large 
Dinner,  a  pint  of  it  should  be  placed  at  each  end  of 
the  Table — it  is  equal  to  the  most  costly  Consommt  of 
the  Parisian  Kitchen, 

Those  families  who  are  frequently  in  want  of  Gravy, 
Sauces,  c^c.  (without  plenty  of  which,  no  Cook  can 
support  the  credit  of  her  Kitchen),  sliould  Ixccp  a  stock 
of  Portable  Soup  or  Glaze,  see  (No.  252):  this 
will  make  Graxy  mmcdiattly. 

Game  Gravy. — (No.  337.) 
See  Obs.  to  (No.  329). 

Orange  Graxy  Sauce,  for  JViId  Ducks,  Ji'ido-con,  and 
rcaf,\]c,~-{So.  338.) 

Set  on  a  Saucepan  with  half  a  pint  of  \'eal  Gravy 
(No.  192),  add  to  it  half  a  dozen  leaves  of  Basil,  "a 
small  Onion,  and  a  roll  of  Orange  or  Lemon  Peel,  and 
let  it  boil  up  for  a  few  minutes,  and  strain  it  off.  Put 
to  the  clear  gravy  the  juice  of  a  Seville  Orange,  or 
Lemon,  half  a  teaspoonful  of  Salt,  the  same  of  Pepper, 
and  a  glass  of  Red  Wine;  send  it  up  hot,  Eshallot 
and  Cayenne  may  be  added. 

Obi. — This  is  an  excellent  Sauce  for  all  kinds  of 
Wild  water  fowl. 

The  common  way  of  gashing  the  breast,  and  squeezing 
in  an  Orange,  cools  and  hardens  the  flesh,  and  compels 
every  one  to  cat  Duck  that  way;  some  people  like 
wild  fowl  very  little  done,  and  without  any  Sauce. 

Gravies  should  always  be  sent  up  in  a  boat;  they 
keep  hot  longer ;  and  it  leaves  it  to  the  choice  of  the 
Company  to  partake  it  or  not. 

Bonne  Bouciie,  for  Goose,  Duck,  or  Roast 

Pork.  — (No.  341.) 
Mix  a  teaspoonful  of  made  Mustard,  a  saltspoonful 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  329 

of  Salt,  and  a  few  grains  of  Cayenne,  in  a  large  wine- 
glassful  of  Claretj  or  Port  wine* ;  pour  it  into  the 
Goose  by  a  slit  in  the  apron,  just  before  serving  upf; 
or,  as  all  the  Company  may  not  like  it,  stir  it  into  a  quarter 
of  a  pint  of  thick  melted  Butter,  or  thickened  Gravy,  and 
send  it  up  in  a  Boat.  See  also  Sage  and  Onion  Sauce, 
(No.  300.) 

Or, 
A  Favourite  RELisiiybr  Roast  Pork  or  GeesCj  d)'c, 
is,  —  two  ounces  of  leaves  of  Green  Sage,  an  ounce  of 
fresh  Lemon  Peel,  pared  thin,  same  of  Salt,  minced 
Shallot,  and  half  a  drachm  of  Cayenne  Pepper,  ditto 
of  Citric  Acid,  steeped  for  a  fortnight  in  a  pint  of 
Claret;  shake  it  up  well  every  day  ;  let  it  stand  a  day 
to  settle,  and  decant  the  clear  liquor,  —  bottle  it  and 
cork  it  close,  —  a  tablespoonful,  or  more,  in  a  quarter 
pint  of  Gravy,  or  melted  Butter. 

Robert  Sauce  for  Roast  Pork  or  Geese,  &c.  —  (No.  342.) 
Put  an  ounce  of  Butter  into  a  Pint  Stewpan;  when 
it  is  melted,  add  to  it  half  an  ounce  of  Onion  minced 
very  fine  :  turn  it  with  a  wooden  spoon,  till  it  takes  a 
light  brown  colour,  then  stir  in  a  tablespoonful  of 
Flour,  a  tablespoonful  of  Mushroom  Catsup,  (with,  or 
without  the  like  quantity  of  Port  wine,)  half  a  pint  of 
Broth,  or  water,  and  a  quarter  of  a  teaspoonful  of 
Pepper,  the  same  of  Salt,  give  them  a  boil,  then  add 
a  teaspoonful  of  Mustard,  and  the  juice  of  half  a  Lemon, 
or  one  or  two  teaspoonsful  of  Vinegar,  or  Basil  (No.  397), 
or  Tarragon  (No,  396),  or  Burnet  Vinegar  (No.  399.) 

Obs. — The  French  call  this  "  Sauce  Robert"  (from 
the  name  of  the  cook  who  invented  it),  and  are  very  fond 
of  it  with  many  things,  which  Mary  Smith,  in  the 

•  To  this  some  add  a  tablespoonful  of  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439),  and 
instead  of  the  saltspoonful  of  Salt,  a  feaspoonfnl  of  Essence  of  Anchovy 
(No. 433.)  If  the  above  articles  are  rubbed  together  in  a  ruortar,  and  put 
into  a  close  stopped  botile,  tliey  will  keep  for  some  time. 

t  Thus  far  the  above  is  from  Dr.  Hunter's  "  CuUna,"  who  says  it  is  a 
eecret  worth  knowing: — we  agree  with  him,  and  so  tell  it  here  ;  with  a  little 
addition,  which  we  tliiuk  renders  ii  a  still  moie  gratifying  couiuiuuicatlon. 


330  GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 

''Complete  Housekeeper^"  Svo.   1772,  p.  105,  translates 
Rol-Boat-Sauce.     See  Obs.  to  (No.  529.) 

Turtle  Sauce.  — (No.  343.) 
Put  into  your  stewpan  a  pint  of  Beef  Gravy  thick- 
ened (No.  329);  add  to  this  some  of  the  following 
Essence  of  Turtle  (No.  343'),  or  a  wineglass  of  Madeira, 
the  juice  and  peel  of  half  a  Lemon,  a  few  leaves  of 
Basil*,  an  Eshallot  quartered,  a  few  grains  of  Cayenne 
pepper,  or  Curry  powder,  and  a  little  llsscuce  of  An- 
chovy ;  let  them  simmer  together  for  five  minutes,  and 
strain  through  a  tammis  ;  — you  may  introduce  a  dozen 
Turtle  Forcemeat  Balls  ;  see  Receipt  (No.  380),  &c. 

Qbs.  —  This  is  the  Sauce  for  boiled  or  hashed  Calfs 
head,  —  Stewed  Veal,  —  or  any  dish  you  dress  Turtle 
fashion. 

The  far-ft'tcht  and  dear-bought  Turtle  owes  its  high 
rank  on  the  list  of  savoury  Bu/ines  Bouches  to  the 
relishing  and  piquante  sauce  that  is  made  for  it ;  — 
without,  it  would  be  as  insipid  as  any  other  fish  is 
without  Sauce.     See  Obs.  to  (No.  493.) 

Essence  of  Turtle.  — (No.  343*.) 

Kssence  of  Anchovy  (No.  433),  one  wincglassful. 

Shaliut  Wine  (No.  402),  one  and  a  half  ditto. 

Basil  Wine  (No.  397),  four  ditto. 

Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439).  two  ditto. 

Concrete  Lemon  Acid,  one  drachm,  or  some  Artifi- 
cial Lemon  Juice  (No.  407*.) 

Lemon  Peel,  rt/v/  thinli^  pared,  three  quarters  of  an 
ounce. 

Curry  Powder  (No.  455),  a  quarter  of  an  ounce. 

Steep  for  a  week  to  get  the  flavour  of  the  Lemon 
Peel,  &c. 

Ohs.  —  This  is  ver}'  convenient,  to  extemporaneously 
flavour  Soup,  Sauce,  or  Potted  Meats,  Ragouts,  Sa- 
voury Patties,  Ties,  &c.  &c. 

•  See  Basil  Wine,  (No.  397.) 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  331 

JVine  Sauce,  for  Venison  or  Hare.  —  (No.  344.) 
A  quarter  of  a  pint  of  Claret  or  Port  wine,  the  same 
quantity  of  plain  unflavoured  Mutton  Gravy  (No.  347), 
and  a  tablespoonful  of  Currant  Jelly ;  let  it  just  boil  up, 
and  send  it  to  table  in  a  sauce-boat. 

Sharp  Sauce  for  Venison.  —  (No.  345.) 
Put  into  a  silver,  or  very  clean  and  well  tinned 
saucepan,  half  a  pint  of  the  best  white  wine  vinegar, 
and  a  quarter  of  a  pound  of  loaf-sugar  pounded ;  set  it 
over  the  fire,  and  let  it  simmer  gently :  skim  it  care- 
fully, pour  it  through  a  tammis  or  fine  sieve,  and  send 
it  up  in  a  basin. 

Obs.  —  Some  people  like  this  better  than  the  Sweet 
Wine  sauces, 

Sii-eet  Sauce  for  Venison  or  Hare.  —  (No.  346.) 
Put  some  Currant  Jelly  into   a  stewpan,   when  it  is 
melted,  pour  it  into  a  sauce  boat. 

N.  B.  Many  send  it  to  table  without  melting.  To 
make  Currant  Jellj/,  see  (No.  479*.) 

This  is  a  more  salubrious  relish  than  either  Spice  or 
Salt,  and  when  the  Palate  protests  against  animal  food 
unless  its  flavour  be  masked,  —  Currant  Jelly  is  a  good 
accompaniment  to  Roasted  or  Hashed  Meats. 

Mutton  Grain/,  for  Venison  or  Hare.  —  (No.  347.) 
The  best  gravy  for  Venison  is  that  made  with  the 
trimmings  of  the  Joint :  if  this  is  all  used,  and  you 
have  no  undressed  Venison,  cut  a  scrag  of  mutton  in 
pieces,  broil  it  a  little  brown,  then  put  it  into  a  clean 
stewpan,  with  a  quart  of  boiling  water,  cover  it  close, 
and  let  it  simmer  gently  for  an  hour :  now  uncover  the 
stewpan,  and  let  it  reduce  to  three  quarters  of  a  pint, 
pour  it  through  a  hair  sieve,  take  the  fat  off,  and  send 
it  up  in  a  boat.  —  It  is  only  to  be  seasoned  with  a  little 
salt,  that  it  may  not  overpower  the  natural  flavour  of 


332  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

the  meat.  You  may  colour  it  with  a  very  little  ot 
(No.  3-22.) 

N.  B.  Some  prefer  the  unseasoned  Beef  Gravy, 
(No.  186),  which  vou  may  make  in  five  minutes  with 
(No.  252.) 

The  Queen's  Gu.wy  of  Mlttton,  as  made  by  her 
Majesty's  "  Escuycr  de  Cuisine,"  Monsieur  La  Montagne. 
*'  Roast  a  juicy  lee:  of  Mutton  three  quarters,  then  gash 
it  in  several  places,  and  press  out  the  juice  by  a  screw 
press." — From  Sir  Kenklm  DioBv'h  Cookery ,  18mo. 
Lotidon,  1669. 

Cuny  Sauce  —  (No.  '-548.) 

Is  made  by  stirring;  a  sufticient  quantity  of  Curry 
stulf,  see  (No  4.')0),  into  gravy  or  melted  butter,  or 
onion  sauce,  (Nos.  297,  298),  or  onion  gravy  (No.  299 
or  339.) 

The  compositions  of  Curry  Powder  and  the  Palates 
of  those  who  eat  it  vary  so  much,  that  we  cannot  re- 
commend any  specific  quantity.  The  Cook  must  add 
it  by  degrees,  tasting  as  she  proceeds,  and  take  care 
not  to  put  in  too  much. 

Obs.  —  The  Curry  powder  (No.  455,)  approximates 
more  nearly  to  the  best  Indian  Curry  stuft",  and  is  an 
agreeable  and  well  blended  mixture  of  this  class  of 
aromatics. 

N.  B.  To  dress  Curries,  see  (No.  497.) 

Essence  uf  Ham.  — (No.  351.) 

Essence  of  Ham  and  of  Beef  may  be  purchased 
at  the  Eating-houses  which  cut  up  those  joints,  —  the 
former  for  half  a  crown  or  three  shdlings  a  Quart :  it  is 
therefore  a  most  Economical  relish  for  Made  Dishes, 
and  to  give  piquance  to  Sauces,  &c. 

Grill  Sauce,— (So.  355.) 
To  half  a  pint  of  Gravy  (No.  329),  add  an  ounce  of 
fresh  Butter,  and  a  tablespoonful  of  Flour,  previously 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  333^^ 

well  rubbed  together,  the  same  of  Mushroom,  or 
Walm.it  Catsup,  —  two  teaspoonsful  of  Lemon  juice,  one 
of  made  Mustard,  one  of  minced  Capers,  half  a  one  of 
black  Pepper,  a  quarter  of  the  rind  of  a  Lemon,  grated 
very  thin,  a  teaspoonful  of  Essence  of  Anchovies,  and  a 
little  Shallot  wine  (No.  402),  or  a  very  small  piece  of 
minced  Shallot,  and  a  little  Chili  Vinegar  (No.  405),  or 
a  few  grains  of  Cayenne,  simmer  together  for  a  few  mi- 
nutes, and  pour  a  little  of  it  over  the  Grill,  and  send 
up  the  rest  in  a  sauce  tureen.  For  Anchovy  toasts, 
(No.  573  or  538,) 

Or, 

Sauce  d  la  Tar  fare. 

Pound  in  a  mortar  three  hard  yolks  of  Eggs,  put 
them  into  a  "Basin,  and  add  half  a  tablespoonful  of 
made  Mustard,  and  a  little  Pepper  and  Salt,  —  pour  to 
it  by  degrees,  stirring  it  fast  all  the  while,  about  two 
wineglassesful  of  saiad  oil, —  stir  it  together  till  it 
comes  to  a  good  thickness. 

N.  B.  A  little  Tarragon  or  Chervil  minced  very  finelv, 
and  a  little  Vinegar,  may  be  added,  or  some  of  the 
ingredients  enumerated  in  (No.  372.) 

Ohs.  —  This  from  the  French  Artist  who  wrote  the 
Receipt  for  dressing  a  Turtle. 

Obi;.  —  These  <ire piquante  relishes  for  Anchovy  toasts 
(No.  573),  or  (No.  538);  for  Broiled  Devils,  &c., 
"  Veritable  sauce  (VEnfer,"  see  (No.  538),  and  a  re- 
freshing excitement  for  those  idle  palates,  who  are  as 
incessantly  mumbling  out  '^piquante,  piquante,"  as 
Parrots  do  "  Pretty  Foil,  Fretty  Foil  J' 

**For  palates  i^rown  callous  almost  to  disease, 
Who  peppers  the  highest  is  surest  to  please," 

Goldsmith. 

SAUCE/br  Steaks,  or  Chops,  Cutlets,  S^c. — 
(No.  356.)     See  also  (^0,  331.) 
Take  your  Chops  out  of  the  Frying  Pan ;  —  for  a 
pound  of  meat,  keep  a  tablespoonful  of  the  Fat  in  the 


3d4'  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

Pan,  or  put  in  about  an  ounce  of  Butter,  —  put  to  it  as 
much  flour  as  will  make  it  a  paste,  rub  it  well  together 
over  the  fire  till  they  are  a  little  brown,  —  then  add  as 
much  boiling  water  as  will  reduce  it  to  the  thickness  of 
good  Cream,  and  a  tablespoonful  of  Mushroom,  or 
Walnut  Catsup,  or  Pickle,  or  Browning  (No.  322),  or 
(No.  449);  —  let  it  boil  together  a  few  minutes,  and 
pour  it  through  a  sieve  to  the  Steaks,  Szc. 

Obs,  —  'Jo  the  above  is  sometimes  added  a  sliced 
Onion,  or  a  minced  Eshallot,  with  a  tablespoonful  of 
Port  wine,  or  a  little  Shallot  wine  (Nos.  402,  423,  or 
135.)  Garnish  with  finely  scraped  Horseradish  or 
pickled  Walnuts,  Gherkins,  &c.  Some  V>vtf  Eaters 
like  chopped  Shallots  in  one  Saucer  and  Horseradish 
grated  in  Vinegar  in  another.  Broiled  Mushrooms  are 
favourite  relishes  to  Beef  Steaks. 

Sauce  Piquniitefur  Cold  Meaty  Game,  Puuliiy,  Fish,  ^c., 

or   Salads,  — {>io.  359.)      See   aho    (No.  372),    and 

Cucumber  J'wes;ar  (Nos.  399  and  453.) 

Pound  in  a  mortar  the  yolks  of  two  eggs  that  have 

been  boiled  hard  (>^.  547),  v.ith  a  mustard-spoonful 

of  made  mustard,  and  a  little  pepper  and  salt,  add  two 

tablespoonsful  of  salad  oil,  mix   well,  and   then   add 

three  tablespoonsful  of  Vinegar,  rub  it  up  well  till  it  is 

quite  smooth,  and  pass  it  through  a  tarn  mis  or  sieve. 

Obs.  —  To  the  above  some  add  an  Anchovy  or  a 
tablespoonful  of  Mushroom  Catsup,  or  Walnut  Pickle, 
some  finely  chopped  Parsley,  —  grated  Horseradish,  — 
or  young  Onions  minced,  or  Burnet  (No.  399),  Horse- 
radish (No.  399*  or  402),  —  or  Tarragon,  or  Elder 
Vinegar  (No.  396),<&:c.  and  Cayenne  or  minced  Pickles, 
Capers,  Arc.  This  is  a  piquanfe  relish  for  Lobsters, 
Crabs,  cold  fish,  &c. 

Sauce  for  Hashes  of  Mutton,  or  Bekf. — (No.  360.) 
See  also  (Nos.  451,  4S5),and  to  make  plain  Hash 
(No.  486.) 
Unless  you  are  quite  sure  you  perfectly  understand 


GRAVIES    AND  SAUCES.  335 

the  Palate  of  those  you  are  working  for,  —  show  those 
who  are  to  eat  the  Hash  this  Receipt,  and  beg  of  them 
to  direct  you  how  they  zvish  it  seasoned. 

Half  the  number  of  the  Ingredients  enumerated 
will  be  more  than  enough, — but  as  it  is  a  Receipt 
so  often  wanted,  we  have  given  variety.  See  also 
(No.  486.) 

To  prepare  the  Meat,  see  (No.  484.) 

Chop  the  bones  and  fragments  of  the  joint,  &c., 
and  put  them  into  a  stewpan,  and  cover  them  with 
boiling  water,  six  berries  of  Black  pepper,  the  same  of 
Allspice,  a  small  bundle  of  Parsley,  half  a  head  of  Celery 
cut  in  pieces,  and  a  small  sprig  of  Savory,  or  Lemon- 
thynie,  or  sweet  Marjoram  ;  cover  up,  and  let  it  simmer 
gently  for  half  an  hour. 

Slice  half  an  ounce  of  Onion,  and  put  it  into  a  stewpan 
with  an  ounce  of  Butter,  fry  it  over  a  sharp  fire  for 
about  a  couple  of  minutes,  till  it  takes  a  little  colour  ; 
then  stir  in  as  much  Flour  as  will  make  it  a  stiff  paste, 
and  by  degrees  mix  with  it  the  gravy  you  have  made 
from  the  bones,  &c. ;  let  it  boil  very  gently  for  about 
a  quarter  of  an  hour,  till  it  is  the  consistence  of  thick 
cream,  strain  it  through  a  tammis  or  sieve  into  a  basin ; 
put  it  back  into  the  stewpan  ;  to  season  it,  see 
(No.  451),  or  cut  in  a  few  pickled  Onions,  — or  Wal- 
nuts, —  or  a  couple  of  Gherkins,  —  and  a  tabiespoonful 
of  Mushroom  Catsup,  —  or  Walnut  or  other  Pickle 
Liquor,  —  or  some  Capers,  and  Caper  Liquor,  —  or  a 
tabiespoonful  of  Ale,  —  or  a  little  Shallot,  or  Tarragon 
Vinegar;  cover  the  bottom  of  the  dish  with  Sippets  of 
Bread,  (that  they  may  become  savoury  reservoirs  of 
Gravy),  which  some  toast  and  cut  into  triangles, — Yow 
may  garnish  it  with  fried  Bread  Sippets  (No.  319.) 

N.  B.    To  HASH  MEAT   IN    PERFECTION, it  should 

be  laid  in  this  Gravy  only  just  long  enough  to  get  pro- 
perly warm  through. 

Obs, — If  any  of  the  gravy  that  was  sent  up  with,  or 


336  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

ran  from  the  joint  when  it  was  roasted,  be  left,  it  will, 
be  a  great  improvement  to  the  Hash. 

If  you  wish  to  make  Mock  Venison,  —  instead  of 
the  Onion,  put  in  two  or  three  Cloves,  a  tablespoonful 
of  Currant  Jelly,  and  the  same  quantity  of  Claret  or 
Port  wine,  instead  of  the  Catsup. 

You  may  make  a  Curry  Hash  by  adding  some  of 
(No.  455.) 

N.  B.  A  pint  of  (No.  329)  is  an  excellent  Gravy,  to 
warm  up  either  Meat  or  Poultry, 

Sauce  for  Hashed  ur  Minced  Veal. — (No.  361.) 
See  (No.  511.) 

1  ake  tb.e  ])ones  of  cold  roast  or  boiled  Veal,  dredge 
them  well  with  flour,  and  put  them  into  a  stewpan, 
with  a  jjint  and  a  half  of  broth  or  water,  a  small  Onion, 
a  little  grated  or  finely  minced  Lemon-peel,  or  the  peel 
of  a  quarter  of  a  small  Lemon,  pared  as  thin  as  possible, 
half  a  teaspoonfiil  of  salt,  and  a  blade  of  pounded 
Mace; — to  Thicken  it,  rub  a  tablespoonful  of  Flour 
into  half  an  ounce  of  Butter;  stir  it  into  the  broth,  and 
set  it  on  the  fire,  and  let  it  lioil  very  gently  for  about 
half  an  hour,  strain  through  a  tammis  or  sieve,  and  it 
is  ready  to  put  to  the  veal  to  warm  up,  which  is  to  be 
(lone  by  placing  tlie  stewpan  by  the  side  of  the  fire. 
Squeeze  in  half  a  lemon,  and  cover  the  bottom  of  the 
dish  with  toasted  bread  sippets  cut  into  triangles,  and 
garnish  the  disli  with  slices  of  Ham  or  Bacon.  See 
(Nos.  526  and  527.) 

0^5.— Read  (No.  484);  a  little  Basil  Wine  (No.  397), 
gives  an  agreeable  vegetable  relish  to  Hashed  Veal. 

Bechamel,  by  English  Cooks  com?nonli/  called  VJ^uiTE 
Sauce. —  (No.  364.)  ' 
Cut  in  square  pieces  half  an  inch  thick,  two  pounds 
of  lean  Veal,  half  a  pound  of  lean  Ham,  melt  in  a 
stewpan  two  ounces  of  Butter  ;  when  melted,  let  the 
whole  simmer  until  it  is  ready  to  catch  at  the  Bottom, 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  337 

(it  requires  great  attention,  as  if  it  happen  to  catch  at 
the  bottom  of  the  stewpan,  it  will  spoil  the  look  of  your 
Sauce),  then  add  to  it  three  tablespoonsful  of  flour;  when 
well  mixed,  add  to  it  three  pints  of  broth  or  water, 
pour  a  little  at  a  time,  that  the  thickening  be  smooth, 
stir  it  until  it  boil,  put  the  stewpan  on  the  corner  of  the 
stove  to  boil  gently  for  two  hours,  season  it  with  four 
cloves,  one  onion,  twelve  peppercorns,  a  blade  of  mace, 
a  few  mushrooms,  and  a  fagot  made  of  parsley,  a  sprig 
of  thyme,  and  a  bay-leaf.  Let  the  Sauce  reduce  to  a 
quart,  skim  the  fat  off,  and  strain  it  through  a  tammis 
cloth. 

To  make  a  Bechamel  Sauce,  add  to  a  quart  of  the 
above,  a  pint  of  good  cream,  stir  it  until  it  is  reduced 
to  a  good  thickness;  a  few  mushrooms  give  a  good 
flavour  to  that  Sauce;  strain  it  through  a  tammis 
cloth. 

Ohs.  —  The  above  was  given  us  by  a  French  Artist. 

A  more  Economical  Method  of  making  a  Pint  of  White 
Sauce.  — (No.  365,  No.  2.) 

Put  equal  parts  of  broth  and  milk  into  a  stewpan 
with  an  onion  and  a  blade  of  mace,  set  on  the  fire  to 
boil  ten  minutes,  have  ready  and  rub  together  on  a 
plate  an  ounce  of  Flour  and  Butter,  put  it  into  the 
stewpan,  stir  it  well  till  it  boils  up,  then  stand  it  near 
the  fire  or  stove,  stirring  it  every  now  and  then  till  it 
becomes  quite  smooth,  then  strain  it  through  a  sieve 
into  a  basin,  put  it  back  into  the  stewpan,  season  it 
with  salt  and  the  juice  of  a  small  lemon,  beat  up  the 
yolks  of  two  Eggs  well  with  about  three  tablespoonsful 
of  milk,  strain  it  through  a  sieve  into  your  Sauce,  stir 
it  well  and  keep  it  near  the  fire,  but  be  sure  and  do 
not  let  it  boil,  for  it  will  curdle. 

Obs. — A  convenient  veil  for  boiled  Fowls,  &c.  whose 
complexions  are  not  inviting. 

Mem.—Wiih  the  assistance  of  the  Magazine  of  Taste 
Q 


338  GRAVIES   AXD   SAUCES. 

(Xo.  463)    you    may    give    this    Sauce    a    variety  of 
Havours. 

Obs.  —  Bechamel  implies  a  thick  white  Sauce, 
approaching  to  a  batter,  —  and  takes  its  name  from  a 
wealthy  French  Marquess,  Jiiditrc  (riwtel  de  Louis  XIV. 
and  famous  for  his  patronage  of ''  Ics  OfTiciers  de  Bouche," 
—  who  have  immortalized  him,  by  calling  by  his  name 
this  delicate  composition. 

Most  of  the  French  Sauces  take  their  name  from  the 
person  whose  palate  thev  first  pleased,  as  'W/  la  yiaw- 
tenon  ;"  or  from  some  famous  Cook  who  invented  them, 
as  "  Sauce  Robert,"  "  a  la  M()?}tizcur"  &c. 

We  have  in  the  English  kitchen,  our  "  Argyll"  for 
Gravy,  and  the  little  *'  Sanduicii"  monuments  "  ase 
perennius," 


All. I  llins  MONTTITH 


"  II.u,  by  one  vessel,  sav'd  his  Nanif  from  Peatli." 

King's  .Irt  of  Cookery. 

Puiiradc  Sauce.  —  (No.  365.) 

Tliis,  as  its  title  tells  us,  is  a  Sauce  of  French  ex- 
traction. The  following  receipt  is  from  "  La  Cuisinierc 
Bourgeoise,"  page  408. 

"  Put  a  bit  of  butter  as  big  as  an  egg  into  a  stevvpaii 
with  two  or  three  (bits  of)  onion,  carrot,  and  turnip,  cut 
in  slices,  two  shallots,  two  cloves,  a  bay  leaf,  thyme, 
and  basil,  keep  turning  them  in  the  pan  till  they  get  a 
little  colour,  —  shake  in  some  flour,  and  add  a  glass  of 
red  Wine,  a  glass  of  water,  and  a  spoonful  of  Vinegar, 
and  a  little  Pepper  and  Salt,  boil  half  an  hour,  skim 
and  strain  it." 

Mustard  i?i  a  Minute.  —  (No.  369.) 
Mix  very  gradually,  and  rub  together  in  a  mortar, 
an  ounce  of  flour  of  Mustard,  with  three  tablespoonsful 
of  Milk,  (cream  is  better),  half  a  teaspoonful  of  Salt, 
and  the  same  of  sugar,  rub  them  well  together  till  quite 
smooth. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  339 

Obs.  —  Mustard  made  in  this  manner,  is  not  at  all 
bitter,  and  is  therefore  instantly  ready  for  the  table. 

N.B.  It  has  been  said  that  Flour  of  Mustard  is 
sometimes  adulterated  with  common  flour,  &c.  &c. 

The  Mustard  sold  at  Apothecaries'  Hall,  is 
excellent,  where  may  also  be  had  all  sorts  of  Peppers, 
Spices,  &c.  of  the  best  quality,  and  very  finely  pow- 
dered. 

Mustard.  —  (No.  370.) 

Mix  (by  deg^rees,  by  rubbing  together  in  a  mortar) 
the  best  Durham  flour  of  Mustard,  with  cold  water,  in 
which  scraped  Horseradish  has  been  boiled,  )-ub  it  ivcll 
togtther  till  it  is  perftctl]/  smooth  ;  it  will  keep  in  a  stone 
jar  closely  stopped,  for  a  fortnight;  —  only  put  as  much 
into  the  Mustard  pot  as  will  be  used  in  a  day  or  two. 

The  Ready  made  Mustard,  prepared  at  the  oil 
shops,  is  mixed  with  about  one-fourth  part  salt:  this  is 
done  to  preserve  it,  if  it  is  to  be  kept  long  ;  otherwise, 
by  all  means  omit  it.  —  The  best  way  of  eating  Salt,  is 
in  substance. 

***  See  also  Recipe  (No.  427.) 

Obs.  —  We  believe  Mustard  is  the  best  of  all  the 
stimulants  that  are  employed  to  give  energy  to  the 
Digestive  OTgans.  —  Some  opulent  Epicures  mix  it 
with  Sherry  or  Madeira  wine,  or  distilled,  or  flavoured 
Vinegar,  instead  of  Horseradish  water. 

The  French  flavour  their  Mustard  with  Champ?jgne 
and  other  \yines,  —  or  with  Vinegar  flavoured  with 
Capers,  —  Anchovies,  —  Tarragon,  —  Elder,  —  Basil, 

—  Burnet,  —  Garlick,  —  Shallot,  —  or  Celery,  —  see 
(No,  395  to  No.  402);  warming  it  with  Cayenne,  or 
the  various  Spices;  —  Sweet,  —  Savoury, —  fine  Herbs, 

—  Truffles,  —  Catsups, — &c.  &c.  and  seem  to  con- 
sider Mustard,  merely  as  a  vehicle  of  flavours. 

N.B.  In  Moxs.  Maille  et  Aclocque's  catalogue 
of  Persian  "  Bon$  Bons,"  there  is  a  list  of  28  differently 
flavoured  Mustards. 

q2 


/ 


340  GRAVIES   AND    SAUCES. 

Salt. —  (No.  371.) 

Is  (**  aliurum  condimcntorum  Co//r/iw<'«///w/' as  Plutarch 
calls  it),  Sauce  for  Sauce. 

Common  Salt,  is  more  relishing:  than  Basket  Salt;  — it 
should  be  prepared  for  the  Table,  by  drj-ing  it  in  a 
Dutch  oven  before  the  fire ;  then  put  it  on  a  clean 
paper,  and  roll  it  with  a  rolling  pin  ;  —  if  you  pound  it 
in  a  Mortar  till  it  is  quite  fine,  it  will  look  as  uell  as 
Basket  Salt.  Malden  Salt  is  still  more  piquantej  — 
this  is  sold  at  Lambert's  Oil-sliop,  Ludgate  Hil. 
•^*   Select  for  table  use  the  Lumps  of  Salt . 

Ohs.  —  Your  Salt  Box  must  have  a  close  cover,  and 
be  kept  in  a  dry  place. 

Salad  Mixture. —  (No.   372.)     See.  also  (No.  1  38*) 
and  (No.  453.) 

Endeavour  to  have  vour  Salad  Herbs  as  fresh  as  pos- 
sible :  if  you  susjjcct  they  are  not  "  mornino^  gathered," 
they  will  be  much  refreshed  by  lying  an  hour  or  two  in 
spring  water;  tlun  carefully  wash  and  pick  tiiem,  and 
trim  ofi'all  tlie  worm  eaten,  slimy,  cankered,  dry  leaves, 
and  after  washing,  let  them  remain  a  while  in  the  cul- 
lender to  drain  ;  lastly,  swing  them  gently  in  a  clean 
coarse  napkin; — when  properly  picked  and  cut,  arrange 
them  in  the  Salad  Dish, —mix  the  Sauce  in  a  Soup 
plate,  and  jnit  it  into  an  Inirrcdient  Bottle*,  or  pour 
it  down  the  side  of  the  Salad  Dish,  —  and  don't  stir  it 
up  till  the  mouths  are  ready  for  it. 

If  the  Herbs  be  young, —  fresh  gathered,  —  trimmed 

neatly,  and  drained  dry,— and  the  Sauce  maker  ponders 

patiently    over  the   following   directions,  —  he   cannot 

gfail  obtaining  the  fame  of  being  a  very  accomplished 

Salad-dresser. 


•  These  are  sold  at  (he  Glass  shops,  under  the  name  of  Incorporator*, — 
we  recommend  the  sauce  to  be  mixed  in  these,  and  the  Company  can  then 
take  it,  or  leave  it,  as  they  like. 


GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES.  341 

Boil  a  couple  of  Eggs  for  twelve  minutes,  and  put 
them  in  a  basin  of  cold  water  for  a  few  minutes,  —  the 
Yolks  must  be  quite  cold  and  hard,  or  they  xvill  not  incor- 
porate with  the  ingredients.  Rub  them  through  a  sieve 
with  a  wooden  spoon,  and  mix  them  with  a  tablespoonful 
of  Water,  or  fine  double  Cream,  then  add  two  table- 
spoonsful  of  Oil  or  melted  Butter ;  when  these  are  well 
mixed,  add  by  degrees,  a  teaspoonful  of  Salt,  or 
powdered  lump  Sugar,  and  the  same  of  made  Mustard ; 
when  these  are  smoothly  united,  add  very  gradually 
three  tablespoonsful  of  Vinegar,  rub  it  with  the  other 
ingredients  till  thoroughly  incorporated  with  them ; 
cut  up  the  white  of  the  egg,  and  garnish  the  top  of  the 
salad  with  it.  Let  the  Sauce  remain  at  the  bottom  of 
the  Bowl,  and  do  not  stir  up  the  Salad  till  it  is  to  be 
eaten ;  —  we  recommend  the  eaters  to  be  mindful  of 
the  duty  of  mastication, — without  the  due  performance 
of  which,  all  undressed  Vegetables  are  troublesome 
company  for  the  principal  viscera,  and  some  are  even 
dangerously  indigestible. 

Boiled  Salad. 

This  is  best  compounded  of  boiled  or  baked  Onions, 
(if  Portugal  the  better),  some  baked  Beet  root.  Cauli- 
flower or  Brocoli,  and  boileo  Celery  and  French  Beans, 
or  any  of  these  articles,  with  the  common  Salad  dressing; 
added  to  this,  to  give  it  an  enticing  appearance,  and  to 
give  some  of  the  crispness  and  freshness  so  pleasant 
in  salad,  a  small  quantity  of  raw  Endive,  or  Lettice  and 
Chervil,  or  Burnet,  strewed  on  the  top :  this  is  by  far 
more  wholesome  than  the  Raw  Salad,  and  is  much 
eaten  when  put  on  the  table. 

N.B.  The  above  Sauce  is  equally  good  with  cold 
Meat,  —  cold  Fish,  —  or  for  Cucumbers,  —  Celery,  — 
Radishes,  &c,,  (and  all  the  other  Vegetables  that  are 
sent  to  table  undressed) ;  to  the  above,  a  little  minced 
Onion  is  generally  an  acceptable  addition. 

0Z)4^.  — Salad   is   a  very  compound  dish   with  our 


342  GRAVIES    AND    SAUCES. 

neighbours  the  Frencli,  who  always  add  to  the  mixture 
above,  Black  Pepper,  and  sometimes  Savoury  Spice. 

The  Italians  mince  the  white  meat  of  Chickens  into 
this  sauce. 

The  Dutch,  cold  boiled  Turbot,  or  Lobster;  or  add 
to  it  a  spoonful  of  g'ratod  Parmesan  or  old  Cheshire 
cheese,  or  mince  very  fine  a  little  Tarragon, — or  Chervil, 
— Burnet,  —  or  young  Onion,  —  Celery,  —  or  pickled 
Gherkins,  &c. 

Joan  Cromwell's  Grand  Salad  was  composed  of 
equal  parts  of  Almonds,  Raisins,  Capers,  Pickled 
Cucumbers,  Shrimps,  and  Boiled  Turnips. 

'Ihis  mixture  is  sometimes  made  with  cream,  oiled 
butter,  see  (No.  260*),  or  some  good  Jelly  of  meat, 
(which  many  prefer  to  the  finest  Florence  oil),  and 
riavoured  wi'lh  Salad  IMixturc  (No.  453),  Basil  (No. 
397),  or  Cress  or  Celery  Vinegar  (No.  397*),  Horse- 
radish Vinegar  (No.  399*),  Cucumber  Vinegar  (No. 
399),  Tarragon,  or  Elder  Vinegar ;  essence  of  Celery 
(No.  409),  Walnut  or  Lemon  Pickle,  or  a  slice  of 
Lemon  cut  into  dice,  essence  of  Anchovy  (No.   433.) 

FORCEMEAT  STUFFINGS. —(No.  373.) 

Forcemeat  is  now  considered  an  indispensable  ac- 
companiment to  most  Made  Dishes,  and  when  composed 
with  good  taste,  gives  additional  spirit  and  relish  to 
even  that  ''■  Sovereign  of  Savouriness,"  Turtle  Soup. 

It  is  also  sent  up  in  Patties,  and  for  stuffing  of  Veal, 
Game,  Poultry,  &c. 

The  ingredients  should  be  so  proportioned,  that  no 
one  flavour  predominates  ;  —  instead  of  giving  the  same 
stuffing  for  Veal,  HarC;  &c.,  with  a  little  contrivance, 
you  may  make  as  great  a  variety  as  you  have  Dishes. 

I  have  given  Receipts  for  some  of  the  most  favourite 
compositions,  and  a  Table  of  Materials,  a  glance  at 
which  will  enable  the  ingenious  Cook  to  make  an 
infinite  variety  of  combinations :  the  first  column  con- 
taining the  spirit,  the  second  the  substance  of  them. 


tJRAVIES   AND  SAUCES.  343 

The  poignancy  of  Forceineat  should  be  proportioned 
to  the  savouriness  of  the  viands,  to  which  it  is  intended 
to  give  an  additional  Zest.  Some  dishes  require  a  very 
delicately  flavoured  forcemeat,  —  for  others,  it  must  be 
full  and  high  seasoned.  What  would  be  piquante  in  a 
Turkey,  —  w^ould  be  insipid  with  Turtle. 

Tastes  are  so  different,  —  and  the  praise  the  Cook 
receives,  will  depend  so  much  on  her  pleasing  the  palate 
of  those  she  works  for,  that  all  her  sagacity  must  be 
on  the  alert,  to  produce  the  flavours  to  which  her 
employers  are  partial.     See  pages  59  and  60. 

Most  people  have  an  acquired,  and  peculiar  taste  in 
stuffings,  &c.,  and  what  exactly  pleases  one,  seldom 
is  precisely  what  another  considers  the  most  agreeable : 
and  after  all  the  contrivance  of  a  pains-taking  pala- 
tician,  to  combine  her  "  htuf  gouts''  in  the  most  har- 
monious proportions, 

*'  The  very  dish  one  likes  Ihe  best, 
Is  acid,  or  insipid,  to  the  rest." 

Custom  is  all  in  all,  in  matters  of  Taste, — it  is  not 
that  one  person  is  naturally  fond  of  this  or  that,  and 
another  naturally  averse  to  it, — but  that  one  is  used 
to  it,  and  another  is  not. 

The  consistency  of  Forcemeats  is  rather  a  difficult 
thing  to  manage;  they  are  almost  always  either  too 
light  or  too  heavy. 

Take  c^re  to  pound  it  till  perfect ly  smooth,  and  that  alt 
the  ingredients  are  thoroughly  incorporated. 

Forcemeat  balls  must  not  be  larger  than  a  small 
nutmeg,  —  if  they  are  for  Broun  Sauce,  flour  them  and 
fry  them ;  —  if  for  Tfliite,  put  them  into  boiling  water, 
and  boil  them  for  three  minutes  ;  the  latter  are  by  far 
the  most  delicate. 

N.B.  If  not  of  sufficient  stiffness,  it  falls  to  pieces, 
and  makes  Soup,  &c.  grouty  and  very  unsightly. 

Sweetbreads  and  Toxgues  are  the  favourite  ma- 
terials for  forcemeat. 


344 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 


Materials  used  for  Forcemeat,  Stuffings,  &c. 


1-  ^r 


-=  ^ 


a 


SubstaT%ces. 
rionr. 

Crumbs  of  Bread. 
Parsley.     See  K.B.  to  (No.  «6l.) 
Spinach. 
Boiled  Onion. 

Mashed  I'otatoes  (No.  106.) 
Yolks  of  hard  Eggs  (No.  574} 
Motion. 
Beef. 

Veal  Suet*,  or  Marrow. 
Cairs  Udder,  or  Brains. 
Parboiled  Swkktbrkau. 
Veal  minccii  and  pounded,  and 
Potted  Meats,  &c.  (No.  503.) 


Spirit. 
Common  Thyme.        "~\ 
Lemon  Thyme.  ' 

Orange  Thyme. 
Sweet  Marjoram. 
Summer  and 
Winter  Savory. 
Sage. 

Tarragon  (No.  390.) 
Chervil. 

Burnet  (No.  399.) 
Basil  (No.  397.) 
Bay-leaf. 
Trnffle*  and 
Morells. 

Mushroom  Powder  (No.  439.) 
Leeks. 
Onions. 

Fjhallot  (No.  40?.) 
Gariick. 

Ixmon  Peel,  see  (Nos.  407  and  4O8.) 
Shrimps  (No.  175.) 
Prawns. 
Crabs. 

Lobsters  (Nos,  176  aD<l  17«.) 
Oysters. 

Anchovy  (No.  433.) 
Dressed    Tonouk.       See    N.  B.    to 

(No.  373.) 
Ham. 
Bacou. 

Black  or  White  Pepper. 
Allspice. 
Mace. 
Cinnamon. 
Ginger. 
Nutmegs. 
Cloves. 
Capers    and     Pickles,    (minced     or 

pounded.; 
Savoury  Powder  (No.  465.) 
Soup  Herb  I'owder  (No.  -iOj.) 
Curry  Powder  (No.  455.) 
Cayenne  (No.  404.) 
Zeit  (No.  253.) 

For  Liquids,  you  have  Meat  Gravy,  Lemon  Juice, 
Syrup  of  Lemons  (Nos.  391  and  477),  Essence  of  An- 
chovy, see  (No.  433),  the  various  Vegetable  Essences, 
see  (No.  407),  and  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439),  and 
the  whites  and  yolks  of  E^rgs,  —  Wines,  —  and  the 
Essence  of  Spices. 

»  If  you  have  no  Suet,  —  the  best  substitute  for  it  is  abont  one-third  part 
the  quantity  of  Butter. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  345 

Stuffing  for  Veal,  Roast  Turkey,  Fowl,  ^-c  — (No.  374.) 

Mince  a  quarter  of  a  pound  of  Beef  Suet,  (Beef 
Marrow  is  better^,  the  same  weight  of  Bread  Crumbs, 
two  drachms  of  Parsley  leaves,  a  drachm  and  a  half  of 
sweet  Marjoram  (or  Lemon-thyme),  and  the  same  of 
grated  Lemon-peel,  and  Onion  or  Eshallot,  chopped 
as  fine  as  possible,  a  little  grated  Nutmeg,  Pepper,  and 
Salt:  —  pound  thoroughly  together  with  the  yolk  and 
white  of  two  Eggs,  and  secure  it  in  the  Veal  with  a 
skewer,  or  sew  it  in  with  a  bit  of  thread. 

Make  some  of  it  into  Balls  or  Sausages,  flour  them, 
and  boil,  or  fry  them,  and  send  them  up  as  a  garnish, 
or  in  a  side  dish,  with  roast  Poultry,  Veal,  or  Cutlets, 
&c. 

N.  B.  This  is  about  the  quantity  for  a  Turkey 
PouLT  ;  a  very  large  Turkey  will  take  nearly  twice  as 
much.  To  the  above  may  be  added  an  ounce  of 
dressed  Ham,  —  or  use  equal  parts  of  the  above  Stuff- 
ing, and  Pork  Sausage  Meat  (No.  87),  pounded  icell 
together. 

Obs.  —  Good  Stuffing  has  always  been  considered  a 
chef-d'oeuvre  in  Cookery;    it  has  given  immortality  to 

"  Poor  Roger  Fowler,  who'd  a  g-eiierous  mind, 
Jior  would  submit  to  have  his  hand  confin'd. 
But  aimed  at  all, — yet  never  could  excel 
In  any  thing  bat  stuffing  of  his  Veal." 

King's  Art  of  Cookery,  p.  lis. 

Veal  Forcemeat.  —  (No.  375.) 

Of  undressed  lean  Veal,  (after  you  have  scraped  it 
quite  fine,  and  free  from  skin  and  sinews),  two  ounces, 
the  same  quantity  of  (Beef  or  Veal)  Suet,  and  the  same 
of  Bread  Crumbs,  chop  fine  two  drachms  of  Parsley, 
one  of  Lemon-peel,  one  of  Sweet  Herbs,  one  of  Onion, 
and  half  a  drachm  of  Mace,  or  Allspice,  (beaten  to  fine 
powder);  pound  all  together  in  a  mortar,  break  into  it 
the  yolk  and  white  of  an  Egg ;  —  rub  it  all  up  well 
together,  and  season  it  with  a  little  pepper  and  salt. 


346  GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES. 

Obs.  —  This  may  be  made  more  savoury,  by  the 
addition  of  cold  boiled  pickled  Tongue,  Anchovy, 
Eshallot,  Cayenne,  or  Curry  powder,  &c. 

^^('iffingfor  Boiled  Turkei/. —  (So.  377.) 

Take  the  foregoing  composition  for  the  Roast  Turkey, 
—  or  add  the  soft  part  of  a  dozen  Oysters  to  it,  —  an 
Anchovy,  —  or  a  little  grated  Ham,  or  Tongue,  if  you 
like  it,  is  still  more  relishing. 

Purk  Sausage  Men th  sometimes  used  to  stuft'Turkeys, 
and  Fowls,  —  or  fried  and  sent  up  as  a  Garnish. 

Goose  or  Duck  S/iilIing. —  {So.  378.) 

Chop  very  fine  about  two  ounces  of  Onion,  —  of 
green  Sage  leaves  about  an  ounce,  (both  unboiled), 
four  ounces  of  Bread  Crumbs,  the  yolk  and  wl)ite  of 
an  Egg,  and  a  little  pepper  and  salt  ;  some  add  to 
this  a  minced  Apple. 

For  another,  sec  Roasted  Guose  and  Duck  (Xos.  59 
and  61),  which  latter  we  like  as  Forcemeat  Brills  for 
Mock  Turtle ;  then  add  a  little  Lemon-peel,  and  warm 
it  with  Cayenne. 

Stuffing  for  Hare.- (So.  379.) 

Two  ounces  of  Beef  Suet  chopped  fine,  —  three 
ounces  of  fine  Bread  Crumbs, —  Parsley,  a  drachm, 
Shallot,  half  a  drachm,  —  a  drachm  of  Marjoram,  Le- 
mon-Thyme, or  Winter  Savory,  —  a  drachm  of  grated 
Lemon-peel,  —  half  a  drachm  of  Nutmeg,  —  and  the 
same  of  Pepper  and  Salt;  —  mix  these  with  the  white 
and  yolk  of  an  Egg, — do  not  make  it  thin, — it 
must  be  of  cohesive  consistence,  —  if  your  Stuffing  is 
not  stift' enough,  it  will  be  good  for  nothing,  —  put  it 
in  the  hare,  and  sew  it  up. 

*,*  If  the  Liver  is  quite  sound,  you  may  parboil  it, 
and  mince  it  leryfne,  and  add  it  to  the  above. 


GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES.  347 

Forcemeat  Balls  for  Turtle,  Mock  Turtle,  or  Made' 

Dis/ies.—(No.  380.)  See  also  (No.  375.) 
Pound  some  Veal  in  a  marble  mortar,  rub  it  through 
a  sieve  with  as  much  of  the  udder  as  you  have  Veai, 
or  about  a  third  the  quantity  of  Butter ;  —  put  some 
Bread-crumbs  into  a  stewpan,  moisten  them  with  milk, 
add  a  little  chopped  Parsley  and  Shallot,  rub  them 
well  together  in  a  mortar,  till  they  form  a  smooth 
paste;  put  it  through  a  sieve,  and  when  cold,  pound, 
and  mix  all  together,  with  the  yolks  of  three  Eggs 
boiled  hard  ;  season  it  v;ith  salt,  pepper,  and  Curry 
powder,  or  Cayenne,  add  to  it  the  yolks  of  two  raw 
Eggs,  rub  it  well  together,  and  make  small  balls  :  ten 
minutes  before  your  Soup  is  ready,  put  them  in. 

Egg  Balls.  — (t^o.  381.) 

Boil  four  Eggs  for  ten  minutes,  and  put  them  into 
cold  water,  —  when  they  are  quite  cold,  put  the  yolks 
into  a  mortar  with  the  yolk  of  a  raw  eg^,  a  teaspoonfiil 
of  flour,  same  of  chopped  parsley,  as  much  salt  as  will 
lie  on  a  shilling,  and  a  little  black  pepper,  or  Cayenne, 
rub  them  well  together,  roll  them  into  small  Balls,  (as 
they  swell  in  boiling),  —  boil  them  a  couple  of  minutes. 

Brain  Balls. 

See  (No.  247),  or  beat  up  the  brains  of  a  Calf  in  the 
way  we  have  above  directed  the  Egg. 

Curri^  Balls,  for  Mock  Turtle,  Veal,  Poultry,  Made 
Dishes,  (^c  — (No.  382.) 

Are  made  with  Bread-crumbs,  the  yolk  of  an  Egg 
boiled  hard,  and  a  bit  of  fresh  Butter  about  half  as  big, 
beaten  together  in  a  mortar,  and  seasoned  with  Curry 
powder,  see  (No.  455) ;  make  and  prepare  small  Balls, 
as  directed  in  (No.  381.) 

Fish  Forcemeat.— (No.  383.) 

Take   two  ounces   of  either  Turbot,   Sole,   Lobster, 


348  GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 

Shrimps,  or  Oysters,  free  from  skin,  put  it  in  a  mortar, 
with  two  ounces  of  fresh  Butter,  one  ounce  of  Bread 
crumbs,  the  yolk  of  two  Eggs  boiled  hard,  and  a 
little  Eshallot,  grated  Lemon-peel,  and  Parsley,  minced 
very  fine  ;  then  pound  it  well  till  it  is  thoroughly  mixed 
and  quite  smooth  ;  season  it  with  salt  and  Cayenne  to 
your  taste,  break  in  the  yolk  and  white  of  one  Egg,  rub 
it  well  together,  and  it  is  ready  for  use.  Oysters  par- 
boiled and  minced  fine,  and  an  Anchovij,  may  be  added. 

Zest  Balls.  —  (No.  386.)  —  See  (No.  25.5.) 
Prepared  in  the  same  way  as  (No.  381.) 

Orange  or  Lemon  Peel,  to  mix  with  Stuffing. — (No.  387.) 

Peel  a  Seville  Orange,  or  Lemon,  very  thin,  taking 
off  only  the  fine  i/clluie  rind,  (without  any  of  the  white,) 
pound  it  in  a  mortar  with  a  bit  of  lump  sugar,  rub  it 
well  with  the  peel,  —  by  degrees  add  a  little  of  the 
forcemeat  it  is  to  be  mixed  witli ;  when  it  is  well 
ground  and  blended  with  this,  mix  it  with  the  whole  : 
there  is  no  other  way  of  incorporating  it  so  well. 

Forcemeats,  &c.  are  frequently  spoiled  by  the  insuf- 
ficient mixing  of  the  ingredients. 

Clouted  or  Clotted  Cream.  ~{^o.  388.) 

The  milk  which  is  put  into  the  pans  one  morning 
stands  till  the  next;  then  set  the  pan  on  a  hot  hearth, 
(or  in  a  Copper  Tray*,  half  full  of  water, — put  this 
over  a  stove);  in  from  ten  to  twenty  minutes,  according 
to  the  quantity  of  the  milk  and  the  size  of  the  pan,  it 
will  be  enoug-h,  —  the  sign  of  w^hich  is,  that  bladders 
rise  on  its  surface;  this  denotes  that  it  is  near  boiling, 
which  it  must  by  no  means  do;  and  it  must  be  in- 
stantly removed  from  the  fire,  and  placed  in  the  dairy 
till  the  next  morning,  when  the  fine  cream  is  thrown 

•  A  Bain-marie.    See  Note  to  (No,  485.) 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  349 

Up,  and  is  ready  for  the  table,  or  for  Butter,  into  which 
it  is  soon  converted  by  stirring  it  with  the  hand. 
N.B.  This  Receipt  we  have  not  proved. 

Raspberry  Finegar.  —  (No.  390.) 
The  best  way  to  make  this,  is  to  pour  three  pints  of 
the  best  white  wine  Vinegar  on  a  pint  and  a  half 
of  fresh- gathered  Red  Raspberries  in  a  stone  Jar,  or 
China  bowl,  (neither  glazed  earthe7iware,  Jior  any  metaUic 
vessel,  mmt  be  used ;)  the  next  day  strain  the  liquor  over 
a  like  quantity  of  /resh  Raspberries ;  and  the  day  fol- 
lowing do  the  same.  Then  drain  off  the  liquor  without 
pressing,  and  pass  it  through  a  Jelly  Bag  (previously 
wetted  with  plain  Vinegar)  into  a  stone  Jar,  with  a 
pound  of  pounded  lump  Sugar  to  each  pint.  When 
the  Sugar  is  dissolved,  stir  it  up,  cover  down  the  Jar, 
and  set  it  in  a  saucepan  of  water,  and  keep  it  boiling 
for  an  hour,  taking  off  the  scum ;  add  to  each  pint  a 
glass  of  Brandy,  and  bottle  it :  mixed  in  about  eight 
parts  of  water,  it  is  a  very  refreshing  and  delightful 
Summer  drink.  An  excellent  cooling  beverage  to  as- 
suage thirst  in  ardent  fevers,  colds,  and  inflammatory 
complaints,  &c.,  and  is  agreeable  to  most  palates. 
See  (No.  479*.) 
N.B.  We  have  not  proved  this  Receipt. 

Syrup  of  Lemons.  —  (No.  391.) 

The  best  Season  for  Lemons,  is  from  November  to 
March.  —  Put  a  pint  of  fresh  Lemon  juice  to  a  pound 
and  three  quarters  of  Lump  Sugar;  dissolve  it  by  a 
gentle  heat,  scum  it  till  the  surface  is  quite  clear^  — 
add  an  ounce  of  thin  cut  Lemon  Peel ;  let  them  simmer 
(very  gently)  together  for  a  few  minutes,  and  run 
it  through  a  flannel.  Vfheii  cold,  bottle  and  cork 
it  closely,  and  keep  it  in  a  cool  place. 

Or, 
Dissolve  a  quarter  of  an    ounce  (Avoirdupois)    of 


350  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

Citric,  i.e.  crystallized  Lemon-acid,  in  a  pint  of 
Clarified  Syrup  (No.  475),  flavour  it  with  the  Peel, 
with  (No.  408),  or  dissolve  the  acid  in  equal  parts  of 
Simple  Syrup  (No.  475),  and  Syrup  of  Lemon  Peel, 
made  as  (No.  393.) 

T/ie  Justice's  Orange  Si/nip,  for  'Punch  ur  Puddi/ips, 
(No.  392.) 

Squeeze  the  Oranc:es,  and  strain  the  juice  from  the 
pulp  into  a  large  pot:  boil  it  up  with  a  pound  and  a 
half  of  fine  Sugar  to  each  pint  of  juice  ;  skim  it  well, 
let  it  stand  till  cold,  and  then  bottle  it,  and  cork  it  well. 

Ohs.  —  This  makes  a  fine,  soft,  mellow-flavoured 
Punch ;  and,  added  to  melted  butter,  is  a  good  relisli 
to  Puddings. 

Si/rup  of  Orange  or  Lemon  Peel.  —  (No.  393.) 
Of  fresh  outer  rind  of  Seville  orange  or  Lemon-peel, 
three  ounces,  apothecaries'  weight ;  boiling  water,  a  pint 
and  a  half;  infuse  them  for  a  night  in  a  close  vessel  ; 
then  strain  tiie  liquor;  let  it  stand  to  settle;  and  hav- 
ing poured  it  ofl' clear  from  the  sediment,  dissolve  in  it 
two  pounds  of  double  refined  loaf  sugar,  and  make  it 
into  a  syrup  with  a  gentle  heat. 

Ohs. — In  making  this  syrup,  if  the  sugar  be  dis- 
solved in  the  infusion  with  as  gentle  a  heat  as  possible, 
to  prevent  the  exhalation  of  the  volatile  parts  of  the  Peel, 
this  syrup  will  possess  a  great  share  of  the  fine  fla- 
vour of  the  orange,  or  lemon-peel. 

Vinegar  for  Salads  —  (No.  395.) 
Take  of  Tarragon,  —  Savory,  —  Chives,  —  Eshallots, 
three  ounces  each,  —  a  handful  of  the  tops  of  Mint  and 
Balm, — all  dry  and  pounded  ;  put  into  a  wide-mouthed 
Bottle,  with  a  gallon  of  best  Vinegar ;  cork  it  close, 
set  it  in  the  Sun,  and  in  a  fortnight  strain  oft",  and 
squeeze  the  herbs,  let  it  stand  a  day  to  settle,  and 
then  strain  it  through  a  filtering  Bag. — Frotn  Parmex- 
tier's  rjrt  de  Faircles  Vinaigres,  8vo.  1805,  p.  205. 


GRAVIES   AND  SAUCES.  351 

Tarragon  Vinegar.  —  (No.  396.) 

This  is  a  very  agreeable  addition  to  Soups,  Salad 
Sauce  (No.  455),  and  to  mix  Mustard  (No.  370.)  Fill 
a  wide-mouthed  bottle  with  fresh-gathered  Tarragon 
leaves,  i.  e.  between  Midsummer  and  Michaelmas, 
(which  should  be  gathered  on  a  dry  day,  just  before 
it  flowers,)  and  pick  the  leaves  off  the  stalks,  and 
dry  them  a  little  before  the  fire;  cover  them  with  the 
best  Vinegar,  let  them  steep  fourteen  days,  then  strain 
through  a  flannel  Jelly  Bag  till  it  is  fine,  then  pour 
it  into  half-pint  bottles;  cork  them  carefully,  and 
keep  them  in  a  dry  place. 

Obs.  —  You  may  prepare  Elder-fiowers  and  Herbs  in 
the  same  manner ;  Elder  and  Tarragon  are  those  in 
most  general  use  in  this  country. 

Our  neighbours,  the  French,  prepare  Vinegars  fla- 
voured with  Celery, — Cucumbers, — Capsicums, — Gar- 
lick, —  Eshallot,  —  Onion, — Capers, — Chervil, — Cress- 
seed,  —  Burnet,  — Truffles,  —  Seville  Orange  Peel,  — 
Ginger,  &c. ;  in  short,  they  impregnate  them  with 
almost  every  Herb, — Fruit,  —  Flower,  —  and  Spice 
separa,tely,  and  in  innumerable  combinations. 

Messrs.  Maille  et  Acloque,  Vinaigriers  a  Paris,  sell 
65  sorts  of  variously  flavoured  Vixegars,  and  28  dif- 
ferent sorts  of  Mustard. 

Basil  Vinegar  or  JVine.  —  Q^o.  397.) 

Sweet  Basil  is  in  full  perfection  about  the  middle  of 
August.  Fill  a  wide-m.outhed  bottle  with  the  fresh 
green  leaves  of  Basil,  (these  give  much  finer  and  more 
flavour  than  the  dried,)  and  cover  them  with  Vinegar — 
or  Wine,  — and  let  them  steep  for  ten  days  ;  if  you  wish 
a  very  strong  Essence,  strain  the  liquor,  put  it  on  some 
fresh  leaves,  and  let  them  steep  fourteen  days  more. 

Obs. — This  is  a  very  agreeable  addition  to  Sauces, — 
'^oups, — and  to  the  mixture  usually  made  for  Salads, 
see  (No.  372),  and  (No.  453.) 


352  GRAVIES  AND  SAtCES. 

It  is  a  secret  the  makers  of  Mock  Turtle  may 
thank  us  for  telling;  a  tablespoonful  put  in  when  the 
Soup  is  finished,  will  impregnate  a  tureen  of  soup,  with 
the  Basil,  and  Acid  flavours,  at  very  small  cost,  when 
fresh  Basil  and  Lemons  are  extravag-antly  dear. 

The  flavour  of  the  other  Sweet,  and  Savoury 
Herbs, — Celery,  &c.  may  be  procured,  and  pre- 
served in  the  same  manner.  See  (No.  409),  or  (No. 
417),  by  infusing  them  in  wine  — or  vinegar. 

Cress  Vinegar.— {"So.  397*.) 

Dry  and  and  pound  half  an  ounce  of  Cress  Seed,  (such 
as  is  sown  in  the  garden  with  Mustard,)  pour  upon  it  a 
quart  of  the  best  Vinegar,  let  it  steep  ten  days,  shaking 
it  up  every  day. 

Obs. — This  is  very  strongly  flavoured  with  Cress, — 
and  for  Salads,  and  Cold  Meats,  &c.  it  is  a  great 
favourite  with  many;  —  the  Quart  of  Sauce  costs  only  a 
Half-penny  more  than  the  Vinegar. 

Celery  Vinegar  is  made  in  the  same  manner. 

The  Crystal  Vinegar  (No.  407*),  which  is,  we  be- 
lieve, the  Pyruligneons  Acid,  is  the  best  for  receiving 
flavours, — having  scarcely  any  of  its  own. 

Green  Mint  Vinegar, — (No.  398.) 

Is  made  precisely  in  the  same  manner,  and  w^th  the 
same  proportions,  as  in  (No.  397.) 

Obs. — In  the  early  season  of  Housed-Lamb,  Green 
Mint  is  sometimes  not  to  be  got;  the  above  is  then  a 
welcome  substitute. 

Burnet  or  Cucumber  Vinegar. — (No.  399.) 

This  is  made  in  precisely  the  same  manner  as  di- 
rected in  (No.  397.)  The  flavour  of  Burnet  resembles 
Cucumber  so  exactly,  that  when  infused  in  Vinegar, 
the  nicest  palate  would  pronounce  it  to  be  Cucumber. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  353 

Obs. — This  is  a  very  favourite  relish  with  Cold  Meat, 
Salads,  &c. 

Burnet  is  in  best  season  from  Midsummer  to  Mi- 
chaelmas. 

Horseradish  Vinegar.  —  ^No.  399*.) 

Horseradish  is  in  highest  perfection  about  Novem- 
ber. 

Pour  a  quart  of  best  Vinegar  on  three  ounces  of 
scraped  Horseradish,  an  ounce  of  minced  Eshallot,  and 
one  drachm  of  Cayenne ;  let  it  stand  a  week,  and 
you  will  have  an  excellent  relish  for  Cold  Beef,  Salads, 
&c.  costing  scarcely  any  thing. 

N.  B.  A  portion  of  Black  Pepper  and  Mustard, 
Celery  or  Cress-seed,  may  be  added  to  the  above. 

Obs. — Horseradish  Powder  (No.  458.*) 

Garlick  Vinegar. — (No.  400.) 

Garlick  is  ready  for  this  purpose  from  Midsummer 
to  Michaelmas. 

Peel  and  chop  two  ounces  of  Garlick,  pour  on  them 
a  quart  of  white-wine  Vinegar,  stop  the  jar  close,  and 
let  it  steep  ten  days,  shaking  it  well  every  day ;  then 
pour  off  the  clear  liquor  into  small  bottles. 

Obs.  —  The  Cook  must  be  careful  not  to  use  too 
much  of  this:  —  a  few  drops  of  it  will  give  a  pint  of 
Gravy  a  sufficient  smack  of  the  Garlick:  the  flavour  of 
which,  when  shght,  and  well  blended,  is  one  of  the 
finest  we  have ; — when  used  in  excess,  it  is  the  most 
offensive. 

The  best  way  to  use  Garlick,  is  to  send  up  some  of 
this  Vinegar  in  a  Cruet,  and  let  the  company  flavour 
their  own  Sauce  as  they  like. 

N.  B.  The  most  elegant  preparation  of  the  Onion 
Tribe,  is  the  Eshallot  Wine,  (No.  402.) 

Eshallot  Vinegar— (No.  401.) 
Is  made  in  the  same  manner,  and  the  Cook  should 


354  GRAVIES  Al^D   SAUCES. 

never  be  without  one  of  these  useful  auxiharics  ;  they 
cost  scarcely  any  thing  but  the  little  trouble  of  makhig, 
— and  will  save  a  great  deal  of  trouble  in  flavouring- 
Soups  and  Sauces  with  a  taste  of  Onion. 

N.B.  Eshallots  are  in  high  perfection  during  July, 
August,  and  September. 

EsiiALLOT  Wine.  —  (No.  402.) 

Peel,  mince,  and  pound  in  a  mortar,  three  ounces  of 
Eshallots,  and  infuse  them  in  a  pint  of  Sherry  for  ten 
•days, — then  pour  off  the  clear  liquor  on  three  ounces 
tnore  Shallots,  and  let  the  wine  stand  on  them  ten  days 
longer. 

Obs. —  This  is  rather  the  most  expensive,  but  itiji- 
nitelj/  the  vwst  elegant  preparation  of  Esii allot,  and 
imparts  the  Onion  flavour  to  Soups  and  Sauces,  for 
Chops,  Steaks,  or  boiled  Meats,  Hashes,  &c.  more 
agreeably  than  any :  it  does  not  leave  any  unpleasant 
taste  in  the  mouth,  or  to  the  breath,  nor  repeat,  as 
almost  all  the  other  preparations  of  Garlick,  Onion*, 
&c.  do. 

N.  B.  An  ounce  of  scraped  Horseradish  may  be 
added  to  the  above,  and  a  little  thin  cut  Lemon  iPeel, 
or  a  few  drops  of  (No.  408.) 

Camp  Vinegar.  —  (No.  403.) 

Cayenne  Pepper,  one  drachm,  avoirdupois  weight. 
Soy,  two  tablespoonsful. 
"Walnut  Catsup,  four  ditto. 
Six  Anchovies  chopped. 
A  small  clove  of  Garlick,  minced  fine. 
Steep  all  for  a  month   in   a   pint   of  best   Vinegar, 
frequently  shaking  the  bottle  :  strain  through  a  tammis, 


•  "  If  Lcekcs  you  like,  but  do  their  smell  dis-leeke. 
Eat  Onyons,  and  you  shall  not  smell  the  Leeke; 
If  you  of  Onyons  would  the  scent  expell, 
Eat  Gnrlicke,  that  shall  drowne  the  Onyons'  smell." 

See  page  5[)  of  the  Philosopher's  Banquet,  l6rao.  London,  l633. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  355 

and  keep  it  in  small  bottles,  corked  as  tightly  as  pos- 
sible. 


Cayenne  Pepper.  —  (No.  404.) 

Mr.  Acciim  has  informed  the  Public,  (see  his  book 
on  Adulterations,)  that  from  some  specimens  that  came 
direct  to  him  from  India,  and  others  obtained  from 
respectable  Oil  bhops  in  London,  he  has  extracted 
Lead  ! 

"  Foreign  Cayenne  Pepper  is  an  indiscriminate  mix- 
ture of  the  powder  of  the  dried  pods  of  many  species 
of  Capsicums, — especially  of  the  Bird  Pepper,  which  is 
the  hottest  of  all.  As  it  comes  to  us  from  the  West 
Indies,  it  changes  the  infusion  of  Turnsole  to  a  beau- 
tiful Green,  probably  owing  to  the  Salt  v/hich  is 
always  added  to  it,  and  the  Red  Oxide  of  Lead,  with 
which  it  is  said  to  be  adulterated.'' — Duncan's  N'ew 
Edinburgh  Dispensatory,  1819,  Article,  Capsicum,  ip.  81. 
The  Indian  Cayenne  is  prepared  in  a  very  careless 
manner,  and  often  looks  as  if  the  pods  had  lain  till 
they  were  decayed,  before  they  were  dried ;  — this  ac- 
counts for  the  dirty  brown  appearance  it  commonly 
has.  If  properly  dried  as  soon  as  gathered,  it  will  be 
of  a  clear  red  colour :  to  give  it  the  complexion  of  that 
made  with  good  fresh-gathered  Capsicums  or  Cliilies, 
some  Arnatto,  or  other  Vegetable  Red  colouring  matter, 
is  pounded  with  it ;  this,  Mr.  A.  assures  us,  is  frequently 
adulterated  with  Indian  Red,  i.  e.  "  Red  Lead  T 

When  Cayenne  is  pounded,  it  is  mixed  with  a  con- 
siderable portion  of  Salt,  to  prevent  its  flying  up  and 
hurting  the  Eyes  :  this  might  be  avoided,  by  grinding 
it  in  a  Mill,  which  may  easily  be  made  close  enough, 
especially  if  it  be  passed  through  a  second  time,  and 
then  sifted  through  a  fine  drum-headed  sieve,  to  pro- 
duce as  fine  a  powder  as  can  be  obtained  by  pounding ; 
however,  our  English  Chilies  may  be  pounded  in  a 
deep  mortar  without  any  danger. 


356  GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 

Capsicums  and  Chilies  are  ripe  and  red,  and  in 
finest  condition  during:  September  and  October;  they 
may  be  purchased  at  the  Herb  Shops  in  Covent- 
Garden,  the  former  for  about  five,  the  latter  for  two 
shillings  per  hundred. 

The  flavour  of  the  C/iilies  is  very  superior  to  that  of 
the  Capsicums,  —  and  will  be  good  in  proportion  as 
they  are  dried  as  soon  as  possible,  taking  care  they 
are  not  burnt. 

Take  away  the  stalks,  and  put  the  pods  into  a 
Cullender;  set  it  before  the  Fire;  they  will  take  full 
twelve  hours  to  dry  ;  then  put  them  into  a  mortar, 
with  one-fourth  their  weight  of  salt,  and  pound  them 
and  rub  them  till  they  are  ///ie  as  possible,  and  put  them 
into  a  well-stop])ed  bottle. 

N.B.  We  a(ivise  those  who  arc  fond  of  Cayenne, 
not  to  think  it  too  much  trouble  to  make  it  of  English 
Chilies,  —  there  is  no  other  way  of  being  sure  it  is 
genuine,  —  and  they  will  obtain  a  pepper  of  much 
finer  flavour,  without  half  the  heat  of  the  Foreign. 

A  hundred  large  Chilies,  costing  only  Two  Sliillings, 
will  produce  you  about  two  ounces  of  Cayenne,  —  so 
it  is  as  cheap  as  the  commonest  Cayenne. 

Essence  of  Cayenne.—  (No.  405.) 

Put  half  an  ounce  of  Cayenne  Pepper  (No.  404), 
into  half  a  pint  of  Brandy,  or  Wine ;  let  it  steep  for  a 
fortnight,  and  then  pour  off  the  clear  liquor. 

This  is  nearly  equal  to  fresh  Chili  juice. 

Obs.  —  Is  extremely  convenient  for  the  eitcrnpove 
seasoning,  and  finishing  of  Soup,  Sauces,  &c.,  its^a- 
Tour  being  instantly,  and  equally  dijfused.  Cayenne 
Pepper  varies  so  much  in  strength,  that  it  is  impos- 
sible to  season  Soup  any  other  way  to  the  precise  point 
of  piquance. 

Chili  Vinegar.  — (No.  405*.) 
This  is   commonly  made    with    the    Foreign    Bird 


GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES.  357 

Pepper,  —  but  you  will  obtain  a  much  finer  flavour 
from  infusing  fifty  fresh  Red  English  Chilies  (cut  in 
half,  or  pounded,)  in  a  pint  of  the  best  Vinegar  for  a 
fortnight,  or  a  quarter  ounce  of  Cayenne  Pepper,  (No. 
404.) 

Obs.  —  Many  people  cannot  eat  Fish  without  the 
addition  of  an  Acid,  and  Cayenne  Pepper ;  to  such 
palates  this  will  be  an  agreeable  relish. 

C/ii/i,  or  Cayenne  Wine.  —  (No.  405**.) 
Pound  and  steep  fifty  fresh  Red  Chilies,  or  a  quarter 
of  an   ounce   of  Cayenne  Pepper,   in  half  a  pint  of 
Brandy,  White  Whie,  or  Claret,  for  fourteen  days, 

Obs.  —  This  is  a  "  Bonne  Bouche'  for  the  lovers  of 
Cayenne,  of  which  it  takes  up  a  larger  proportion  of 
its  flavour,  than  of  its  fire  :  which  being  instantly  dif- 
fused, it  is  a  very  useful  auxiliary  to  warm  and  finish 
Soups  and  Sauces,  &c. 

Essence  uf  Lemon  Peel.  —  (No.  407.) 
Wash  and  brush  clean  the  Lemons ;  —  let  them  get 
perfectly  dry:  — take  a  lump  of  Loaf  Sugar,  and  rub 
them  till  all  the  yellow  rind  is  taken  up  by  the  sugar; 
—  scrape  off'  the  surface  of  the  sugar  into  a  preserving 
pot,  and  press  it  hard  down ;  cover  it  very  close,  and 
it  will  keep  for  some  time. 

In  the  same  way  you  may  get  the  essence  of  Seville 
Orange  Peel. 

Ohs.  —  This  method  of  procuring,  and  preserving 
the  flavour  of  Lemon  Peel,  by  making  an  Oleosaccha- 
rum, is  far  superior  to  the  common  practice  of  paring 
off*  the  rind,  or  grating  it,  and  pounding,  or  mixing 
that  with  sugar: — by  this  process,  you  obtain  the 
whole  of  the  fine,  fragrant,  essential  Oil,  in  which  is 
contained  the  flavour. 

Artificial  Lemon  Juice.  —  (No.  407*.) 
If  you  add  a  drachm  of  Lump  Sugar  pounded,  and 
six  drops  of  (No.  408),  to  three  ounces  of  (Ball's, 


358  GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 

No.  81,  New  Bond-Street,  Crystal  Finegar,  which  is 
the  name  given  to  the  Pyrohgneous  Vinegar.)  you  will 
have  an  excellent  substitute  for  Lemon  Juice  —  for 
Fish  Sauces  and  Soups,  and  many  other  Cuhnary 
purposes.  The  flavour  of  the  Lemon  may  also  be 
communicated  to  the  Vinegar  —  by  infusing  some 
Lemon  Peel  in  it. 

N.B.  Tlie  Pyroligneous  Vinegar  is  perfectly  free 
from  all  flavour,  save  that  of  the  pure  Acid,  —  there- 
fore, it  is  a  very  valuable  menstruum  for  receiving 
impregnations  from  various  flavouring  materials. 

The  Pyro-ligis'eous  Acid  seems  likely  to  produce 
.quite  a  revolution  in  the  process  of  curing  Hams,  Her- 
rings, &c.  &c. — See  TiLLOCii's  Philosophical  Magazine^ 
1821,  No.  173,  p.  12. 

Quint-Essence  of  Lemon  Peel.  —  (No.  408.) 

Best  oil  of  Lemon*,  one  drachm. 

Strongest  rectified  spirit,  two  ounces, 
introduced  by  degrees,   till  the  spirit  kills,  and  com- 
pletely mixes  with  the  oil.     This  elegant  preparation 
possesses  all  the  delightful  fragrance  and  flavour  of  the 
freshest  Lemon  Peel. 

Ohs.  —  A  few  drops  on  the  Sugar  you  make  Punch 
with,  will  instantly  impregnate  it  with  as  much  flavour 
as  the  troublesome  and  tedious  method  of  grating  the 
rind,  or  rubbing  the  Sugar  on  it. 

It  will  be  found  a  super lat it e  substitute  for  fresh 
Lemon  Peel,  for  every  purpose  that  it  is  used  for : 
Blanc  Mange, — Jellies,  — Custards, — Ice, —  Negus, 
—  Lemonade,  —  and  Pies,  Puddings, — Stuffings, — 
Soup.s, —  Sauces,  — Ragouts,  &c. 

See  also  (No.  393.) 

Tincture  of  Leinon  Peel.  — (No.  408*.) 
A  very  easy,  and  economical  way  of  obtaining,  and 

•  This,  and  other  Essential  Oils,  are  sold  in  the  purest  state  by  Stewart, 
Ko.  11,  Old  Broad  Street,  City. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  359 

preserving  the  flavour  of  Lemon  Peel,  is  to  fill  a  wick- 
mouthed  pint  bottle  half  full  of  Brandy,  Rum,  or 
proof  spirit;  and  when  you  use  a  Lemon,  pare  the 
rind  off  very  thin,  and  put  it  into  the  Brandy,  &c. ;  — 
in  a  fortnight,  it  will  impregnate  the  spirit  with  the 
flavour  very  strongly. 

Essence  of  Celery.  —  (No.  409.) 

Brandy,  or  proof  spirit,  a  quarter  of  a  pint. 

Celery  seed  bruised,    half  an   ounce,    avoirdupois 
weight. 

Let  it  steep  for  a  fortnight. 

06*.  —  A  few  drops  will  immediately  flavour  a  pint  of 
Broth,  and  are  an  excellent  addition  to  Pease,  and 
other  Soups;  and  the  salad  mixture  of  Oil,  Vinegar, 
&c.  (No.  392.) 

N.B.  To  make  Celery  Sauce,  see  (No.  289.) 

Essence  of  Gi?iger.  —  (No.  411.) 

Three  ounces  of  fresh-grated*  Ginger,  and  an  ounce 
of  thin  cut  Lemon  Peel,  into  a  quart  of  Brandy,  or  Proof 
Spirit,  (apothecaries'  measure;)  let  it  stand  for  ten 
days,  shaking  it  up  each  day. 

Obs.  —  The  proper  title  for  this  would  be  ^'  Tincture 
of  Ginger:"  however,  as  it  has  obtained  the  name  of 
"  Essence,"  so  let  it  be  called. 

N.B.  If  Ginger  is  taken  to  produce  an  immediate 
effect,  —  to  warm  the  Stomach,  or  dispel  flatulence,  — 
this  is  the  best  preparation. 

Essence  of  Allspice,  —  (No.  412.) 

Oil  of  Pimento,  a  drachm,  apothecaries'  measure. 
Strong  Spirit  of  Wine,  two  ounces, 
mixed  by  degrees :  a  few  drops  will  give  the  flavour 


•  The  fragrant  aroma  of  Ginger  is  so  extremely  volatile,  that  it  evaporates 
almost  as  soon  as  it  is  poudered,  —  and  the  fine  Lemon-peel  gout  —  Hies  off 
presently. 


360  GRAVIES    AND    SAUCES. 

of  Allspice  to  a  pint  of  Gravy,  —  or  Mulled  Wine,  — 
or  to  make  a  Bishop. 

Tincture*  of  Allspice.  —  (No.  413.) 

Of  Allspice    bruised,    three   ounces,    apothecaries' 

weig-ht. 
Brandy,  a  quart. 

Let  it  steep  a  fortnight,  occasionally  shaking  it  up ; 
then  pour  off  the  clear  liquor :  it  is  a  most  grateful 
addition  in  all  cases  where  Allspice  is  used,  for  making 
a  Bishop,  or  to  Mulled  Wine  Extempore,  or  in  Gra- 
vies, Arc.  or  to  flavour  and  preserve  Potted  Meats, 
(No.  503.) 

Tincture  of  Nutmeg  —  (No.  413'.) 

Is  made  with  the  same  proportions  of  Nutmeg  and 
Brandy  as  ordered  for  Allspice.     See  Obs.  to  (No.  415.) 

Essence  of  Cloie  and  Mace.  —  (No.  414.) 

Strongest  Spirit  of  \N  ine,  two  ounces,  apothecaries' 
measure. 

Oil  of  Nutmeg  or  Clove  or  Mace,  a  drachm,  apo- 
thecaries' measure. 

Tincture  of  Clove.  —  (No.  415.) 

Cloves  bruised,  three  ounces,  apothecaries'  weight. 

Brandy,  one  quart. 

Let  it  steep  ten  days  :  strain  it  through  a  flannel 
sieve. 

Obs.  —  Excellent  to  flavour  *'  Bishop"  or  *•  Mulled 
ff'ine.'* 

Essence  of  Cinnamon.  — (No.  416.) 

Strongest  rectified  Spirit  of  Wine,  two  ounces. 

Oil  of  Cinnamon,  one  drachm,  apothecaries'  measure. 


•  TiDctures  are  mach  finer  flayoared  than  Eaiencei. 


i 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  361 

Tincture  of  Cinnamon.  —  (No.  416*.) 
'I  his   exhilarating   Cordial    is   made  by  pouring-   a 
bottle  of  genuine  Cogniac  (No.  471),  on  three  ounces 
of  bruised  Cinnamon  — (Cassia  will  not  do.) 

This  restorative  was  more  in  vogue  formerly,  than  it 
is  now  ;  —  a  teaspoonful  of  it,  and  a  lump  of  Sugar,  in 
a  glass  of  good  Sherry  or  Madeira,  with  the  yolk  of  an 
Egg  beat  up  in  it,  —  was  called  ''  Bahamum  Vifte." 

"  Cur  morlatur  homo,  qui  sumit  de  Cinnamomo  ?"  — "  Cinnamoa  is 
vcrie  cumfortable  to  the  Stomacke,  and  the  principall  partes  of  the  bodie." 

"  Fentriculum,Jecur,Lienem,  Cerebrum,  nervosque  juvat  et  roborat.' 
— • "  I  reckon  it  a  great  treasure  for  a  student  to  have  by  him,  ia  his  closet,  to 
take  now  and  then  a  spoonful."  —  Coggan's  Haven  of  Health,  4to.  1584. 
p.  111. 

Obs.  —  Two  teaspoonsful  in  a  wine  glass  of  water — 
are  a  present  and  pleasant  remedy  in  Nervous  Lan- 
guors—  and  in  relaxations  of  the  Bowels; — in  the 
latter  case,  five  drops  of  Laudanum  may  be  added  to 
each  dose. 

Essence  of  Marjoram.  —  (No.  417.) 
Strongest  rectified  Spirit,  two  ounces. 
Oil  of  Origanum,  one  drachm,  apothecaries'  measure. 

Vegetable  Essences. — (No.  417*.) 
The  flavour  of  the  various  sweet  and  savoury 
Herbs  may  be  obtained,  by  combining  their  Essential 
Oils  with  P^ectifed  Spirit  of  Wine,  in  the  proportion  of 
one  drachm  of  the  former  to  two  ounces  of  the  latter, 
by  picking  the  leaves,  and  laying  them  for  a  couple  of 
hours  in  a  warm  place  to  dry,  and  then  filling  a  large- 
mouthed  bottle  with  them,  and  pouring  on  them  Wine, 
Brandy,  Proof  Spirit,  or  Vinegar,  and  letting  them 
steep  for  fourteen  days. 

Soup  Herb*  Spirit  —  (No.  420.) 
Of  Lemon  Thyme, 
Winter  Savory, 


•  For  the  season,  &c.  when  these  Herbs,  &c.  come  in  perfection,  and  how 
Ji)  dry  them,  see  (No.  461.) 


11 


§65 


GRAVIES   AND  SAUCES. 


Sweet  Marjoram, 

Sweet  Basil,  —  half  an  ounce  of  each. 

Lemon  Peel  grated,  two  drachms. 

Eshallots,  the  same. 

Celery  Seed,  a  drachm,  avoirdupois  weight. 

Prepare  them  as  directed  in  (^No.  461);  and  infuse 
them  in  a  pint  of  Brandy,  or  proof  Ji^pirit,  for  ten  days  ; 
thcij  mmi  also  be  iufuicd  in  U  ine,  or  Jlncgar,  but  neither 
extract  the  flavour  of  the  ingredients  half  so  well  as 
the  spirit. 

Spiiif  of  Saxoury  Spice.  — -  (No.  42 1 .) 

Black  Pepper,  an  ounce, —  Allspice,  half  an  ounce, 

pounded  tine. 
Nutmeg  grated,  a  quarter  of  an  ounce,  avoirdupois 

weight. 
Infuse  in  a  pint  of  Brandy,  or  Proof  Spirit,  for  ten 
days  :  —  or,  infuse  the  ingredients  enumerated  in  (No. 
4.57),  in  a  quart  of  Brandy,  cr  Proof  Spirit,  for  the  like 
time. 

Souji-hcrb,  and  Saioury  Spice  Spirit.  — (No.  422.) 

Mix  half  a  pint  of  Soup-herb  spirit  with  a  (juarter 
pint  of  spirit  of  Savoury  spice. 

Obs.  —  IViese  preparations  are  xaliiabic  auxiliaries  to 
immediately  heighten  thcjlaiour,  andjinish  Soups,  Sauces, 
Ragouts,  t^c.  —  uill  save  much  time  and  trouble  to  the 
Co'jk,  and  heep  for  tuenty  years. 

Relish  for  Chops,  ^-c.  —  (No.  423.) 

Pound  fine  an  ounce  of  Black  Pepper,  and  half  an 
ounce  of  Allspice,  with  an  ounce  of  Salt,  and  half  an 
ounce  of  scraped  Horseradish,  and  the  same  of  Eshal- 
lots peeled  and  quartered ;  put  these  ingredients  into 
a  pint  of  Mushroom  Catsup,  or  Walnut  Pickle,  and 
let  them  steep  for  a  fortnight,  and  then  strain  it. 


i 


GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES.  363 

Obs.  —  A  teaspoonful  or  two  of  this  is  generally  an 
acceptable  addition,  mixed  with  the  Gravy  usually  sent 
up  for  Chops,  and  Steaks ;  see  (No.  356),  or  added  to 
thick  melted  Butter. 

Fish  6'«Mce.— (No.  425.) 

Two  wineglasses  of  Port,  and  two  of  Walnut  pickle ; 
four  of  Mushroom  catsup;  half  a  dozen  Anchovies 
pounded,  the  like  number  of  Eshallots  sliced  and 
pounded  ;  a  tablespoonful  of  Soy,  and  half  a  drachm 
of  Cayenne  pepper:  let  them  simmer  gently  for  ten 
minutes,  strain  it,  and  when  cold,  put  it  into  bottles ; 
well  corked  and  sealed  over,  it  will  keep  for  a  consi- 
derable time. 

Ohs. — This  is  commonly  called  QuiiVs  Sauce,  and  was 
given  to  me  by  a  very  sagacious  Saucemaker. 

Keeping  Mustard.  —  (No.  427.) 

Dissolve  three  ounces  of  Salt  in  a  quart  of  boilinj^ 
water,  and  pour  it  hot  upon  two  ounces  of  scraped 
Horseradish ;  closely  cover  down  the  jar,  and  let  it 
stand  twenty-four  hours  :  —  strain,  and  mix  it  by  degrees 
with  the  best  Durham  flour  of  mustard,  beat  well  to- 
gether till  quite  smooth  and  of  the  proper  thickness ; 
put  into  a  wide  mouthed  bottle,  and  stop  it  closely. 
See  also  (Nos.  369  and  370.) 

SAUCE  SUPERLATIVE*.  — (No.  429.) 

Claret,  or  Port  wine,  and   Mushroom  Catsup,  see 

(No.  439),  a  pint  of  each. 
Half  a  pint  of  Walnut  or  other  Pickle  liquor. 
Pounded  Anchovies,  four  ounces. 


*  We  hope  this  title  will  not  offend  those  -who  may  quote  against  it  the  old 
Adage,  "  that  Good  Appetite  is  the  best  Sauce." — Allowing  this  to  be  generally 
true,  (which  is  a  more  candid  confession  than  could  be  expected  from  a 
Cook),  we  dare  say,  the  majority  of  our  readers  will  vote  witii  us,  that  there 
are  ninny  good  things  (Fish  especially;  that  would  be  rather  insipid, — without 
a  little  Sauce  of  another  kind. 

R  2 


364  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

Fresh  Lemon-peel  pared  very  thin,  an  ounce. 

Peeled  and  sliced  Eshallots,  the  same. 

Scraped  Horseradish,  ditto. 

Allspice  and 

Black  Pepper  powdered,  half  an  ounce  each. 

Cayenne,    one   drachm,    or    Curry    powder,    three 
drachms. 

Celery -seed  bruised,  a  drachm.  x4ll  aroirdupois 
Tx  tight. 
Put  these  into  a  wide  mouth  bottle,  stop  it  close,  shake 
it  up  every  day  tor  a  fortnight,  and  strain  it,  (when 
some  think  it  improved  by  the  addition  of  a  quarter 
pint  of  Soy,  or  thick  Browning,  see  (No.  322),  and  you 
will  have  a  "  dklicious  double  relish." 

•«•  This  composition,  is  one  of  the  ''  chef-d'oeuvres" 
of  many  experiments  I  have  metde,  for  the  purpose  of 
enabling  the  good  Housewives  of  Great  Britain  to  prepare 
their  unn  !^auces:  it  is  equally  agreeable  with  fish,  game, 
poultry,  or  ragouts,  c^c,  and  as  a  fair  lady  may  make  it 
herself,  its  relish  mil  be  not  a  little  augmented,  —  by  the 
certainty  that  all  the  ingredients  are  good  and  wholesome. 

Obs.  —  Under  an  intinity  of  circumstances,  a  Cook 
may  be  in  want  of  the  substances  necessary  to  make 
Sauce  ;  the  above  composition  of  the  several  articles 
from  which  the  various  gravies  derive  their  flavour,  will 
be  found  a  very  admirable  extemporaneous  substitute. 
By  mixing  a  large  tablespoonful  with  a  quarter  pint 
of  thickened  melted  butter,  broth,  or  (No.  252),  five 
minutes  will  finish  a  boat  of  very  relishing  sauce,  nearly 
equal  to  drawn-gravy,  and  as  likely  to  put  your  Lingual 
nerves  into  good  humour  as  any  thing  I  know. 

To  make  a  boat  of  Sauce  for  Poultry,  &c.  put  a 
piece  of  butter  about  as  big  as  an  ^^^,  into  a  stew- 
pan,  set  it  on  the  fire;  when  it  is  melted,  put  to  it  a 
tablespoonful  of  flour ;  stir  it  thoroughly  together,  and 
add  to  it  two  tablespoonsful  of  Sauce,  and  by  degrees, 
about  half  a  pint  of  broth  or  boiling  water,  let  it  simmer 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  365 

gently  over  a  slow  fire  for  a  few  minutes,  skim  it  and 
strain  it  through  a  sieve,  and  it  is  ready. 

QUINT-ESSENCE   OF  ANCHOVY*. —(No.  433.) 

The  goodness  of  this  preparation  depends  almost 
entirely  on  having  fine  mellow  Fish,  that  have  been  in 
pickle  long  enough  (i.  e.  about  twelve  months)  to  dis- 
solve easily,  —  yet  are  not  at  all  rusty. 

Choose  those  that  are  in  the  state  they  come  over  in, 
not  such  as  have  been  put  into  fresh  pickle,  mixed  with 
Red  Paintf,  which  some  add  to  improve  the  complexion 
of  the  Fish, — it  has  been  said,  that  others  have  a  trick 
of  putting  Anchovy  liquor  on  pickled  Sprats  t:  you 
will  easily  discover  this  by  washing  one  of  them,  and 
tasting  the  flesh  of  it,  which  in  the  fine  Anchovy,  is 
mellow,  red,  and  high  flavoured,  and  the  bone  moist 
and  oily.  Make  only  as  much  as  will  soon  be  used, 
the  fresher  it  is  the  better. 

Put  ten  or  twelve  Anchovies  into  a  mortar,  and  pound 
them  to  a  pulp ;  —  put  this  into  a  very  clean  iron  or 
silver,  or  very  well  tinned  §  saucepan,  then  put  a  table- 
spoonful  of  cold  spring  water  into  the  mortar,  shake  it 
round,  and  pour  it  to  the  pounded  Anchovies,  set  them 
by  the  side  of  a  slow  fire,  very  frequently  stirring  them 
together^  till  they  are  melted,  which  they  will  be  in  the 


*  The  invention  of  this  favourite  Fish  Sauce  is  claimed  by  Mr.  Thos.  Young, 
see  "  the  Epicure,"  Harding,  London,  1815,  page  12.  He  says,  "  there  still 
is  a  cabal  between  some  of  the  makers  of  this  sauce,  which  of  them  makes  it 
best.  Though  they  do  not  pretend  to  the  invention,  all  of  them  denominate 
themselves  the  best  makers.  One  is  "  the  real  maker  !  P'  aiiotlier  "  the 
superior! !  !"  another  "  the  improved  !! !"  anotlier  "  the  original  stipe- 
rityr .',!.'  with  cautions  to  guard  against  the  "  spuriotis  makers." 

Burgess,  Ko.  107,  next  the  Savoy  Steps,  in  the  Strand,  has  long  been 
famous  for  making  this  Sauce. 

t  "  Several  samples  which  we  examined  of  this  Fish  Sauce, have  been  found 
contaminated  with  Lead."  —  See  AccuM  on  Adulteration,  page  3t'8. 

t  They  may  do  very  well  for  common  palates  ;  but  to  imitate  the  fine 
flavour  of  the  Gorgona  fish,  so  as  to  impose  upon  a  weIl-educatedGoMr/?/«/«/, 
still  remains  in  the  catalogue  of  the  Sauce  maker's  desiderata. 

§  The  best  vessel  for  this  purpose  is  the  pint  Bainmarie,  sold  by  Lloyd, 
Ironmonger,  near  Norfolk  Street,  Strand. 


366  GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES. 

course  of  five  minutes.  —  Now  stir  in  a  quarter  of  a 
drachm  of  good  Cayenne  pepper  (No.  404),  and  let  it 
remain  by  the  side  of  the  fire  for  a  few  minutes  longer; 
then,  while  it  is  warm,  rub  it  through  a  hair  sieve*, 
with  the  back  of  a  wooden  spoon, 

A  roll  of  thin  cut  Lemon-peel  infused  with  the  An- 
chovy, imparts  a  fine,  fresh,  delicate  aromatic  flavour, 
which  is  very  grateful ;  this  is  only  recommended  when 
you  make  Sauce  for  immediate  use,  —  it  will  keep  much 
better  without;  if  you  wish  to  acidulate  it,  instead  of 
water  make  it  with  artificial  Lemon  juice  (No.  407*), 
or  add  a  little  of  Coxwell's  concrete  acid  to  it. 

Ohs. — The  above  is  the  proper  way,  to  perfectly 
dissolve  Anchovy f,  and  incor])orate  it  with  the  water; 
which,  if  completely  saturated,  will  continue  suspended. 

To  prevent  the  separation  of  Essence  of  Anchory^  and 
give  it  the  appearance  of  being  fully  saturated  with 
Fish,  —  various  other  expedients  have  been  tried,  such 
as  dissolving  the  fish  in  thin  Water  Gruel,  or  Barley 
Water,  or  thickening  it  with  Mucilage,  Flour,  &c., — 
when  any  of  these  things  are  added,  it  does  not  keep 
half  so  well  as  it  does  without  them,  and  to  preserve  it, 
they  overload  it  with  Cayenne  Pepper. 

Mem.  You  cannot  itiake  Essence  of  Anchovy  half  so  cheap 
as  you  can  buy  it. — Thirty  prime  Fish,  weighing  a  pound 
and  a  quarter,  and  costing  4^.  6r/.,  and  two  table- 
spoonsful  of  water,  made  me  only  half  a  Pint  of 
Essence,  —  you  may  commonly  buy  that  quantity  ready 
made  for  2*.,  and  we  have  seen  an  Advertisement 
offering  it  for  sale  as  low  as  2s.  6d.  per  Quart. 

It  must  be  kept  very  closely  stopped,  —  when  you  tap  a 
bottle  of  Sauce,  throw  away  the  old  perforated  Cork,  and 

•  The  Economist  may  take  the  thick  remains  that  won't  pass  throngh  the 
sieve,  and  pound  itwilli  some  flour, and  make  Anchovy  Paste, or  Powdkk. 
See  (Nos.  134  and  43j.) 

t  Epicure  QuiN  used  to  say,  "  Of  all  the  Banns  of  Marriage  I  ever  heard, 
none  gave  me  half  such  pleasure  as  the  unioii  of  delicate  ann-chovy  with 
COOd  JOH.N-DORY," 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  367 

put  in  a  new  taper  velvet  cork ;  —  if  the  air  gets  to  it,  the 
Fish  takes  the  rust^,  and  it  is  spoiled  directly. 

Essence  of  Anchovy  is  sometimes  coloured  f  vvith 
bole  Armeniac,  Venice  red,  &c. ;  but  all  these  additions 
deteriorate  the  flavour  of  the  sauce,  and  the  Palate  and 
stomach  suffer  for  the  gratification  of  the  Eye,  which, 
in  culinary  concerns,  will  never  be  indulged  by  the 
sagacious  Gourmand  at  the  expense  of  these  two  primum 
mobiles  of  his  pursuits. 

*^*  Essence  of  Anchovy  is  sometimes  made  with  Sherry  or 
Madeira  wine,  or  good  Mushroom  catsup  (No.  439),  instead 
of  water.  If  you  like  the  acid  flavour,  add  a  little  citric 
acid,  or  dissolve  them  in  good  Vinegar. 

N.B.  This  is  infinitely  the  most  convenient  way  of 
using  Aachovy,  as  each  guest  may  mix  sauce  for  himself, 
and  make  it  strong  or  weak,  according  to  his  own 
taste. 

It  is  also  much  more  Economical,  as  plain  melted 
Butter  (No.  256)  serves  for  other  purposes  at  table. 

AxcHOVY  Paste,  or  le  Beurre  d^Anchois. 
(No.  434.) 

Pound  them  in  a  mortar,  then  rub  it  through  a  fine 
sieve;  pot  it;  cover  it  with  clarified  butter,  and  keep 
it  in  a  cool  place. 

N.  B.  If  you  have  Essence  of  Anchovy,  you  may  make 
Anchovy  Paste  Extempore,  by  rubbing  the  Essence  with 
as  much  Flour  as  will  make  a  paste.  Mem,  This  is 
merely  mentioned  as  the  means  of  making  it  imme- 
diately, —  it  will  not  keep. 

Obs.  —  This  is  sometimes  made  stiffer  and  hotter  by 
the  addition  of  a  little  Flour  of  Mustard,  —  a  pickled 

*  "  Rast  in  Anchovies,  if  I'm  not  mistaken, 

Is  as  bad  as  Rust  in  Steel,  or  Rust  in  Bacon." 

Young's  Epictire,  page  14. 
+  If  you  are  not  contented  with  the  natural  colour,  break  some  Lobsters' 
Eggs  into  it,  and  you  will  not  only  heighten  the  Complexion  of  your  Sauce, 
but  improve  its  tlavour.     This  is  the  only  Rouge  we  can  recommend.     See 
note  to  (No.  284.) 


368  GHAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

Walnut,  —  Spice  (No.  460),  —  Curry  Powfler(No.  45.'>J, 
—  or  Cayenne,  and  then  becomes  a  rival  to  "  hi  it'ritahle 
Suucc  d"  Rnfcr"  (No.  538),  —  or  Pate  it  la  Dinb/t  for 
Deviling  Biscuits  (No.  574),  —  Grills  (No.  538),  &c. 
It  is  an  excellent  p:arnish  for  Fish,  put  in  pats  round 
the  edge  of  the  dish,  or  will  make  Anchovy  Toast 
(No.  573),  —  or  Devil  a  Biscuit  (No.  574),  cVc.'in  high 
style. 

Anchoxij  Ponder.  — (No.  435.) 

Pound  the  fish  in  a  mortar,  rub  them  through  a  sieve, 
and  make  them  into  a  paste  with  dried  Hour,  roll  it 
into  thin  cakes,  and  dry  them  in  a  Dutch  oven  before  a 
slow  fire ;  pounded  to  a  fine  |>owdcr,  and  put  into  a 
well-stopped  bottle,  it  will  keep  for  years;  it  is  a  very 
savourv  relish,  sprinkled  on  bread  and  butter  for  a 
sandwich,  &c.     b»ee  Oyster  powder  (No.  280.) 

Ohs. — To  this  may  be  added  a  small  ])ortion  of 
Cayenne  Pepper,  grated  Lemon  Peel,  and  Citric  Acid. 

jral/iut  Cat.sup.—(So.  438.) 

Take  six  half  sieves  of  green  walnut  shells,  put  them 
into  a  tub,  mix  them  up  well  with  common  salt,  from 
two  to  three  pounds,  let  them  stand  for  six  days,  fre- 
quently beating  and  mashing  them;  by  this  time  the 
shells  become  soft  and  pulpy,  then  by  banking  it  up  on 
one  side  of  the  tub,  and  at  the  same  time  by  raising  the 
tub  on  that  side,  the  liquor  will  drain  clear  off  to  the 
other;  then  take  that  liquor  out:  the  mashing  and 
banking  up  may  be  repeated  as  often  as  liquor  is  found. 
The  quantity  will  be  about  six  quarts.  When  done,  let 
it  be  simmered  in  an  iron  boiler  as  long  as  any  scum 
arises ;  then  bruise  a  quarter  of  a  pound  of  ginger,  a 
quarter  of  a  pound  of  allspice,  two  ounces  of  long 
pepper,  two  ounces  of  cloves,  with  the  above  ingredients, 
let  it  slowly  boil  for  half  an  hour .  when  bottled  let  an 
equal  quantity  of  the  spice  go  into  each  bottle  ;  when 
corked,   let  the  bottles  be  filled  quite  up:  cork  them 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  369 

tight,  seal  them  over,  and  put  into  a  cool   and   dry 
place  for  one  year  before  it  is  used. 

N.B.  For  the  above  we  are  indebted  to  a  respectable 
Oilman,  who  has  many  years  proved  the  Receipt. 

MUSHROOM  CATSUP.  -  (No.  439.^ 

If  you  love  Good  Catsup,  gentle  reader,  make  it 
yourself*,  after  the  following  directions,  and  you  will 
have  a  delicious  Relish  for  Made  dishes.  Ragouts, 
Soups,  Sauces  or  Hashes. 

Mushroom  gravy,  approaches  the  nature  and  flavour 
of  Meat  gravy,  more  than  any  vegetable  juice;  and  is 
the  superlative  substitute  for  it,  in  Meagre  Soups,  and 
Extempore  Gravies,  the  Chemistry  of  the  Kitchen  has 
yet  contrived  to  agreeably  awaken  the  Palate,  and 
encourage  the  Appetite. 

A  couple  of  Quarts  of  Double  Catsup,  made  accord- 
ing to  the  following  Receipt,  will  save  you  some  score 
pounds  of  Meat,  besides  a  vast  deal  of  time  and 
ti'ouble,  as  it  will  furnish,  in  a  few  minutes,  as  good 
Sauce  as  can  be  made  for  either  Fish,  Flesh,  or  Fowl. 
See  (No.  307.) 

I  believe  the  following  is  the  best  way  of  extracting 
and  preparing  the  Essence  of  Mushrooms,  so  as  to 
procure,  and  preserve  their  flavour  for  a  considerable 
length  of  time. 

Look  out  for  Mushrooms  from  the  beginning  of 
September. 

Take  care  they  are  the  right  sort,  and/re.^/?  gathered. 
Full  grown  Flaps  are  to  be  preferred :  put  a  layer  of 
these  at  the  bottom  of  a  deep  earthen  pan,  and  sprinkle 
them  with  Salt,  then  another  layer  of  Mushrooms,  and 
some  more  salt  on  them,  and  so  on  alternately,  salt  and 
mushrooms ;  —  let  them  remain  two  or  three  hours,  by 

•  The  Mushrooms  employed  for  preparing  readj'  made  Catsup,  are  generally 
those  which  are  in  a  putrefactive  state.  In  a  few  days  after  those  Fungi 
have  been  gathered,  they  become  the  habitation  of  myriads  of  insects." 

AcGUM  0}i  Culinary  Poisons,  12mo.  1820.  p.  350. 
R  5 


870  GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES. 

wliich  time  the  salt  will  have  penetrated  the  mushroom!*, 
and  rendered  them  easy  to  break ;  —  then  pound  them 
in  a  mortar,  or  mash  them  well  with  your  hands,  and 
let  them  remain  for  a  couple  of  days,  not  lono;er,  stirriuii" 
them  up,  and  mashing  them  well  each  day;  —  then 
pour  them  into  a  stone  jar,  and  to  each  quart  add  an 
ounce  of  whole  Black  Pepper;  stop  the  jar  very  close, 
and  set  it  in  a  ste>v])an  ofboilinn*  water,  and  keep  it 
boiling  for  two  hours  at  least. — Take  out  the  jar,  and 
pour  the  juice  clear  from  the  settlings  through  a  hair 
sieve  (without  squeezing'  the  nuishrooms)  into  a  clean 
'itewpan;  let  it  boil  very  gently  for  half  an  hour;  those 
who  are  for  Superlative  Catsup,  will  continue  the 
boiling  till  the  Mushroom  juice  is  reduced  to  half  the 
quantity,  it  mav  then  be  called  Double  CV/^-sup  or  Doo- 
sup. 

There  are  several  advantages  attending  this  con- 
centration ;  it  will  keep  much  better,  and  only  half  the 
(piantity  be  recpiired;  —  so  you  can  flavour  Sauce,  &c. 
witliout  thinnine  it :  —  neither  is  this  an  extravagant 
wav  of  making  it,  for  merely  the  aqueous  part  is  eva- 
porated ;  skim  it  well,  and  pour  it  into  a  clean  dry  jar, 
or  jug;  cover  it  close,  and  let  it  stand  in  a  cool  place 
till  next  day,  then  pour  it  oft'  as  gently  as  possible,  (so 
as  not  to  disturb  the  settlings  at  the  bottom  of  the  jug), 
through  a  tammis,  or  thick  flannel  bag,  till  it  is  perfectly 
clear  ;  add  a  tablespoonful  of  good  Brandy  to  each  pint 
of  Catsup,  and  let  it  stand  as  before  ;  —  a  fresh  sediment 
will  be  deposited,  from  which  the  Catsup  is  to  be  quietly 
poured  off,  and  bottled  in  pints  or  half  pints,  (which 
liave  been  washed  with  Brandy  or  spirit);  it  is  best  to 
kee])  it  in  such  quantities  as  are  soon  used. 

Take  especial  care  that  it  is  closely  corked,  and 
sealed  down,  or  dipped  in  Bottle  Cement. 


•  The  Squeezings  are  the  perquisite  of  the  Cook,  to  make  Sance  for  tho 
Second  lable  ;  do  not  deprive  her  of  it,  it  is  the  most  profitable  save-all  yon 
can  give  her,  and  ^^  ill  enable  hertomakeup  a  noorl  Family  Dinner,  with 
what  wouUi  otherwise  be  wasted.  After  the  Mushrooms  have  been  squeezed, 
dry  them  in  the  Dutch  oven,  and  make  McsHROOM  Powder. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  371 

If  kept  in  a  cool,  dry  place,  it  may  be  preserved  for 
a  long  time ;  but  if  it  be  badly  corked,  and  kept  in  a 
damp  place,  it  will  soon  spoil. 

Examine  it  from  time  to  time,  by  placing  a  strong 
light  behind  the  neck  of  the  bottle,  and  if  any  pellicle 
appears  about  it,  boil  it  up  again  with  a  few  pepper- 
corns. 

We  have  ordered  no  more  Spice,  &c.  than  is  abso- 
lutely necessary  to  feed  the  Catsup,  and  keep  it  from 
fermenting.  Brandy  is  an  excellent  preservative  to  all 
preparations  of  this  sort.  Pickles,  &c.  &c. 

The  compound,  commonly  called  Catsup,  is  generally 
an  injudicious  combination  of  so  many  different  tastes, 
that  the  flavour  of  the  Mushroom  is  overpowered  by  a 
farrago  of  Garlick,  Shallot,  Anchovy,  Mustard,  Horse- 
radish, Lemon-peel,  Beer,  Wine,  Spice,  &c. 

Obs.  —  A  tablespoonful  of  Double  Catsup  will 
impregnate  half  a  pint  of  Sauce  with  the  full  flavour  of 
Mushroom,  in  much  greater  perfection  than  either 
pickled,  or  powder  of  mushrooms. 

JFe  have  bought  good  Mushroum  Catsup  at  Butler's 
herb  and  seed  shop,  opposite  Henrietta  Street,  Coient- 
Garde?i. 

Quintessence  of  Mushrooms.  —  (No.  440.) 

This  delicate  Relish,  is  made  by  sprinkling  a  little 
salt  over  either  flap  or  button  Mushrooms ;  —  three 
hours  after,  mash  them,  —  next  day,  strain  off  the 
liquor  that  will  flow  from  them,  put  it  into  a  stewpan 
and  boil  it  till  it  is  reduced  to  half. 

It  will  not  keep  long,  but  is  preferable  to  any  of  the 
Catsups,  v/hich  in  order  to  preserve  them,  must  have 
Spice,  &c.  which  overpowers  the  flavour  of  the  Mush- 
rooms. 

An  Artificial  Mushroom  Bed  uill  supply  this  all  the  year 
round. 

To  make  Sauce  with  this,  see  (No.  307.) 


372  GRAVIES   AND   SALCES. 


Ot/i,tcr  Cutsuj).  —  (No.  44 1 .) 
Take  fine  fresh  Milton  oysters;  wash  them  in  theii 
own  hcjuor,  skim  it,  pound  them  in  a  marble  mortar, 
to  a  pint  of  Oysters  add  a  pint  of  Sherry,  boil  them  up, 
and  add  an  ounce  of  salt,  two  drachms  of  pounded 
mace,  and  one  of  Cayenne,  — let  it  just  boil  up  aj^ain, 
skim  it,  and  rub  through  a  sieve,  and  when  cold,  bottle 
it,  and  cork  it  well,  and  seal  it  down. 

Ohs.  —  See  also  (No.  280.)  and  Obs.  to  (No.  278.) 
N.B.  It  is  the  best  way  to  pound  the  Salt  and  Spic€8, 
<S.c.  with  the  Oysters. 

0/fs.  —  This  composition  very  ajz;reeably  heightens 
the  flavour  of  white  sauces,  and  white  made  dishes;  and 
if  you  add  a  ir,-lass  of  brandy  to  it,  it  will  keep  good  for 
a  considerable  time  longer  tlian  Oysters  are  out  of 
season  in  Engl.uid. 

Cockle  and  Mtticie  Catsup  —  (No.  442.) 
May  be  made  by  treating  them  in  the  same  way  as 
tlie  Oysters  in  the  preceding  Receipt. 

Pufldmg  Catsup.— (No,  446.) 
Half  u  pint  of  Brandy,  '*  Es.seucc  uf  Puncir  (No.  479), 
or  "  Curacua'  (No.  474),  or  ''  Xuijcau,''  a  pint  of 
Sherry, 
An  ounce  of  thin  pared  Lemon  peel. 
Half  an  ounce  of  Mace. 

Steep  them  for  fourteen  days,  then  strain  it,  and  add 
a  (juarter  pint  of  CapilUiire,  or  (No.  47.'3.)  This  will 
keep  for  years,  and,  mixed  with  melted  butter,  is  a 
delicious  rehsh  to  Puddings,  and  Sweet  dishes.  See 
Puddin^:  Sauce  (No.  269;,  and  the  Justice's  Orange 
Syrup  (No.  39-2.) 

Vutatoe*  Starch.  — (^o.  448.) 
Peel,  and  wash  a  pound  of  full  grown  Potatoes,  grate 


*  '•  lotaUit.-,  in  v\l.attver  couilicion, whether  spoiled  by  Frost,  Oerniiuatioii, 


GRAVIES  A^D  SAtJCES.  373 

them  on  a  bread  grater  into  a  deep  dish,  containing  a 
quart  of  clear  water ;  stir  it  well  up,  and  then  pour  it 
through  a  hair  sieve,  and  leave  it  ten  minutes  to  settle, 
till  the  water  is  quite  clear :  then  pour  off  the  water, 
and  put  a  quart  of  fresh  water  to  it,  stir  it  up,  let  it 
settle,  and  repeat  this  till  the  water  is  quite  clear ;  you 
will  at  last  find  a  fine  white  powder  at  the  bottom  of 
the  vessel.  (The  criterion  of  this  process  being  com- 
pleted, is  the  purity  of  the  water  that  comes  from  it 
after  stirring  it  up  )  Lay  this  on  a  sheet  of  paper  in  a 
hair  sieve  to  dry,  either  in  the  sun,  or  before  the  fire, 
and  it  is  ready  for  use,  and  in  a  well  stopped  bottle 
will  keep  good  for  many  months. 

If  this  be  well  made,  half  an  ounce  {i.  e.  a  table - 
spoonful)  of  it  mixed  with  two  tablespoonsful  of  cold 
water,  and  stirred  into  a  Soup  or  Sauce,  just  before 
you  take  it  up,  will  thicken  a  pint  of  it  to  the  consist- 
ence of  Cream. 

Obs.  —  This  preparation  much  resembles  the  "  I71- 
dian  Arrow  Rout,"  and  is  a  good  substitute  for  it; 
it  gives  a  fulness  on  the  palate  to  Gravies  and 
Sauces  at  hardly  any  expense,  and  by  some  is  used  to 
thicken  Melted  butter  instead  of  Flour. 

As  it  is  perfectly  tasteless,  it  v/ill  not  alter  the  flavour 
of  the  most  delicate  Broth,  &c. 

Of  the  Flour  of  Potatoes. 

"  A  patent  has  been  recently  obtained  at  Paris,  a 
gold  medal  bestowed,  and  other  honorary  distinction 
granted,  for  the  discovery  and  practice  on  a  large  .scale 
of  preparing  from  potatoes  difuie  flour;  a  sago,  a  flour 
equal  to  ground  rice,  and  a  semolina  or  paste,  of  which 
lib.  is  equal  to  l^lb.  rice,  l|lb.  vermicelli,  or,  it  is 
asserted,  8  lbs.  of  raw  potatoes. 

"  These  preparations  are  found  valuable  to  mix  with 


&c.,  provided  they  are  raw,  eonstantly  afford  Starch,  diflfering  only  in  qnality, 
the  round  grey  opes  the  most,  a  ponml  producing  about  two  ounces." 

Parmektjer  on  Nutritive  Vegetablts,  bvo.  p.  31. 


374  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

wheaten  fiour  for  bread,  to  make  biscuits,  pastry,  pie- 
crusts, and  for  all  soups,  g:ruels,  and  panada. 

"  Large  engagements  have  been  made  for  these  pre- 
parations with  the  French  marine,  and  military  and  other 
hospitals,  with  the  approbation  of  the  faculty. 

"  An  excellent  bread,  it  is  said,  can  be  made  of  this 
flour,  at  half  the  cost  of  wheaten  bread. 

"  Heat  having  been  applied  in  these  preparations, 
the  articles  will  keep  unchanirid  for  vears,  and  on  board 
ship,  to  China  and  back;  rats,  mice,  worms, and  insects 
do  not  infect  or  destroy  this  flour. 

'*  Simply  mixed  with  cold  water,  they  are  in  ten 
minutes  Ht  for  food,  when  fire  and  all  other  resource 
may  be  wanted ;  and  twelve  ounces  are  sufficient  for  a 
day's  sustenance,  in  case  of  necessity. 

"  The  Physicians  and  Surircons  in  the  Hospitals,  in 
case  of  great  debihty  of  the  stomach,  have  employed 
these  preparations  with  advantage. 

"  Tlie  point  of  tliis  discovery  is,  the  cheapness  of 
preparation,  and  the  conversion  of  a  surplus  growth 
of  ])(jtati)es  into  a  keeping  stock,  in  an  elegant,  portable 
and  salubrious  form." 

Salad,  or  Piquantc  Sauce  for  Cold  Meat,  Fish,  S^c.  — 
(No.  453.)     See  also  (No.  .'372.) 
Pound  together 

An  ounce  of  scraped  Horseradish, 
Half  an  ounce  of  Salt, 

A  tablespoonful  of  made  Mustard  (No.  370.) 
Four  drachms  of  minced  Eshallots,  see  (No.  402.) 
Half  a  drachm  of  Celery  Seed,  see  (No.  409.) 
And  half  ditto  of  Cayenne,  see  (No.  404.) 
Adding  gradually  a  pint  of  Burnet,  see  (No.  399),  or, 

Tarragon  Vinegar  (No.  396),  and  let  it  stand  in  a  Jar  a 

week,  and  then  pass  it  through  a  sieve. 

Curry  Powder.  —  (No.  455.) 
Dry  and  reduce  the  following  Spices,  &c.  to  a  fine 
powder,  in  the  same  way  as  in  the  foregoing  receipt. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.       ,  375 

Coriander  Seed,  three  ounces. 

Turmeric,  three  ounces. 

Black  Pepper,  Mustard,  and  Ginger,  one  ounce  of 
each. 

Lesser  Cardamoms,  half  an  ounce. 

Cayenne  Pepper, 

Cummin  seed,  a  quarter  ounce  of  each. 

Thoroughly  pound  and  mix  together,  and  keep  them 
in  a  well-stopped  bottle. 

Those  who  are  fond  of  Curry  Sauces  may  steep  three 
ounces  of  the  powder  in  a  quart  of  Vinegar  or  White 
Wine  for  ten  days,  and  will  get  a  liquor  impregnated 
with  all  the  flavour  of  the  Powder. 

Obs.  —  This  receipt,  was  an  attempt  to  imitate  some 
of  the  Best  India  Curry  Pozvder,  selected  for  me,  by  a 
friend  at  the  India  House :  —  the  flavour  approxi- 
mates to  the  Indian  Powder  so  exactly,  the  most  pro- 
found Palaticians  have  pronounced  it  a  perfect  copy 
of  the  original  Curry  Stujf. 

The  following  remark  was  sent  to  the  Editor  by  an 
East  Indian  frierid. 

'*  The  ingredients  which  you  have  selected  to  form  the 
Curry  Powder,  are  the  same  as  are  used  in  India,  with 
this  difference  only,  that  some  of  them  are  in  a  raw 
green  state,  and  are  mashed  together,  and  afterwards 
dried  and  powdered  and  sifted."  —  For  Curry  Sauce ^ 
see  (No.  348.) 

N.B.  Chickens,  —  Rabbits,  —  Sweetbreads,  —  Breasts 
of  Veal,  —  Veal  Cutlets,  —  Mutton,  —  Lamb,  —  or  Pork 
Chops,  —  Lobster, — Turbot,  — Soles,  —  Eels, — Oysters, 
&c.  are  dressed  Curry  fashion,  see  (No.  497),  or  Stew 
them  in  (No.  329  or  348),  and  flavouring  it  with 
(No.  455.) 

N.B.  The  common  fault  of  Curry  Pow^der  is  the 
too  great  proportion  of  Cayenne,  (to  the  milder  Aromatics 
from  which  its  agreeable  flavour  is  derived),  preventing 
a  sufficient  quantity  of  the  Curry  Powder  being  used. 


376  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

Saiou)y  Ragout  Puniltr.  —  (No.  457.) 

Salt,  an  ounce, 

Mustard,  half  an  ounce, 

•Allspice,  a  quarter  of  an  ounce, 

Black  Pepper  irround.  and  Lemon  peel  grated,  or  of 
(No.  407.),  pounded  and  sifted  tine,  half  an  ounce 
each, 

Ginger,  and 

NutmeiX  grated,  a  quarter  of  an  ounce  each, 

Cayenne  Pepper,  two  draclims. 

Pound  them  patiently,  and  pass  them  through  a  tine 
hair  sieve  ;  bottle  them  for  use.  The  above  articles 
will  pound  easier,  and  finer,  if  they  are  dried  first  in  a 
IXitch  event  before  a  very  gentle  fire,  at  a  good  dis- 
tiince  froni  it;  —  if  you  giic  t/icm  much  heat ^  the  fine 
Jlavour  of  them  uill  be  pre.sently  evaporated,  and  they  w ill 
soon  jret  a  strong  rank,  empyreumatic  taste. 

N.B.  Infused  in  a  quart  of  \'inegar  or  Wine,  tl>ey 
make  a  savoury  relish  for  Soups,  Sauces,  <Jtc. 

O/y.v.  —  The  .Sj)ices  in  a  Ragout  are  indispensable  to 
give  it  a  flavour,  but  not  a  predominant  one;  —  their 
presence  should  be  rather  supposed  than  perceived ;  — 
Hiey  are  the  invisible  spirit  of  good  Cookery  :  indeed, 
a  Cook  without  Spice,  would  be  as  much  at  a  loss,  as 
a  Confectioner  without  Sugar :  —  a  happy  mixture  of 
theiTi,  and  proportion  to  each  other,  and  the  other 
ingredients,  is  the  '*  chef-d'ccuxrc"  of  a  first-rate  Cook. 

The  art  of  combining  Spices,  &c.,  which  may  be 
tern-ted  the  "  Ilarmuny  of  Flaiours"  no  one  hitherto  has 
attempted  to  teach  :  and  '*  the  rule  of  Thumbs'  is  the 
only   Guide  that  experienced   Cooks    have  heretofore 

•  If  yon  like  the  flavour,  and  do  not  dislikt-  the  expense, ii  stead  of  Alhpice 
put  in  Mace  and  Cloves.  1  he  above  is  very  fimil:ir  to  the  Pnudcr-Jort  need 
ID  Kin?  Richard  the  Second's  Kitchen,  A.  D.  13yo.  See"  Pegge  lorme  </ 
i.ury,"  p.  x\x. 

+  i  he  back  part  of  tlicse  Ovens  is  so  mnch  hotter  than  that  which  k  next 
the  Cre,  that  to  dry  things  equally,  their  situation  must  be  frequently  changed, 
or  those  at  the  back  of  lb*  oven  \sili  be  done  too  much,  before  those  ui  the 
front  are  done  er.oueh. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 


377 


given  for  the  assistance  of  the  Novice,  — in  the  (till  now, 
in  these  pages  explained,  and  rendered,  we  hope,  per- 
fectly intelligible  to  the  humblest  capacity,)  Occult 
Art  of  Cookery.  —  This  is  the  fir d  time  Receipts  in 
Cooker i/  have  been  given  accurately  by  weight  or  measure  !  !  ! 
(See  Obs.  on  ''  the  Education  of  a  Cook's  Tongue,'' 
pages  62  and  63.) 

PEA  POWDER.  —(No.  458.) 
Pound  together  in  a  marble  mortar  half  an  ounce  each 
of  dried  Mint  and  Sage,  —  a  drachm  of  Celery  Seed,  — 
and  a  quarter  drachm  of  Cayenne  Pepper ;  rub  them 
through  a  fine  sieve.  This  gives  a  very  savoury  relish 
to  Pea  Soup,  and  to  Watergruel,  which,  by  its  help, 
if  the  eater  of  it  has  not  the  most  lively  imagination,  he 
may  fancy  he  is  sipping  good  Pease  Soup. 

Obs.— A  drachm  of  i\llspice,  or  Black  repper,maybe 
pounded  with  the  above,  as  an  addition,  or  instead  of 
the  Cayenne. 

Horseradish  Powder.  — {"So.  458*.) 
The  time  to  make  this,  is  during  November  and 
December ;  slice  it  the  thickness  of  a  shilling,  and  lay 
it  to  dry  very  gradually  in  a  Dutch  oven,  (a  strong  li^at 
soon  evaporates  its  flavour),  when  dry  enough,  pound 
it  and  bottle  it. 

Ol^s,  _  See  Horseradish  Vinegar  (No.  399.*) 

Soup-herb  Powder,  or  Vegetable  P\.elish. — (No.  459.) 

Dried  Parsley, 
Winter  Savory, 
Sweet  Marjoram, 

Lemon-thyme,  of  each  two  ounces  ; 
Lemon-peel,  cut  very  thin  and  dried,  and 
Sweet  Basil,  an  ounce  of  each. 

*^*  Some  add  to  the  above.  Bay-leaves  and  Celery  Seed, 
a  drachm  of  each. 

Dry  them  in  a  warm,  but  not  too  hot  Dutch  oren : 


378  GRAVIES    AND    SAUCES. 

when  quite  dried,  pound  them  in  a  mortar,  and  pass 
them  through  a  double  hair  sieve :  put  in  a  bottle 
closely  stopped,  they  will  retain  their  tVagrance  and 
Havour  for  several  montlis. 

N.B.  These  Herbs  are  in  full  perfection  in  July  and 
August,  see  (No.  461.*)  An  infusion  of  the  above  in 
Vinegar  or  Wine,  makes  a  good  relishing  Sauce,  but 
the  Havour  is  best  when  made  witli  fresh  gathered 
herbs,  as  directed  in  (No.  397.) 

Obs.  —  This  composition  of  the  fine  aromatic  herbs, 
is  an  invaluable  acquisition  to  the  Cook,  at  those  seasons 
or  situations  when  fresh  herbs  cannot  be  had ;  and  \vc 
prefer  it  to  the  Ragout  powder  (No.  457),  it  impregnates 
sauce,  soup,  Arc.  with  as  nnich  relish,  and  renders  it 
agreeable  to  the  palate,  and  refreshes  the  gustatory 
nerves,  without  so  much  risk  of  oft'ending  the  Stomach, 
ikQ. 

Soup-herb  and  Savoury  Pouder,  or  QuinfcjiJiCticc  of 
Ragout.  — (No.  460.) 

Take  three  parts  of  Soup-herb  powder  (No.  459),  to 
one  part  of  Savoury  powder  (No.  457.) 

Obs.  —  This  agreeable  combination  of  the  aromatic 
Spices  and  Herbs  should  be  kept  ready  prepared;  it 
will  save  a  great  deal  of  time  in  cooking  Ragouts, 
Stuffings,  Forcemeat  balls,  Soups,  Sauces,  &c. ;  kept 
dry  and  tightly  corked  down,  its  fragrance  and  strength 
may  be  preserved  undiminished  for  some  time. 

N.B.  Three  ounces  of  the  above  will  impregnate  a 
quart  of  Vinegar  or  Wine  with  a  very  agreeable  relish. 

To  Dry  Sweet  and  Savoury  Herbs.  — (No.  461.) 

For  the  following  accurate  and  xaluablc  Information 
the  Reader  is  indebted  to  Mr.  Butler,  Herbalist  and 
Seedsman,  (opposite  Henrietta  Street),  Covent  Garden 
Market,  of  whom  the  several  articles  may  be  obtained 
of  the  best  Quality,  at  the  fair  ]Market  Price. 

**  It  is  very  important  to  those  who  are  not  in  the 


GRAVIES   AND  SAUCES.  379 

constant  habit  of  attending  the  markets,  to  know  when 
the  various  seasons  commence  for  purchasing  sweet 

HERBS. 

"  All  Vegetables  are  in  the  highest  state  of  perfection, 
and  fullest  of  juice  and  flavour,  just  before  they  begin 
to  flower: — the  first  ana  ast  crop  have  neither  the 
fine  flavour  nor  the  perfume  of  those  which  are  gathered 
in  the  height  of  the  season ;  that  is,  when  the  greater 
part  of  the  crop  of  each  species  is  ripe. 

"  Take  care  they  are  gathered  on  a  dry  day,  by  which 
means  they  will  have  a  better  colour  when  dried. 
Cleanse  your  herbs  rvcll  fro?n  dirt  and  dust*,  cut  off"  the 
roots,  separao^e  the  bunches  into  smaller  ones,  and  dry 
them  by  the  heat  of  a  stove,  or  in  a  Dutch  oven  before 
a  common  fire,  in  such  quantities  at  a  time,  that  the  pro- 
cess may  be  speedily  finished,  /.  e.  "  Kill  *em  quick"  says 
a  great  Botanist; — by  this  means,  their  flavour  will 
be  best  preserved, — there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  pro- 
priety of  drying  herbs,  &c.  hastily,  by  the  aid  of  arti- 
ficial heat  rather  than  by  the  heat  of  the  sun.  In  the 
application  of  artificial  heat,  the  only  caution  requisite 
is  to  avoid  burning  ;  and  of  this,  a  sufl&cient  test  is  af- 
forded by  the  preservation  of  the  colour." — The  common 
custom  is,  when  they  are  perfectly  dried,  to  put  them  in 
Bags,  and  lay  them  in  a  dry  place,  but  the  best  way  to 
preserve  the  flavour  of  aromatic  plants,  is  to  pick  oflP 
the  leaves  as  soon  as  they  are  dried,  and  to  pound  them 
and  put  them  through  a  hair  sieve,  and  keep  them 
in  well-stopped  Bottles,!  see  (No.  459.) 

Basil  is  in  the   best   state  for   drying    from    the 


*  "fhis  is  sadly  neglected  by  those  vlio  dry  herbs  for  sale.  If  you  buy 
them  ready  dried,  before  you  pound  them,  cleanse  them  from  dirt  and  dnst, 
by  stripping  the  leaves  from  the  stalks,  and  rub  them  between  your  hands 
over  a  hair  sieve, — put  them  into  the  sieve,  and  shake  them  well,  and  the 
dust  will  go  through. 

+  The  common  custom  is,  to  put  them  into  paper  bags,  and  lay  them  on  a 
?helf  in  the  Kitchen,  exposed  to  all  the  fumes,  steam,  aud  smoke,  &c. :  thus 
(hey  soon  lose  their  flavour. 


380 


GRAVIES  AND   SALCES. 


middle  of  August,    and    three  weeks    after,    see 

(No.  397  ) 
Knotted  Marjoram,  from  the  beginning  of  July, 

and  during  the  same. 
Winter    Savory,  the    latter   end    of  July,    and 

tliroughout  August,  see  Obs.  to  (No.  397.) 
Summer  Savory,  the    latter    end    of   July,    and 

tliroughout  August. 
Thyme, 
Lemon-Thyme, 

Orange-Thyme,*  during  June  and  July. 
Mint,  latter  end  of  June,    and    duriui^    July,  see 

(No.  398.) 
Sage,  August  and  September. 
Tarragon,  June,  July,  August,  see  (No.  396.) 
Chervil,  May,  June,  July,  see  (No.  264.) 
Burnet,  June',  July,  August,  see  (No.  399.) 
pARSLEv,May,  June, and  July,  see  N.B.to(No.'261.) 
Fexnel,  May,  June,  July. 
Elder  Flowers,  May,  June,  July. 
Orange  Flowers,  May,  June,  July. 
N.B.  Herbs  nicely  dried,  are  a  very  acceptable  sub- 
stitute when  f res /i  ones  cannot  be  got, — but,  however 
carefully  dried,   th  •  flavour  and  fragance  of  the  fresh 
herbs  is  incomparably  finer. 

PICKLES.  — (No.  462.) 

Commencing  the  list  with  Walnuts,  I  must  take 
this  opportunity  of  impressing  the  necessity  of  being 
strictly  particular  in  watching  the  due  season  ;  for  of 
all  the  variety  of  articles  in  this  department,  to  furnish 
the  well-regulated  store-room,  nothing  is  so  precarious, 
— for  frequently  after  the  first  week  that  Walnuts  come 

•  A  delicious  herb,  Ihat  deserves  to  be  better  known. 


GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES.  381 

in  season,  they  become  hard  and  shelled,  particularly 
if  the  season  is  a  very  hot  one  :  therefore  let  the  prudent 
housekeeper  consider  it  indispensably  necessary  they 
should  be  purchased  as  soon  as  they  first  appear  at 
market ; — should  they  cost  a  trifle  more,  that  is  nothing 
compared  to  the  disappointment  of  finding  six  months 
hence,  when  you  go  to  your  pickle  jar  expecting  a  fine 
relish  for  your  Chops,  &c.,  to  find  the  nuts  incased  in 
a  shell,  which  defies  both  teeth  and  steel  :  I  there- 
fore recommend  you  to  look  for  Walnuts  from  the 
twelfth  of  July ;  that  being,  I  may  say,  the  earliest  pos- 
sible time. 

Nastertiums  are  to  be  had  by  the  middle  of  July. 
Garlick,  from  Midsummer  to  Michaelmas. 
EsiiALLOTs,  ditto. 

Onions,  the  various  kinds  for  pickling,  are  to  be 

had  by  the  middle  of  July,  and  for  a  month  after. 

Gherkins  are  to  be  had  by  the  middle  of  July,  and 

for  a  month  after. 
Cucumbers  are  to  be  had  by  the  middle  of  July,  and 

for  a  month  after. 
Melons  and  Mangoes  are  to  be  had  by  the  middle 

of  July,  and  for  a  month  after. 
Capsicums,  green,  red,  and  yellow,  the  end  of  July, 

and  following  month. 
Chilies,   the  end   of  July,  and  following  month. 

See  (Nos.  404  and  405*  and  No.  405*^) 
Love    Apples,    or    Tomatas,  end    of  July,    and 

throughout  August.     See  (No.  443.) 
Cauliflower,  for  pickling,  July  and  August. 
Artichokes,  for  pickling,  July  and  August. 
Jerusalem  Artichokes,  for   pickling,   July  and 

August,  and  for  three  months  after. 
Radish  Pods,  for  pickling,  July. 
French  Beans,  for  pickling,  July. 
Mushrooms,  for  pickling  and  catsup,    September. 
See  (No.  439.) 


382 


GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 


Red  Cabbage,  August. 

WjiiTE  Cabbage,  September  and  October. 


Samphire,  August. 


Horseradish,  November  and  December. 

For  Receipts  lor  Pickling,  seethe  Appendix, 


THE  MAGAZINE  OF  TASTE.  -(No.  463.) 

This  is  a  convenient  auxiliary  to  the  Cook.  — 
It  may  be  arranged  as  a  pyramidical  Epergnc  for  a 
Dormant  in  the  centre  of  the  table,  or  as  a  Travelling 
Store  Chest. 

The  fi)llowing  Sketch  will  enable  any  one  to  tit  up 
an  assortment  of  Havourin^^  materials  according  to 
their  own  fancy  and  palate,  and  we  presume,  will 
furnish  sufficient  variety  for  the  amusement  of  the 
gustatory  nerves  of  a  thorough-bred  Grand  Gourmand 
of  the  first  magnitude,  (if  Cayenne  and  Garlick — have 
not  completely  consumed  the  sensibility  of  his  Palate,) 
and  consists  of  a  "  Sauce  Box,"  containing  four  eight- 
ounce  bottles,*  sixteen  four  ounce,  and  eight  two-ounce- 
bottles  : 


1  Pickles. 

2  Brandy. 

3  Curavoa  (\o.  474.) 

4  Syrup  (Yio.  175-) 

5  Salad  Sauce  (Noi.  372  and  453.) 

6  Pudding  Catsup  (No.  446.) 

7  Sauce  Superlative,  or  double  relish 

(No.  429.) 

8  Walnut  pickle. 

9  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439-) 
10  Vinegar. 

n  Oil. 

12  Mustard,  see  (Nos.  370,  and  427.) 

13  Salt,  see  (No.  371.) 

14  Curry  Powder  (No.  435.) 


15  Soy  (No.  436.) 

16  Lemon  Juice. 

17  L.'seuce  of  Anchovy  (No.  433.) 

18  Pepper. 

19  Cayenne  (Nog.  405,  or  405»*.) 

20  Soup-herb  Powder  (No.  459.) 
CI  Ragout  Powder  (No.  457.) 
22  Pea  Powder  (No.  458.) 

£3  Zest  (No.  255.) 

24  Essence  of  Celery  (No,  409.) 

25  Sweet  Herbs  (No.  419.) 

26  Lemon  Peel  (No.  408.) 

27  Eshallot  Wine  (No.  402.) 
2»  Powdered  Mint. 


•  If  the  bottles  are   square,   and   marked  to  quarter  ounces  as   Lyne's 
graduated  measures  are,  it  will  save  trouble  in  compounding. 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 


383 


In  a  drawer  under. 


Half  a  dozen  one  ounce  bottles. 

"Weights  and  scales. 

A   graduated  glass  measure,  divided 

into  tea  and  table  spoons. 
Corkscrew. 


Nutmeg  grater. 
Table  and  tea-spoon. 
Knite  and  fork. 
A  steel,  and  a 
Small  mortar. 


I 


1 

5 

1.} 

21 

6 

14 

22 



7 

15 

23 

2 





8 

16 

24 

9 

17 

25 

10 

18 

26 

— 



11 

19 

27 

i 

12 

CO 

28 

N.B.  The  portable  Magazine  of  Taste  alluded 
to  in  page  51,  may  be  furnished  with — a  four-ounce 
bottle  for  Cogniac  (No.  471),~a  ditto  for  Curagoa 
(No.  474),  an  ounce  bottle  for  Essence  of  Anchovy 
(No.  433), — and  one  of  like  size  for  Cayenne  Pepper 
(No.  404,  or  405.) 

Toast  and  Water.— {^o.  463*.) 

Cut  a  Crust  of  Bread  off  a  stale  loaf,  about  twice 
the  thickness  toast  is  usually  cut,  toast  it  carefully 
until  it  be  completely  browned  all  over,  but  not  at  all 
blackened  or  burnt :  put  this  in  a  jug,  pour  upon  it  as 
much  boiling  water  as  you  wish  to  make  into  drink, 
cover  the  jug,  and  let  it  stand  till  it  is  quite  cold  :  the 
fresher  it  is  the  better. 

Obs.—A  roll  of  thin  fresh  cut  Lemon  or  dried  Orange 
Peel,  or  some  Currant  Jelly  (No.  475*),  Apples  shced 
or  roasted,  &c.  infused  with  the  bread,  are  grateful 
additions. 

N.  B.  This  is  a  refreshing  Su7?imer  Drink  ;  and  when 
the  proportion  of  the  fluids  is  destroyed  by  profuse 
perspiration— may  be  drunk  plentifully.     Let  a  large 


3^  GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES. 

jug  be  made  early  in  the  day  —  it  will  then  become 
warmed  by  the  heat  of  the  air,  and  may  be  drunk 
witliout  danger — which  water,  Cold  as  it  comes  from 
the  well,  cannot  in  Hot  weather. 

Or, 

To  make  it  more  expeditiously,  put  the  bread  into  a 
muo-,  and  just  cover  it  with  boiling  water  ;  let  it  stand 
till  cold,  then  fill  it  up  with  cold  spring  water,  and 
pour  it  through  a  fine  sieve. 

Obs. — The  above  is  a  pleasant  and  excellent  beve- 
rage, grateful  to  the  Stomach,  and  deserves  a  con- 
stant place  by  the  Bedside. 

Cool  Tankard,  or  llccr  Cup.  —  (No.  464.) 

A  quart  of  mild  Ale,  a  glass  of  white  Wine,  one  of 

Brandy,  one  of  Capillaire,  the  juice  of  a  Lemon,  a  roll 

of  the  Peel  pared  thin,  Nutmeg  grated  at  the  top,  (a 

sprig  of  Borrage*  or  Kalm,)  and  a  bit  of  toasted  Bread. 

Cider  Cup— (So.  4G5.) 
Is  the  same, —  only  substituting  Cider  for  Beer. 

r/ip,  _  (\o.  466.) 

Keep  grated  Ginger  and  Nutmeg  with  a  little  fine 
dried  Lemon  Peel  rubbed  together  in  a  mortar. 

To  make  a  quart  of  Flip: — Put  the  Ale  on  the  fire 
to  warm,  —  and  beat  up  three  or  four  Eggs  with  four 
ounces  of  moist  Sugar,  a  teaspoonful  of  grated  Nutmeg 
or  Ginger,  and  a  quartern  of  good  old  Rum  or  Brandy. 


•  "  lioRRAGK  is  oue  of  Ihe  fonr  Cordial  f?owers;"  it  coinforts  the  heart, 
chetrs  melancholy,  and  revives  the  fHintiig  «pii its,  sa>s  Salmon  in  the  45th 
page  of  his  "  IJtmuhuld  Comjiatiion,"  London,  1710.  Aiu\  Evvl\n,  in 
pa^e  13  ui  b\<  Acetoria,  say?,"  the  sprigs,  in  nine,  are  of  kno\vii  viitue 
to  revive  the  Ilypoclondriac,  and  cheer  the  hard  Sludtni."— Combimd  with 
the  ingredients  in  tiie  above  Peceipt,  we  have  Ireqnently  observed  it  produce 
all  the  Cardiac  and  Exhilarating  effects  ascribed  to  it. 


GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES.  385 

When  the  Ale  is  near  to  boil,  put  it  into  one  pitcher, 
and  the  Rum  and  Eggs,  &c.  into  another ; — turn  it  from 
one  pitcher  to  another  till  it  is  as  smooth  as  Cream. 

N.B.  This  quantity  I  styled  0/ie  Yard  of  Flannel. 

Obs. — The  above  is  given  in  the  words  of  the  Pub- 
lican who  gave  us  the  Receipt. 

Tewahdiddle,  —  (No.  467.) 

A  pint  of  Table  Beer,  (or  Ale,  if  you  intend  it  for  a 
supplement  to  your  **  Night-Cap,")  a  tablespoonful  of 
Brandy,  and  a  teaspoonful  of  brown  Sugar,  or  clarified 
Syrup  (No.  475;) — a  little  grated  Nutmeg  or  Ginger 
may  be  added,  and  a  roll  of  very  thin  cut  Lemon  Peel. 

Obs.  — Before  our  readers  make  any  remarks  on  this 
Composition,  we  beg  of  them  to  taste  it;  if  the  materials 
are  good,  and  their  palate  vibrates  in  unison  with  our 
own,  they  will  find  it  one  of  the  pleasantest  beverages 
they  ever  put  to  their  lips, — and,  as  Lord  Rut kt en  says, 
"  this  is  a  right  Gossip's  Cup,  that  far  exceeds  all  the 
Ale  tlmt  ever  Mothep.  Bunch  made  in  her  life-time." — 
See  his  Lordship's  Experiments  on  Cookery,  Syc.  18mo. 
London,  1654,  page  215. 

Sir  Fleetwood  Shepherd's  Sack  Posset. 
(No.  467*.) 

"  From  fam'd  Barbadoes  on  the  western  main 
Fetch  Sugar  ounces  fonr— fetch  Sack  from  Spain, 
A  pint, — and  from  the  Eastern  Indian  Coast 
Kutmeg,  the  glory  of  our  northern  toast; 
O'er  flaming  Coals  let  them  together  heat. 
Till  the  all-conquering  Sack  dissolve  the  sweet ; 
O'er  such  another  fire,  put  Eggs  jnst  ten, 
New-born  from  tread ot  Cock  and  Rump  of  Hen: 
Stir  them  with  steady  hand  and  conscience  pricking 
To  see  the  untimely  end  often  fine  Chicken  ; 
From  shining  shelf  take  down  the  brazen  skiiiet, — 
A  quart  of  milk  from  gentle  Cow  will  fill  ic. 
When  boil'd  and  cold,  put  milk  and  Sack  to  Eggs, 
Unite  them  firmly  like  the  triple  league. 
And  on  the  fire  let  them  together  dwell 
Till  Miss  sing  twice — you  must  not  kiss  and  tell — 
Each  lad  and  lass  take  up  a  silver  spoon, 
And  fall  on  fiercely  like  a  starved  Dragoon," 


386  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

To  bottle  Beer.—{^o.  468.) 

When  the  briskness  and  livehness  of  malt  liquors  In 
the  cask  fail,  and  they  become  dead  and  vapid,  which 
they  s^cnerally  do  soon  after  they  are  tilted,  —  let  them 
be  Bottled. 

Be  careful  to  use  clean  and  dried  bottles ;  leave  them 
unstopped  for  twelve  hours,  and  then  cork  them  as 
closely  as  possible  with  good  and  sound  new  Corks  ;  put 
a  bit  of  lump  sugar  as  big  as  a  nutmeg  into  each 
bottle  :  the  Beer  will  be  ripe,  i.  c.  fine  and  sparkling, 
in  about  four  or  five  weeks  ;  if  the  ueathcr  is  cold,  to 
jnit  it  up,  the  day  before  it  is  to  he  drank,  place  it  in  a 
room  uhcrc  there  is  a  Fire. 

Remember  there  is  a  sediment,  S:c.  at  the  bottom 
of  tlie  Bottles,  which  you  must  carefully  avoid  dis- 
turbing,—  so  pour  it  oft  at  once,  leaving  a  wineglassfuj 
at  the  botl(;ra. 

*^'  If  Beer  becomes  Hard  or  Stale,  a  few  grains  of 
Carbonate  (f  Potash,  added  to  it  at  the  time  it  is  drank, 
■will  correct  it,  and  make  Draught  Beer  as  briik  as  Bottled 
Ale. 

Rich  Raspberry  Jtlne  or  Brandy.  —  (No.  469.) 

Bruise  tlie  finest  ripe  Raspberries  v.'ith  the  back  of  a 
spoon,  strain  them  through  a  flannel  bag  into  a  stone 
jar,  allowing  a  Pound  of  fine  powdered  Loaf  Sugar  to 
each  quart  of  juice  ;  stir  it  well  together,  and  cover  it 
down  ;  let  it  stand  for  three  days,  stirring  it  up  each 
day  ;  pour  off'  the  clear,  and  put  two  quarts  of  Sherry, 
or  one  of  Cogniac  Brandy,  to  each  quart  of  juice ; 
bottle  it  off":  it  will  be  fit  for  the  glass  in  a  fortnight. 

N.B.  Or  make  it  with  the  Jelly  (No.  479.) 

Liqueurs.  — (No.  47L) 

We  have  very  little  to  tell  from  our  own  experience, 

and  refer  our  Reader  to  "  Nouvelle  Chimie  du 

Gout  et  de  l'Odorat,  ou  CArt  du  Distillatevr,  du 

Confi^eur,  et  du  Parfumeur,  mis  (i  la  portee  de  tout  le 


GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES.  387 

iWofw/e,"— Paris,  2  torn.  8vo.  1819;— and  to  Jarrik's 
Italian  CGnfectioner,  Lond.  1820. 

Next  to  teaching  how  to  make  good  things  at  home, 
is  the  information  where  those  things  may  be  procured 
ready  made,  of  the  best  quality. 

It  is  in  rain,  to  attempt  to  imitate  the  best  Foreign 
Liqueurs,  unless  we  can  obtain  the  pure  vinous 
spirit  with  which  they  are  made. 

JoHxsoN  and  Co.,  Foreign  Liqueur  and  Brandy 
Merchants  to  his  Majesty  and  the  Royal  Family ^  No.  2, 
Colonnade,  Pall  Mall,  are  justly  famous  for  importing 
Brandy  of  the  best  quality,  and  selling  it  in  a  genuine 
state,  and  71  varieties  of  Foreign  Liqueurs,  &c., 
and  that  agreeable  and  excellent  coup-d'apres,  "  Es- 
sence OF  Punch." 

His  "  WiTTE  CURA90A"  is  a  Bonne  Bovche  for  an 
Emperor. 

Curafoa.  —  (No.  474.) 

Put  five  ounces  of  thin  cut  Seville  Orange  Peel,  that 
has  been  dried  and  pounded,  into  a  quart  of  the  finest 
and  cleanest  Rectified  Spirit,  (sold  by  Rickards, 
Distiller,  Piccadilly),  —  after  it  has  been  infused  a 
fortnight,  strain  it,  and  add  a  quart  of  Syrup,  and 
filter  ;  see  the  following  Receipt :  — 

To  make  a  Quart  ofCuracoa. 

To  a  pint  of  the  cleanest  and  strongest  Rectified  Spirit, 

(sold  by  Rickards,  Piccadilly),  add  two  drachms  and 

a  half  of  the  Smet  Oil  of  Orange  Peel,  (sold  by  Stewart, 

No.  11,  Old  Broad  Street,  near  the  Bank),  shake  it  up, 

—  dissolve  a  pound  of  good  Lump  Sugar  in  a  pint  of 

cold  water,  make  this  into  a  Clarified  Syrup  (No.  475), 

which  add  to  the  Spirit,  shake  it  up,  and  let  it  stand 

till  the  following  day  —  then  line  a  funnel  with  a  piece 

of    muslin,  and  that  with  filtering  paper,  and  filter  it 

two  or  three  times  till  it  is  quite  bright.     This  Liqueur 

is    an   admirable    cordial  —  and    a   teaspoonful   in   a 

s2 


388  GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 

Turabkr  of  water,  is  a  very  refreshing  Summer  Drink, 
and  a  great  improvement  to  Punch. 

Obs.  —  We  do  not  offer  this  Receipt  as  a  Rival  to 
Mr.  Johnson's  Cura^oa  —  it  is  only  proposed  as  an 
humble  substitute  for  that  incomparable  Liqueur. 

Clarified  S}/rup.  —  (No.  475.) 

Break  into  l^its  two  Pounds  (avoirdupois)  of  double 
refined  Lump  Sugar,  and  put  it  into  a  clean  stewpan 
(that  is  well  tinned),  with  a  Pint  of  cold  spring  water ; 
wlicn  the  Sugar  is  dissolved,  set  it  over  a  moderate 
fire  :  beat  ?bout  half  the  white  of  an  Egg,  put  it  to  the 
Sugar  before  it  gets  warm,  and  stir  it  well  together. 
Watch  it,  and  when  it  boils  take  off  the  scum ;  keep 
it  boiling  till  no  scum  rises,  and  it  is  perfectly  clear, 
then  run  it  through  a  clean  napkin :  put  it  into  a 
close  stopped  bottle  ;  it  will  keep  for  months,  and 
is  an  Elegant  Article  on  the  Sideboard  for  Sweetening. 

Obs.  — The  proportion  of  Sugar  ordered  in  the  above 
Syrup,  is  a  quarter  pound  more  than  that  directed  in 
the  Pharmacopaia  of  the  London  College  of  Physicians. 
The  quantity  of  Sugar  must  be  as  much  as  the  liquor 
is  capable  of  keeping  dissolved  when  cold,  or  it  will 
ferment,  and  quickly  spoil ;  if  kept  in  a  temperate 
degree  of  heat,  the  above  proportion  of  Sugar  may  be 
considered  the  basis  of  all  Syrups. 

Capillaire.—  (So.  476.) 

To  a  pint  of  Clarified  Syrup  add  a  wineglass  of 
Cura^oa  (No.  474),  —  or  dissolve  a  drachm  of  Oil  of 
Keroli  in  two  ounces  of  Rectified  Spirit,  and  add  a  few 
drops  of  it  to  Clarified  Syrup. 

Lemonade  in  a  Minute,  — (No.  477.) 

Pound  a  quarter  of  an  ounce  (avoirdupois)  of  Citric, 
i.  e.  crystallized  Lemon  Acid  *,  with  a  few   drops  of 


•  Tartaric  is  ouly  half  the  price  of  Citric  Acid — bnt  is  very  inferior  in 
flavour,  &c. ;  and  those  who  prepare  this  Syrnp  for  Home  Consumption,  wiU 
always  use  the  Citric. 


GRAVIES   AND   SAUCES.  389 

quintessence  of  Lemon  Peel  (No.  408),  and  mix  it  by 
degrees  with  a  pint  of  Clarified  Syrup  (No.  475),  or 
Capillaire. 

For  Superlative  S^rup  of  Lemons ^  see  (No.  391.) 

Obs.  —  The  proportion  of  Acid  to  the  Syrup,  v/as 
that  selected  (from  several  specimens)  by  the  Com- 
mittee OF  Taste.  We  advise  those  who  are  dis- 
posed to  verify  our  Receipt,  to  mix  only  three-quarters 
of  a  pint  of  Syrup  first,  and  add  the  other  quarter  if 
they  find  it  too  Acid. 

If  you  have  none  of  (No.  408),  flavour  your  Syrup 
with  thin  cut  Lemon  Peel,  or  use  Svrup  of  Lemon  Peel 
(No.  393.) 

A  tablespoonful  of  this  in  a  pint  of  v/ater  will  imme- 
diately produce  a  very  agreeable  Sherbet ;  the  addition 
of  Rum  and  Brandy  will  convert  this  into 

PUXCH  DIRECTLY.  —  (No.  478.) 

Slirub,  or  Essence  of  Punch.  —  (No.  479.) 

Brandy  or  Rum,  flavoured  with  (No.  477),  will  give 
you  very  good  Extempore  "  Essexce  of  Punch." 

Obs.  —  The  addition  of  a  quart  of  Sherry  or  Madeira 
makes  "  Punch  Royal;"  if,  instead  of  wine,  the 
above  quantity  of  water  be  added,  it  will  make  "  Fundi 
for  Chambermaids f'  according  to  Salmon's  Cookery, 
Svo.  London,  1710:  see  page  405 ;  and  (No.  268),  in 
Nott's  Cook's  Dictionary,  Svo.  1724. 

White,  Pud,  or  Black  —  Currant,  —  Grape,  —  JRaspberri', 
4'c.  Je//j/.  —  (No.  479*.) 

Are  all  made  precisely  in  the  same  manner.  When 
the  fruit  is  full  ripe,  gather  it  on  a  dry  day  ;  —  as  soon 
as  it  is  nicely  picked,  put  it  into  a  Jar,  and  cover  it 
down  very  close. 

Set  the  Jar  in  a  Saucepan  about  three  parts  filled 
with  cold  water;  put  it  on  a  gentle  fire,  and  let  it 
simmer  for  about  half  an  hour.     Take  the  pan  from 


390  GRAVIES  AND  SAUCES. 

the  fire,  and  pour  the  contents  of  the  Jar  into  a  Jelly- 
Bag:  pass  the  juice  through  a  second  time;  — (do  not 
squeeze  the  bag.) 

To  each  Pint  of  juice  add  a  pound  and  a  half  of 
good  Lump  Sugar  pounded ;  when  it  is  dissolved,  put 
it  into  a  preserving  pan,  set  it  on  the  fire,  and  boil 
gently,  stirring  and  skimming  it  the  whole  time,  (about 
twenty  minutes),  i.  c.  till  no  more  scum  rises,  —  it  will 
be  then  perfectly  clear  and  fine ;  pour  it  while  warm 
into  pots,  —  and  when  cold,  cover  them  with  paper 
wetted  in  Brandy. 

Haifa  pint  of  this  Jelly,  dissolved  in  a  pint  of  Brandy 
or  Vinegar,  will  give  you  excellent  Currant  or  Rasp- 
berry Brandy  or  Vinegar.  To  make  Sweet  Sauce, 
(No'  346.) 

Obs.  —  Jellies /rom  other  fruits  are  made  in  the 
same  u^ai/,  —  and  cannot  be  preserved  in  perfection 
without  plenty  of  good  Sugar. 

The  best  way  is  the  cheapest, — Jellies  made  with 
too  small  a  proportion  of  Sugar — require  boiling  so 
long  —  there  is  much  more  waste  of  juice  and  flavour 
by  evaporation  than  the  due  quantity  of  Sugar  costs  ; 
and  they  neither  look  nor  taste  half  so  delicate,  as 
when  made  with  a  proper  proportion  of  Sugar,  and 
moderate  boiling. 

Mock  Arrack.  — (So.  480) 

Dissolve  two  scruples  of  flowers  of  Benjamin  in  a 
quart  of  good  Rum,  and  it  will  immediately  impart  to 
it  the  inviting  fragrance  of  "  Vauxhall  Nectar." 

Cakes -feet  Jelli/.  —  (No.  481.) 

Take  four  Calves'  Feet,  (not  those  which  are  sold  at 
Tripe-shops,  which  have  been  boiled  till  almost  all  the 
Gelatine  is  extracted,— but  buy  them  at  the  Butcher's  ;) 
slit  them  in  two,  take  away  the  Fat  from  between 
the  claws,  wash  them  well  in  lukewarm  water,  then 
put  them  in  a  large  stewpan,    and  cover  them  with 


GRAVIES  AND   SAUCES. 


391 


Water;  when  the  liquor  boils,  skim  it  well,  and  let 
it  boil  gently  six  or  seven  hours,  that  it  may  be  re- 
duced to  about  two  quarts,  then  strain  it  through  a 
sieve,  and  skim  all  the  oily  substance  which  is  on  the 
surface  of  the  liquor. 

If  you  are  not  in  a  hurry,  it  is  better  to  boil  the 
Calves'  feet  the  day  before  you  make  the  Jelly,  as 
when  the  liquor  is  cold,  the  oily  part  being  at  the  top, 
and  the  other  being  firm,  with  pieces  of  kitchen  paper 
applied  to  it,  you  may  remove  every  particle  of  the 
oily   substance,  without   wasting  any  of  the    Liquor. 

Put  the  Liquor  in  a  stewpan  to  melt,  with  a  pound 
of  Lump  Sugar,  the  peel  of  two  Lemons,  the  juice 
of  six,  six  whites  of  Eggs  and  shells  beat  together, 
and  a  bottle  of  Sherry  or  Madeira ;  whisk  the  whole 
together  until  it  is  on  the  boil,  then  put  it  by  the 
side  of  the  stove,  and  let  it  simmer  a  quarter  of  an 
hour;  strain  it  through  a  Jelly-bag;  what  is  strained 
first  must  be  poured  into  the  bag  again,  until  it  is  as 
bright  and  as  clear  as  rock  water;  then  put  the  Jelly 
in  moulds,  to  be  cold  and  firm ;  if  the  weather  is  too 
warm,  it  requires  some  ice. 

Ohs.  —  VVhen  it  is  required  to  be  very  stiff,  half  an 
ounce  of  Isinglass  may  be  added  when  the  Wine  is 
put  in. 

It  may  be  flavoured  by  the  juice  of  various  Fruits, 
&c.  and  Spices,  &c.  and  coloured  with  Saffron,  — 
Cochineal,  —  Red  Beet  Juice,  —  Spinage  Juice, — 
Claret,  &c.  —  and  it  is  sometimes  made  with  Cherry 
Brandy,  or  Noi/eau  Rouge,  —  or  Curagoa  (No.  474), 
or  Essetice  of  Punch   (No.  479),  instead  of  Wine. 

N.B.  Ten  Shank  Bones  of  Mutton,  which  may 
be  bought  for  2if/.,  will  give  as  much  Jelly  as  a  Calfs 
foot,  which  costs  a  Shilling.— See  the  20th  and  follow- 
ing lines  in  page  296  of  this  work. 


THE 

COOK^S  ORACLE 


MADE  DISHES,  &c. 


Receipts  fur  Economical  Made  Disiiks,  uritten  for 
the  Cook's  Oh.aclk  —  b\/  an  occowplislied  Exglisii 
Lady.  — (No.  483.) 

These  Experiments  have  arisen  from  my  aversion  to 
Cold  Meat,  and  my  preference  of  what  are  termed 
French  Dishes;  with  wliich  (by  a  certain  manas^c- 
ment)  1  think  I  can  furnish  my  table  at  far  less  ex- 
pense —  than  is  generally  incurred  in  getting  up  a 
Plain  Dinner. 

GuAVY  OR  Sour  Meats  I  never  buy,  —  and  yet  am 
seldom  without  a  good  provision  of  what  is  technically 
denominated  Stock. 

"^Vhen,  as  it  frequently  happens,  we  have  Ha^i 
dressed,  if  the  Joint  be  above  the  weight  of  seven 
pounds,  I  have  it  cut  in  half,  and  prepared  in  the 
following  manner:  —  First,  ensure  that  it  has  been 
properly  soaked,  scraped,  and  cleaned  to  a  nicety,  — 
then,  put  it  into  an  Earthen  Vessel  as  near  its  own  size 
as  possible,  with  just  as  much  water  as  will  cover  it, 
to  which  add  four  Onions,  a  clove  of  Garlick,  half  a 
dozen  Shallots,  a  Bay  leaf,  a  bunch  of  Sweet  herbs, 
half  a  dozen  Cloves,  a  few  Peppercorns  and  Allspice  : 
this  should  be  well  closed,  and  kept  simmering  about 
three  hours.  It  is  then  served  with  Raspings  or  with 
Glazing,  the  rind  having  first  been  taken  off  neatly.  — 


MADE   DISHES,  &C.  393 

The  liquor  is  strained,  and  kept  till  Poultry  of  any  sort, 
or  Meat,  is  boiled,  when  the  liquor  in  which  they  have 
been  dressed  should  be  added  to  it,  and  boiled  down 
fa^t  till  reduced  to  about  three  pints :  when  cold,  it 
will  be  a  highly  flavoured,  well  coloured  Jelly*,  and 
ready  for  Sauce  for  all  kinds  of  R<igouts  and  Hashes, 
&c.  &c. 

A  Fillet  of  Veal,  I  divide  into  Three  Parts;  the 
Meat,  before  it  is  skewered,  will  of  itself  indicate  where 
the  partition  is  natural,  and  will  pull  asunder  as  you 
would  quarter  an  Orange; — the  Largest  Piece  should 
be  stuffed  with  (No.  374,  or  375),  and  rolled  up,  com- 
pactly skewered,  &c.  and  makes  a  veiy  pi-etty  small 
Fillet  —  the  square  Jkit  Piece  will  either  €ut  into  Cutlets 
(No.  90,  or  521),  or  slice  for  a  Pie  —  and  the  Thick 
Piece  must  be  well  larded  and  dressed  as  a  Fricaiukau 
—  which  I  do  in  the  following  manner:  —  Put  the 
larded  Veal  into  a  stev/pan  just  big  enough  to  contain 
it,  with  as  much  water  as  will  cover  it;  when  it  has 
simmered  till  delicately  white,  and  so  tender  as  to  be 
cut  with  a  Spoon,  it  must  be  taken  out  of  the  water 
and  set  apart,  —  and  it  will  be  ready  to  serve  up 
either  with  Sorrel,  Tomata,  Mushrooms  (No,  305,  or 
439),  or  some  of  the  above-mentioned  Stock  —  the 
Fricandeau  being  previously  coloured  with  Glazing  — 
if  with  Mushrooms,  they  should  be  first  parboiled  in 
Salt  and  Vinegar,  and  water,  which  gives  them  flavour, 
and  keeps  them  good  colour. 

The  Sirloin  of  beef  /  likewise  divide  into  Three 
Parts  ;  I  first  have  it  nicely  honed. 

The  Under  part,  or  Fillet,  as  the  French  call  it,  will 
dress  (when  cut  into  slices)  excellently,  either  as  plain 
Steaks  (No.  94),  Curry  (No.  497) ;  or,' it  may  be  larded 
whole,  and  gently  stev.'ed  in  two  quarts  of  water  (a  Bay 
leaf,  two  Onions,  their  skins  roasted  brown,  four  Cloves, 
Allspice,  &c.  &c.)  till  tender,  when  it  should  be  taken 

♦  This  may  bestiil  longer  preserved  —  hy  the  process  diiecled  in  (No.  252.) 

s  5 


394  MADE   DISHES,  Sec. 

out,  drained  quite  dry,  and  put  away  —  it  is  then 
ready  to  be  used  at  any  time  in  the  following-  manner: 
—  Season  and  dredge  it  well,  then  put  it  into  a  stew- 
pan  in  which  a  piece  of  Butter  has  been  previously 
fried  to  a  fine  froth ;  when  the  Meat  is  sufficiently 
brown,  take  it  out,  and  throw  into  the  pan  half  a  dozen 
middle-sized  Onions  to  do  a  fine  Gold  Colour;  that 
accomplished,  (durinj:^  which  the  Dredger  should  be  in 
constant  use,)  add  half  a  pint  of  Stock,  and  a  tea- 
spoonful  of  Tarragon  Vinegar  (No,  396),  and  let  the 
Onions  stew  gently  till  nearly  tender;  the  Beef  should 
then  be  returned  to  the  stewpan,  and  the  whole  suffered 
to  simmer  till  the  meat  is  warm  through:  care  must  be 
taken  that  the  Onions  do  not  break,  and  they  should 
be  served  round  the  Beef  \vith  as  much  Sauce  as  will 
look  graceful  in  the  dish.  The  Fillet  is  likewise  very 
good  without  t/ie  Jricd  Onions;  —  in  that  case,  you 
should  chop  and  mix  up  together,  a  Shallot,  some 
Parsley,  a  few  Capers  and  the  Yolk  of  a  hard  Egg, 
and  strew  them  lightly  over  the  surface  of  the  Beef, 

Tin-  Fat  End  of  the  Sirloin  and  Bones  should  be  put 
to  simmer  in  the  li(|Uor,  in  which  the  Fillet  was  first 
stewed,  and  done  till  the  Beef  looks  loose;  it  should 
then  be  put  away  into  a  deep  vessel,  and  the  Soup 
strained  over  it,  which  cooling  with  the  Fat  upon  the 
top  (thereby  excluding  the  air),  will  keep  as  long  as 
may  be  required; — when  the  Soup  is  to  be  used,  the 
fat 'must  be  cleared  from  it,  —  a  Carrot,  Parsnip,  a 
head  of  Celery,  a  Leek,  and  three  Turnips,  cleaned 
and  .scalded,  should  be  added  to  it,  and  the  whole 
sufiered  to  simmer  gently  till  the  vegetables  are  quite 
done,  when  they  must  be  strained  from  the  liquor,  and 
the  Soup  served  up  with  large  square  thick  pieces  of 
toa>^tcd  bread. 

Those  who  like  a  Plain  Bouillt  warm  the  Beef  in  the 
Soup,  and  serve  it  up  with  the  Turnips  and  Carrots 
which  had  been  strained  before  from  the  Soup.  A 
White  Cabbage  quartered,  is  no  bad  addition  to  the 


MADE  DISHES,  8vC.  395 

(Garnish  of  the  Bouilli,  or  to  the  flavour  of  the  Soup. 
If  it  is  a  Dressed  Bouilli,  sliced  Carrots  and  Button 
Onions  should  be  stewed  in  thickened  Stock,  and 
poured  over  the  Meat 

A  Neck  of  Muftun,honed,  sprinkled  with  dried  Sage, 
powdered  fine,  or  (No.  378)  seasoned  and  rolled  and 
roasted,  is  very  good.  T/ie  Bones  and  Scrag  make 
excellent  Gravy  stewed  down,  and  if  done  very  gently, 
the  Meat  is  not  bad  eating.  The  same  herbs  should 
be  put  to  it,  as  to  other  Stocks,  with  the  addition  of  a 
Carrot;  this  will  make  very  good  Mutton  Broth.  In 
short,  wherever  there  are  Bancs  or  Trinwiings  to  be  got 
out  of  any  Meat  that  is  dressed  in  my  Kitchen,  they 
are  made  to  contribute  towards  Soup  or  Gravy,  or 
(No.  252.) 

Instead  of  roasting  a  Hare  (which  at  best  is  but  dry 
food),  stew  it,  if  Young,  Plain,  —  if  an  Old  one,  Lard  it. 
The  Shoulders  and  Legs  should  be  taken  off,  and  the 
Back  cut  into  three  pieces ;  these,  with  a  Bay  leaf,  half 
a  dozen  Shallots,  one  Onion  pierced  with  four  Cloves, 
should  be  laid  with  as  much  good  vinegar  as  will  cover 
ihem,  for  twenty-four  hours  in  a  deep  dish.  In  the 
mean  time,  the  Head,  Neck,  Ribs,  Liver,  Heart,  &c.  &c. 
should  be  browned  ia  frothed  Butter  well  seasoned  — 
add  half  a  pound  of  lean  Bacon  cut  into  small  pieces,  a 
large  bunch  of  Herbs,  a  Carrot,  and  a  few  Allspice  • — 
simmer  these  in  a  quart  of  water  till  it  be  reduced  to 
about  half  the  quantity,  when  it  should  be  strained, 
and  those  parts  of  the  Hare  which  have  been  infused 
in  the  vinegar,  should  (v.'ith  the  whole  contents  of  the 
dish)  be  added  to  it,  and  stewed  till  quite  done.  Those 
who  like  Onions  may  brown  half  a  dozen,  stew  them 
in  a  part  of  the  Gravy,  and  dish  them  round  the 
Hare. 

When  it  comes  from  the  table,  supposing  some  to 
be  left,  the  Meat  should  be  taken  from  the  Bones,  and 
with  a  few  Forcemeat  balls,  the  remains  of  the  Gravy, 
and  about  a  quarter  of  a  pint  of  Red  Wine  aad  a  pro- 


396  MADE   DISHES,  SCC. 

portionable  quantity  of  water,  it  will  make  a  very  pretty 
Soup  —  to  those  who  have  no  objection  to  Catsup, 
(No.  439),  a  spoonful  in  the  original  Gravy  is  an  im- 
provement, as  indeed  it  is  in  every  made  Dish  where 
the  Mushroom  itself  is  not  at  command. 

Every  Razout,  in  my  opinion,  should  be  dressed  the 
day  before  it  is  wanted,  that  any  Faf  which  has  escaped 
the  skimming  spoon,  may  with  case  be  taken  off  when 
oold. 

Calf's  Head. —  Take  the  half  of  one,  with  the 
skin  on,  —  put  it  into  a  larc^e  stewpan  with  as  much 
water  as  will  cover  it,  a  knuckle  of  Ham,  and  the  usual 
accompaniments  of  Onions,  Herbs,  &:c.  dv-c.  and  let  it 
simmer  till  the  flesh  may  be  separated  from  the  bone 
with  a  Spoon  —  do  so,  and  while  still  hot  cut  it  into  as 
large  a  sized  sijuarc  as  the  piece  will  admit  of;  — the 
trimmings  and  half  the  liquor  put  by  in  a  tureen;  to 
the  rcmainiii2"  half  add  a  gill  of  White  Wine,  and  reduce 
the  whole  of  that  hy  quick  boi/ing  till  it  is  again  half 
consume^,  when  it  should  be  ])Oured  over  the  large 
square  piece  in  an  Earthen  Vessel  surrounded  ^vith 
Mushrooms,  white  Button  Onions,  small  pieces  of 
Pickled  Pork  (half  an  inch  in  breadth,  and  one  and  a 
half  in  length),  and  the  Tongue  in  slices,  and  simmered 
till  the  whole  is  fit  to  serve  up;  some  browned  Force- 
meat balls  are  a  pretty  addition.  After  this  comes  from 
the  Table,  the  remains  should  be  cut  into  small  pieces 
and  mixed  up  with  the  Trimmings  and  licpjor,  which 
(with  a  little  more  wine)  properly  thickened,  will  make 
a  very  frofXi  Mock  Turtle  Soup  for  a  future  occasion. 


To  Ha.^h  Mutton,  cSc  —  (No.  484.) 

Cut  the  Meat  into  handsome  slices,  and  trim  off  all 
the  sinews,  skin  and  gristle,  &c. — put  in  nothing  but  u-hat 
is  to  be  eaten,  lay  tliem  on  a  plate,  ready ;  prepare  your 
Sauce  as  receipt  (No.  360),  or  (No.  451),  or  (No.  486), 
put  in  the   Meat,   and  let  it  simmer  gently  till  it  h 


MADE  DISHES,  &C.  397 

thoroughly  warm  ;  —  do  not  let  it  Boil,  as  that  will  make 
the  Meat  tough  and  hard*,  and  it  will  be,  as  Joax 
Cromwell t  has  it,  a  Harsh. 

Obs.  —  Select  for  your  Hash,  those  parts  of  the  joint 
that  are  least  done.  It  is  a  mode  of  Cookery  by  no 
means  suited  to  delicate  stomachs ;  unless  the  Meat, 
&c,  be  considerably  under-done  the  first  time — a  second 
dressing  must  spoil  it. 

To  WARM  Hashes  t'  —  Q^o.  485.) 
Made  Dishes, — Stews, — Ragouts,— Soups,  &c.  Put 
what  you  have  left,  into  a  deep  hash  dish,  or  tureen  : 
when  you  w  ant  it,  set  this  in  a  stewpan  of  boiling  water ; 
let  it  s*^tand  till  the  contents  are  quite  warm. 

To  Hash  Beef,  cSr.  — (No.  486.) 

Put  a  pint  and  a  half  of  Broth,  —  or  Water,  with  an 
ounce  of  (No.  252), or  a  large  tablespoonful  of  Mushroom 
Catsup  into  a  stewpan  with  the  Gravy  you  have  saved 
that  was  left  from  the  Beef,  and  put  in  a  quarter  ounce 
of  onion  sliced  very  tine,  and  boil  it  about  ten  minutes  ; 
put  a  large  tablespoonful  of  Flour  into  a  basin,  just  wet 

*  Hashes  and  r.Ieats  dressel  a  second  time,  should  only  simmer  gently, 
till  just  uarm  through  ;  it  is  supposed  they  have  beeu  done  very  nearly,  if 
not  quite  tiiougb,  alreatly  :  select  those  parts  of  the  joint  that  have  been  least 
done. 

In  making  a  Hash  from  a  Leg  of  Mutton,  do  not  destroy  the  Marrow- 
bone to  help  the  gravy  of  your  h:ish,  to  'svhich  it  "witl  make  no  perceptible 
addition;  but  saw  it  in  two,  twist  writing  paper  round  the  ends,  and  send  it 
up  on  a  plate  as  a  side  dish,  garnished  with  sprr;4s  of  pai-sley :  — if  it  is  a 
Roast  leg,  preserve  the  end  bone,  atid  send  it  up  between  the  marrow- 
hones.    This  is  a  very  preity  Luncheon,  or  Supper  dish. 

t  See  "  the  Court  and  AltcAc7J  o/" Elizabeth,  commonly  called  Joa7i 
Cromwell,"  l6mo.,  London,  l664,  page  10(j. 

i  The  "  Bain-Marie,"  or  Watkr-b\th,  see  note  to  QSo.  529),  is  the  best 
utensil  to  warm  up  made  dishes,  and  ihiiigs  that  have  "been  already  sufficiently 
dreised,  as  it  neillier  coiisnir.cs  the  sauce,  nor  hardens  the  meat : — if  you  have 
iK>f  a  V>;Tter-Bath,  a  Dutch  Oven  will  sometimes  supply  the  place  of  it. 

"  Bain-]\Larie"  is  a  flat  vessel  contaioing  boiling  water;  you  put  all  your 
stewpans  into  the  v«ater,  and  keep  that  v,'ater  always  very  hot,  but  it  must 
not  boil ;  the  effect  of  this  Eain-Marie  is  to  keep  every  thing  warm  ■withont 
altering  either  the  quantity  or  the  quality,  particalarly  the  quality.  When  I 
had  the  honour  of  serving  a  Nobleman  who  kept  a  very  extensive  hunting 
establishment,  and  the  hour  of  dinner  was  consequently  uncertain,  I  was  in 
the  habit  of  irsing  Bain-Marie,  as  a  certain  means  of  preserving  tlie  flavoor 
of  all  my  dishes.    If  you  keep  your  sauce  or  broth  or  soup  by  the  fireside,  the 


398  MADE  DISHES,  &.C. 


it  with  a  little  water,  mix  it  well  tog;ether,  and  then  stir 
it  into  the  broth,  and  give  it  a  boil  for  five  or  ten 
minutes,  rub  it  through  a  sieve,  and  it  is  ready  to  receive 
the  Beef,  &c.,  let  it  stand  by  the  side  of  the  fire,  till 
the  Meat  is  warm. 

N.B.  A  teaspoonful  of  Parsley  chopped  as  fine  as 
possible,  and  put  in  five  minutes  before  it  is  served  up, 
is  a  great  addition  ; — others  like  half  a  wines^lass  of  Port 
wine,  and  a  dessertspoonful  of  Currant  Jelly. 

Sec  also  (No.  3^0),  wijich  will  show  you  every  variety 
of  manner  of  making  and  flavouring  the  most  highly 
finished  Hash  Sauce,  and  (Nos.  484,  485,  and  506.) 

CoU  Meat  Broiled,  uith  Poached  Eggs.— (So.  487.) 

The  inside  of  a  Sirloin  of  Beef  is  best  for  this  dish, 
or  a  Leg  of  Mutton.  Cut  the  slices  of  even  and  equal 
tliickness,  and  broil  and  brown  them  carefully  and 
slightly  over  a  clear  smart  fire,  or  in  a  Dutch  oven,  give 
those  slices  most  lire  that  are  least  done  ;  —  lay  them  in 
a  dish  before  the  lire  to  keep  hot,  while  you  poach  the 
Eggs,  as  directed  in  (No.  546),  and  mashed  Potatoes 
(No.  106.) 

0/«. — This  makes  a  savoury  Luncheon  or  Supper, — 
but  is  more  relishing  than  nourishing,  unless  the  Meat 
was  under-done  the  first  time  it  was  dressed. 

No.  307  for  Sauce,  to  which  some  add  a  few  drops 
of  Shallot  wine  or  vinegar.  See  (No.  402),  or  (No.  439), 
or  (No.  359),  \varmed, — or  Grill  Sauce  (No.  355.) 

Mrs.  Phillips's  Iri.'>h  Sfc-u:.  —  (No.  488.) 

Take  five  thick  Mutton  Chops  or  two  pounds  off  the 
neck  or  loin  ;  four  pounds  of  Potatoes  ;  peel  them,  and 
cut  them  in  halves  ;  six  Onions,  or  half  a  pound  of 
onions,  peel  and  slice  them  also; — first  put  a  layer  of 


soap  redaces  and  becomes  too  s»rong,  and  the  sunce  tliickeus  as  well  as  re- 
duces. This  is  the  best  way  of  wanning  Turtle,  or  Mock  Turtle  Soup, —  as 
the  thick  part  is  always  at  tlic  bottom,  and  this  method  prevents  it  from 
hurniug,  and  keeps  it  always  good."  —  Ude's  Cookery,  page  18. 


MADE  DISHES,  8CC.  399 

Potatoes  at  the  bottom  of  your  stewpan,  then  a  couple 
of  Chops  and  some  of  the  Onions  ;  then  a^ain  potatoes, 
and  so  on  till  the  pan  is  quite  full, —  a  small  spoonful 
of  white  pepper,  and  about  one  and  a  half  of  salt,  and 
three  gills  of  broth  or  gravy ;  cover  all  very  close  in, 
so  as  to  prevent  the  steam  from  getting  out,  and  let 
them  stew  two  hours  on  a  very  slow  fire.  A  small  slice 
of  ham  is  a  great  addition  to  this  dish.  The  Cook  will 
be  the  best  judge  when  it  is  done,  as  a  great  deal 
depends  on  the  fire  you  have. 

N.B.  Great  Care  must  be  taken  not  to  let  it  burn, 
and  that  it  does  not  do  too  fast. 

To  make  an  Irish  Stexv,  or  Hunter's  Pie. 

Take  part  of  a  Neck  of  Mutton,  cut  it  into  chops, 
season  it  well,  put  it  into  a  stewpan,  let  it  brase  for 
half  an  hour,  take  two  dozen  of  potatoes,  boil  them, 
mash  them,  and  season  them,  butter  your  mould,  and 
hne  it  with  the  potatoes,  put  in  the  Mutton,  bake  it  for 
half  an  hour,  then  it  will  be  done,  cut  a  hole  in  the  top 
and  add  some  good  gravy  to  it 

N.B.  The  above  is  the  contribution  of  Mr.  Morrison 
of  the  Leinster  Hotel,  Dublin. 

A  good  Scotch  Haggles.  —  (No,  488*.) 
Make  the  haggies-bag  perfectly  clean ;  parboil  the 
draught,  boil  the  liver  very  well,  so  as  it  will  grate  ; 
dry  the  meal  before  the  fire ;  mince  the  draught  and  a 
pretty  large  piece  of  beef  very  small ;  grate  about  half 
of  the  hver  ;  mince  plenty  of  the  suet  and  some  onions 
small ;  mix  all  these  materials  very  well  together,  w^ith 
a  handful  or  two  of  the  dried  meal ;  spread  them  on 
the  table,  and  season  them  properly  with  salt  and  mixed 
spices;  take  any  of  the  scraps  of  beef  that  is  left  from 
mincing,  and  some  of  the  water  that  boiled  the  draught, 
and  make  a'jout  a  choppin  {i.  e.  a  quart)  of  good  stock 
of  it;  then  put  all  the  haggies  meat  into  the  bag,  and 
that  broth  in  it;  then  sew  up  the  bag;  but  be  sure  to 


400  MADE   DISHES,  SCC. 

put  out  all  the  wind  before  you  sew  it  quite  close.  If 
you  thiuk  the  bag  is  tliin,  you  may  put  it  in  a  cloth. 
If  it  is  a  large  haggies,  it  will  take  at  least  two  hours 
boiling. 

N.B.  The  above  we  copied  verbathn  from  Mrs. 
Maciver,  a  cdtiratcd  Cukdomun  Professor  of  the  Cu- 
linary art,  uho  taught  and  published  a  book  of  Co<^kcrij  at 
Edinburgh,  A.D.  IISI. 

Minced  Collops. 

"  This  is  a  favourite  Scotch  dUh,  —  few  families  are 
without  it,  —  it  keeps  well,  and  is  always  ready  to  make 
an  extra  dish. 

*'  Take  Beef,  and  chop  and  mince  it  very  small ;  to 
which  add  some  salt  and  pepper.  Put  this,  in  its  raw 
state,  into  small  jars,  and  pour  on  the  top  some  clarified 
butter.  When  intended  for  use,  \m\.  the  clarified  butter 
into  a  frvin^^pan,  and  slice  some  onions  into  tlie  pan, 
and  frv  them.  Add  a  little  water  to  it,  and  then  put 
in  the  minced  meat.  Stew  it  well,  and  in  a  few  minutes 
it  will  be  fit  to  serve  up." — The  Hon.  Jon\  Cociirane's 
Scatnans  Guide,  Svo.  1797.  p.  4'2. 

Harrico*  Mutton,  a  la  Moosi-Aye.  —  (Xo.  489.) 
Cut  the  best  end  of  a  Neck  or  Loin  of  Mutton  that 
has  been  kept  till  tender,  into  Chops  of  equal  thick- 
ness, one  rib  to  each  ;  ("  Ics  bons  homines  dc  bouche  dc 
Paris"  cut  two  chops  to  one  bone,  but  it  is  more  con- 
venient to  help  when  there  is  only  one,  two  at  a  time  is 
too  large  a  dose  for  John  Bull,)  trim  off  most  of  the  Fat, 
and  the  lower  end  of  the  chine  bone,  and  scrape  it 
clean ;  —  flatten  them  with  a  cleaver,  and  lay  them  in 
a  Stewpan,  with  an  ounce  of  Butter  and  a  large  Onion  ; 
---  set  it  over  a  amartfire :  if  your  fire  is  not  sharp,  the 
chops  will  be  done  before  they  are  coloured  :  the  inten- 
tion of  flying  them  is  merely  to  give  litem  a  bromiing. 

*  Probably  a  contractioii  of  "  Ilaut  Ragoiit." 


MADE   DISHES,  &C.  401 

While  the  Chops  are  browning,  peel  and  boil  a  couple 
of  dozen  of  young  button  Onions  in  about  three  pints  of 
water  for  about  15  or  20  minutes,  set  them  by,  —  and 
pour  off  the  liquor  they  were  boiled  in  into  the  stewpan 
with  the  chops,  and  add  as  much  boiling  water  as  will 
cover  them,  remove  the  scum  as  it  rises,  and  then  put 
in  six  ounces  of  Carrots,  and  eight  ounces  of  Turnips 
peeled  and  cut  into  shces,  or  shaped  into  balls  about 
as  big  as  a  nutmeg,  put  in  the  Carrots  twenty  minutes 
before  the  Turnips,  be  careful  they  are  not  stewed  toofiist 
or  too  much,  —  so  take  out  one  of  the  Chops  with  a  fish 
slice,  and  try  it :  when  they  are  tender,  w^hich  will  be 
in  about  an  hour  and  a  half,  then  pass  the  gravy  through 
a  sieve  into  a  basin,  skim  off  the  fat,  and  set  the  meat 
and  vegetables  by  the  fire  to  keep  hot,  and  pour  some 
boiling  water  over  the  button  Onions  to  warm  them, 
and  then  put  them  round  the  Dish,  the  last  thing. 

Thicken  the  Gravy  by  putting  an  ounce  of  Butter 
into  a  Stewpan ;  vvhen  it  is  melted,  stir  in  as  much 
Flour  as  will  stiffen  it ;  pour  the  gravy  to  it  by  degrees, 
stir  together  till  it  boils ;  strain  it  through  a  fine  sieve 
or  tammis  into  a  stewpan,  and  let  it  simmer  gently 
while  you  dish  up  the  Meat  and  Vegetables ;  lay  the 
chops  round  a  dish,  put  the  Vegetables  in  the  middle, 
and  pour  the  thickened  gravy  over.  Some  put  in 
Capers,  &c.,  minced  Gherkins,  &c. 

Obs.  —  Rump  steaks.  Veal  cutlets,  and  Beef 
TAILS,  make  excellent  dishes  dressed  in  the  like 
manner. 

Mutton  Chops  delicately  Stexced,  and  good  Mutton  Broth. 
(No.  490.) 
Put  the  Chops  into  a  stewpan  with  cold  water  enough 
to  cover  them,  and  an  Onion, — when  it  is  coming  to  a 
boil,  skim  it,  cover  the  pan  close,  and  set  it  over  a  very 
slo-iV  Fire  till  the  Chops  are  tender,  —  if  they  have  been 
kept  a  proper  time,  they  will  take  about  three  quarters 
of  an  hour's  very  gentle  simmering.     Send  up  Turnips 


402  MADE   DISHES,  8CC. 

with  them,  (No.  130),  they  may  be  boiled  with  the 
chops,  skim  well,  and  then  send  all  up  in  a  deep  dish, 
with  the  Broth  they  were  stewed  in. 

N.B.  The  Broth  will  make  an  Economist  one,  —  and 
the  Meat  another  whcdesome  and  comfortable  meal. 

Shouldir  of  Lamb  Grilled.  — {^o.  491.) 

Boil  it,  —  score  it  in  chequers  about  an  inch  square, 
rub  it  over  with  the  yolk  of  an  c^j;,  pepper  and  salt 
it,  strew  it  with  bread-crumbs  and  dried  parsley,  or 
sweet  Herbs,  or  (No.  457  or  459),  and  Carbonado^  i.  e. 
Grill,  i.  e.  Broil  it  over  a  clear  fire,  or  put  it  in  a  Dutch 
oven  till  it  is  a  nice  lijiht  brown ;  send  up  some 
gravy  with  it,  or  make  a  sauce  for  it  of  flour  and 
water  well  mixed  t();j;eth('r  with  an  ounce  of  fresh  but- 
ter, a  tablespf)onful  of  mushroom  or  walnut  catsup, 
and  the  juice  of  half  a  lemon.  See  also  Grill  Sauce 
(No.  355.) 

N.B.  Breasts  of  Lamb  are  often  done  the  same  way, 
and  with  Musliroom  or  Mutton  sauce  (No.  307.) 

Lamb'.s  Fry.  —  (No.  492.) 
Fry  it  plain,  or  dip  it  in  an  egg  well  beaten  on  a 
plate,  and  strew  some  fine  stale  bread  crumbs  over  it ; 
garnish   with    crisp    parsley   (No.  389.)      For    sauce 
(No.  355;,  or,  (No.  356.) 

Shin  of  Beef  '  Stewed.  —  (No.  493.) 

Desire  the  butcher  to  saw  the  bone  into  three  or  four 
pieces,  put  it  into  a  stewpan,  and  just  cover  it  with 
cold  water,  —  when  it  simmers,  skim  it  clean,  —  then 
put  iu  a  bundle  of  Sweet  Herbs,  a  lar;^e  Onion,  a  head 
of  Celery,  a  dozen  berries  of  Black  Pepper,  and  the 
same  of  Allspice  :  —  stew  very  gently  over  a  slow  fire 

•  The  proveib  says,"  Of  all  the  Fowls  of  t  lie  Air,  commeiirt  me  to  the 
Shin  of  Beek,— fur  there's  Marrow  tor  the  master,  —  Meal  for  the  mistress, 
(iri«iie«  for  the  Servants,  and  Boues  for  the  Dogs." 


MADE  DISHES,  &C.  403 

till  the  Meat  is  tender,  —  this  will  take  from  about 
Three  hours  and  a  half,  to  four  and  a  half. 

Take  three  Carrots,  peel  and  cut  them  into  small 
squares; — peel  and  cut  ready  in  small  squares  a  couple 
of  Turnips,  with  a  couple  of  dozen  of  small  young  round 
silver  Button  Onions;  boil  them  till  tender,  the  Turnips 
and  Onions  will  be  enough  in  about  fifteen  minutes,  — - 
the  Carrots  will  require  about  twice  as  long  —  drain 
them  dry. 

When  the  Beef  is  quite  tender,  take  it  out  carefully 
with  a  slice,  and  put  it  on  a  dish  while  you  thicken  a 
pint  and  a  half  of  the  Gravy  :  to  do  this,  mix  three 
tablespoonsful  of  flour  with  a  teacupful  of  the  beef 
liquor;  to  make  Soup  of  the  rest  of  it,  see  (No.  238), 
stir  this  thoroughly  together  till  it  boils,  scum  off  the 
Fat,  strain  it  through  a  sieve,  and  put  your  vegetables  in 
to  warm ;  —  Season  with  pepper,  salt,  and  a  wineglass  of 
Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439),  or  Port  wine,  or  both, 
and  pour  it  over  the  Beef. 

Send  up  Wow  Wow  sauce  (No.  328),  in  a  boat, 

N.B.  Or,  instead  of  sending  up  the  Beef  whole,  cut 
the  meat  into  handsome  pieces  fit  to  help  at  table,  and 
lay  it  in  the  middle  of  the  dish,  with  the  Vegetables 
and  Sauce  (which,  if  you  flavour  with  (No.  455),  you 
may  call  "  Beef  Curry,")  round  it.  A  Leg  of 
Mutton  is  excellent  dressed  the  same  way,  —  equal  to 
"  k  Gigot  de  sept  hcures^'  so  famous  in  the  French  kitchen. 

Obs.  —  This  Stew  has  every  claim  to  the  attention 
of  the  Rational  Epicure,  being  one  of  those  in  which 
"  Frugality,"  "  Nourishment,"  '•  and  Pala- 
TABLENESs,"  are  most  happily  combined,  — and  you  get 
half  a  Gallon  of  excellent  Broth  into  the  bargain. 

We  advise  the  Mistress  of  the  table,  to  call  it  "  Ra- 
gout Beef  ;"  this  vrill  ensure  it  being  eaten  with  una- 
nimous applause ;  —  the  homely  appellation  of  Shin  of 
Beef  stewed  J  is  enough  to  give  your  Genteel  eater  a 
locked  jaw. 

"  Remember,  when  the  Judgment's  weak,  thu  Prejudice  is  strong," 


404  MADE  DISHES,  &C. 

Our  Modem  Epicures  resemble  the  Ancient*,  who 
thoui^ht  the  dearest  dish  must  be  the  most  delicious  : 

"  And  think  all  Wisdom  lies 

"  In  being  im pertinently  iike." 

Thus,  they  reckon  Turtle  and  Punch,  to  be  '*  s/uTcnlif 
fohe  per  shent"  more  inviting  tlian  Mock  Turtle  and 
Good  Malt  Liquor,  —  however  bad  the  fonner  may  be, 
and  however  <jood  the  latter;  —  we  wish  these  folks 
could  be  made  to  understand,  that  the  Sou[)  for  each, 
and  all  the  accompaniments,  are  precisely  the  same; — 
there  is  this  only  diHerenee,  the  former  is  commonly 
made  with  a  •'  STARRED  TURTLE,''  (see  Notes  at  the 
foot  of  paire  288,)  the  latter  with  a  "  FATTED 
CALF."     ^^^  (Nos.  247,  ;M3,  and  343\) 

Tile  scarcity  of  tolerably  good  cooks,  ceases  to  be 
surprising,  when  we  reflect  how  much  more  astonishing 
is  the  ignorance  of  most  of  those  who  assume  the 
character  of  Scientific  couUMANDSf,  so  extremely 
ignorant  of  "  the  affairs  of  the  Mouth,"  —  they  seem 
hardly  to  "  knon  a  Sheep  s  head  from  a  Carrot,'  and  their 
real  pretensions  to  be  profound  Palaticians,  are  as 
moderate,  as  the  wine  merchant's  customer,  whose 
sagacity  in  the  selection  of  Liquors,  was  only  so  ex- 
quisite, that  —  he  knew  that  Port  wine  was  black,  and 
tiiat  if  he  drank  enough  of  it,  it  would  make  him 
drunk. 


•  The  remotest  parts  of  the  world  were  visited,  and  Earth,  Air,  and  Occaa 
ransacked  to  furnish  the  complicated  delicacies  of  a  Roman  Supper. 

"  HuUlas  tells  us,  that  Pilyllus,  who  had  a  Hot  tongue  and  a  C'oW stomach, 
in  order  to  gr;ilify  the  latter  without  ofleuding  the  former, — made  a  bhcath  for 
Lis  Tongue,  so  that  he  could  swallow  his  potlii{:e  scalding  hot ;  yea,  I  myself 
have  known  a  Shropshire  GentleiHanof  the  like  quality  !  I"— See  Dr.  Moffbt 
on  Food,  4io.  l655. 

"  In  the  refined  extravagance  of  the  tables  of  the  great,  where  the  Culinary 
arts  are  pushed  to  excess, —  Luxury  becomes  false  to  itself,  and  things  arc 
valued,  n«jt  as  they  are  nutritious,  or  agreeable  to  the  appetite,  but  in  ])ro- 
portion  as  they  are  rare,  —  out  of  season,  —  or  costly."  —  Cadogan  oiiGout, 
avo.  1771,  page  48. 

1 "  Cookery  is  an  art,  appreciated  by  only  a  very  few  individuals,  and  which 
requires,  in  addition  to  a  most  studious  and  diligent  application,  no  sinaHsbare 
of  iuiellecf,  and  the  strictest  sobriety  and  punctuality."  —  Preface  to  Uui's 
Cookery,  page  vi. 


MADE  DISHES,  &C.  405 

Brisket  of  Beef  Steiced.  —  (No.  494.) 

This  is  prepared  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  "  Sovp 
and  BouilU:'     See  (Nos.  5,  238,  or  493.) 

Harrkot  if  Beef.  — Q^o.  495.) 

A  stewed  brisket  cut  in  slices,  and  sent  up  with  the 
same  Sauce  of  roots,  &c.,  as  we  have  directed  for 
harricot  of  mutton  (No.  489),  is  a  most  excellent  dish, 
of  very  moderate  expense. 

Savoury  Salt  Beef  Baked. —  (^o.  496.) 
The  Tongue  Side  of  a  round  of  Beef  is  the  best  bit 
for  this  purpose;  if  it  weighs  fifteen  pounds  let  it  hang 
two  or  three  days ;  then  take  three  ounces  of  Saltpetre, 
one  ounce  of  coarse  Sugar,  a  quarter  of  an  ounce  of 
Black  pepper,  and  same  of  Allspice,  (some  add  a  quarter 
of  an  ounce  of  Ginger,  or  (No.  457),  and  some  minced 
sweet  and  savoury  Herbs  (No.  459),  and  three  quarters 
of  a  pound  of  common  Salt;  incorporate  these  ingre- 
dients by  pounding  them  together  in  a  mortar;  then 
take  the  bone  out,  and  rub  the  Meat  well  with  the 
above  mixture,  turning  it  and  rubbing  it  every  day  for 
a  fortnight. 

When  you  dress  it,  put  it  into  a  pan  with  a  quart  of 
water ;  cover  the  meat  with  about  three  pounds  of 
mutton  suet*  shredded  rather  thick,  and  an  onion  or 
two  minced  small ;  cover  the  whole  with  a  flour  crust 
to  the  top  or  brim  of  the  pan,  and  let  it  be  baked  in  a 
moderate  oven  for  about  six  hours,  (or,  just  cover  it 
with  water,  and  let  it  stew  very  gently  for  about  five 
hours,  and  when  you  send  it  to  table,  cover  the  top  of 
it  with  finely  chopped  Parsley.)  If  the  Beef  weighs 
more,  put  a  proportional  addition  of  all  the  ingredients. 

*  This  Suet  is  not  to  be  wasted, —  -when  it  comes  from  the  oven,  take  *nt 
the  Beef,  and  strain  the  contents  of  the  pan  through  a  sieve, —  let  it  stand  till 
it  is  cold,— then  clarify  the  fat  as  directed  in  (No.  83),  and  it  will  do  for 
Frying,  &c. 


406  MADE  PISHF.S,  Sec. 

The  Gravy  you  will  find  a  strons:  Consomme  excclfent 
for  Sauce  or  Soup, —  or  making  Soy,  or  Browning,  see 
(No.  322),  and  being  impregnated  with  Salt,  will  keep 
several  days. 

This  Joint  should  not  be  cut  till  it  is  Cold,  —  and  than 
with  a  sharp  knife  to  prevent  waste,  and  keep  it  even 
and  comely  to  the  eye. 

Obs.  —  I  his  is  a  most  excellent  way  of  preparing 
and  dressing  Beef  (No.  503),  —  and  a  savoury  dish,  for 
Sandicic/ies,  &c  , —  in  moderate  weather  it  will  keep 
good  for  a  fortnight  after  it  is  dressed:  it  is  one  of  the 
most  economical  and  elegant  articles  of  ready  dressed 
keeping  provisions ;  deser\ing  the  particular  attention 
of  those  families  who  frequently  have  Accidental  Cus- 
tomers droppinc:  in  at  Luncheon  or  Supper  —  to  whom, 
we  recommend  Morrison's  Provisions,  No.  3,  Charlotte 
Row,  Mansion  House.     See  Note  at  foot  of  page  288. 

Ci'KKiF.s.  —  (No.  497.)  see  also  (No.  249.) 

Cut  Fowls  or  Rabbits  into  joints  ;  put  four  ounces 
of  Butter  into  a  stewpan;  when  it  is  melted,  put  in 
the  meat,  and  two  Onions  sliced  ;  let  them  be  over  a 
smart  fire  till  they  are  of  a  nice  brown,  then  put  in 
half  a  pint  of  Broth  ;  let  it  simmer  twenty  minutes  ; 
put  in  a  basin  one  tablespoonful  of  Curry  Powder 
(No.  455),  one  of  Flour,  and  a  teaspoonful  of  Salt ; 
mix  it  smooth  with  a  little  cold  water,  put  it  in  the 
stewpan,  and  shake  it  well  about  till  it  boils ;  let  it 
simmer  twenty  minutes  longer;  just  before  it  is  dished 
up,  squeeze  in  the  juice  of  half  a  Lemon,  add  one  good 
tablespoonful  of  melted  Butter,  and  it  is  ready. 

Obs.  —  Curry  is  made  also  with  Sueetbreads  — 
Breast  of  Veal —  Veal  Cutlets —  Lamb —  Mutton  or  Park- 
Chaps  —  LoUter  —  Turbot  —  Soles  —  Eels  —  Oysters, 
&c.  prepared  as  above,  or  enveloped  in  (No.  348.) 

Ols^  —  This  is  a  very  savoury,  nourishing,  anel  eco- 
nomical dish,  and  a  valuable  variety  at  a  moderate 
table.     See  Wow  Wow  Sauce,  (No.  328.) 


MADE   DISHES,  Sec.  407 

Ste-xed  Rwvp  Steak.  —  (No.  500.) 

For  two  pounds  of  Steaks,  if  you  fear  they  will  not 
eat  tender,  beat  them  well,  —  line  the  bottom  of  a  three 
quart  Stewpan  with  slices  of  fattish  Ham,  or  Bacon, 
and  on  this  lay  the  Steaks,  (which  should  be  nicely 
trimmed  and  shaped ;)  just  cover  them  with  water,  a 
dozen  corns  of  Allspice,  the  same  of  Black  Pepper, 
the  red  part  of  a  Carrot,  a  little  bundle  of  Savory  and 
Parsley,  a  large  Onion  with  half  a  dozen  Cloves  stuck 
in  it,  and  a  head  of  Celery ;  cover  them  close,  and  let 
them  simmer  gently  about  an  hour  and  a  half,  according 
to  their  thickness ;  if  they  are  thin  Steaks,  an  hour 
may  be  enough. ;  take  care  the  Meat  does  not  go  to  rags 
by  doing  too  f ant ^  or  too  much. 

When  the  Steaks  are  tender,  take  them  up,  flour 
them,  and  fry  them,  only  just  to  brown  them^  in  an 
ounce  of  Butter;  make  some  thickening  with  an  ounce 
of  Butter  and  two  tablespoonsful  of  Flour;  put  it  into 
your  sauce  ;  stir  it  well  together  with  a  wooden  spoon, 
adding  thereto  a  tablespoonful  of  Claret,  or  Port  wine, 
the  same  of  Mushroom  Catsup  (No.  439),  half  a  tea- 
spoonful  of  Salt,  and  a  quarter  of  a  teaspoonful  of 
ground  Black  Pepper  :  dish  your  Steaks,  and  strain 
your  Sauce  to  them. 

Veal  Cutlets  or  Mutton  Chops  may  be  done 
the  same  way,  or  as  Veal  Olives  (No.  518.) 

Obs,  —  This  is  generally  a  second  course  dish,  and 
is  usually  made  too  rich,  —  and  only  fit  to  re-excite 
an  Appetite  already  satiated.  Our  endeavour  is  to 
combine  agreeable  savouriness  with  substantial  nou- 
rishment; those  who  wish  to  enrich  our  Receipt  may 
easily  add  Mushrooms,  —  Wine,  —  Anchovy,  —  Cay- 
enne,—  Bay  leaves,  &c. 

Another  xcay  of  Stewing  Rujnp  Steaks, 
The  Rump  Steaks  must  be  a  little  thicker  than  for 


408  MADE   DISHES,  Sec. 

broiling;,  —  but  ht  them  be  all  the  same  thickness,  or  some 
will  be  done  too  little,  and  others  too  much. 

Put  an  ounce  of  Butter  into  a  stewpan,  with  two 
Onions  ;  when  the  Butter  is  melted,  lay  in  the  Rump 
Steaks,  let  them  stand  over  a  slow  fire  for  five  minutes, 
then  turn  them,  and  let  the  other  side  of  them  fry  five 
minutes  longer.  Have  ready  boiled  a  pint  of  Button 
Onions ;  they  will  take  from  half  an  hour  to  an  hour ; 
put  the  liquor  they  were  boiled  m  to  the  Steaks;  if 
there  is  not  enoup^h  of  it  to  cover  them,  add  broth, 
or  boiling  water,  to  make  up  enough  for  that  purpose, 
with  a  dozen  corns  of  Black  Pepper  and  a  little  Salt, 
and  let  them  simmer  very  genfli/  for  about  an  hour  and 
a  half,  and  then  strain  off  as  much  of  the  liquor  (about 
a  pint  and  a  half)  as  you  think  will  make  the  sauce. 

Put  two  ounces  of  Butter  into  a  stewpan ;  when  it  is 
melted,  stir  in  as  much  Flour  as  will  make  it  into  a 
stift' paste,  add  the  liquor  by  degrees,  let  it  boil  up  for 
fifteen  minutes;  skim  it,  and  strain  it;  serve  up  the 
Steaks  with  the  Onions  round  the  dish,  and  pour  the 
Gravy  over. 

UIjs.  —  Rump  Steaks  are  in  best  condition  from 
Michaelmas  to  Lady-day.  To  ensure  their  bekig  tender, 
give  the  Butcher  thne  or  Jour  dai/s' notice  of  j/our  ivish 
for  them. 

Broiled  Rump  Steak  \iith  Onion  Graxy.  —  (No.  501.) 
Sec  also  (No.  299.) 

Peel  and  slice  two  large  Onions ;  put  them  into  a 
quart  stewpan  with  two  tablespoonsful  of  w^ater :  cover 
the  stewpan  close,  and  set  it  on  a  slow  fire  till  the 
water  has  boiled  away,  and  the  Onions  have  got  a 
little  browned,  —  then  add  half  a  pint  of  good  Broth*, 


•  If  you  have  no  Broth,  —  put  in  half  a  pint  of  water,  tliickcn  it  as  in  the 
above  receipt,  and  just  before  you  give  it  liie  last  boil  up,  add  to  it  a  large 
spoonful  of  Mushroom  Catsup,  and,  if  you  like,  the  same  quantity  of  Port 


MADE   DISHES,  &C.  409 

•and  boil  the  Onions  till  they  are  tender;  strain  the 
Broth  from  them,  and  chop  them  very  fine;  thicken 
the  Broth  with  Flour  and  Butter,  and  season  it  with 
Mushro^^m  Catsup,  and  pepper  and  salt;  put  the 
Onion  i  Uo  it,  and  let  it  boil  gently  for  five  minutes, 
and  pour  it  over  a  Broiled  Rump  Steak.  If,  instead 
of  Brot .,  you  use  good  Beef  Gravy,  it  will  be  super- 
lative. 

***  dtexved  Cucumber  (No.  135),  is  another  agreeable 
accompo'/ment  to  Ruynp  Steaks. 

ALAMODE  BEEF,  or  VEAL.  —  (No.  502.) 
In  the  hundred  and  eighty  volumes  on  Cookery,  (see 
page  24  of  this  work,)  we  patiently  pioneered  through, 
before  we  encountered  the  tremendous  labour  and  ex- 
pense Qi  proving  the  Receipts  of  our  predecessors, — 
and  set  about  recording  these  results  of  our  own  Expe- 
riments, —  we  could  not  find  one  Receipt  that  approxi- 
mated tc  my  thing  like  an  accurate  description  of  the 
way  in  whioli  this  excellent  dish  is  actually  dressed  in  the 
best  Alain' :.de  Beef  Shops  ;  —  from  whence,  of  course, 
it  was  iu'possible  to  obtain  any  information :  —  how- 
ever, after  ail,  the  whole  of  the  secret  seems  to  be  the 
thickenmg  the  gravy  of  Beef  that  has  been  very 
doxuly*  ste^'^ed,  and  flavouring  it  with  Bay  leaves  and 
Allspice. 

Take  about  eleven  pounds  of  the  Mouse-Buttock, — or 
Clod  of  Beef. — or  a  Blade  Bone, — or  the  Sticking  piece, 
or  the  like  weight  of  the  Breast  of  Veal ;  cut  it  into 
pieces  of  three  or  four  ounces  each ;  put  two  or  three 
ounces  of  B'l^ef  drippings,  and  a  couple  of  large  Onions, 
into  a  large  deep  stewpan ;  as  soon  as  it  is  quite  hot, 


*  "  It  mast  be  allowed  to  muse  gently  for  several  boms,  inaccessible  to 
tbe  ambient  air,  and  on  the  even  and  persevering  heal  of  charcoal  in  the 
furnace  or  stovt.  After  having  lulled  itself  in  its  own  exudations,  and  the 
dissolution  of  its  :.i  xiliaries,  it  may  appear  at  table  with  a  powerful  claim  to 
approbation."— XiuELLA  Cibaria,  p.  47. 
T 


410  MADE  DISHES,  &C. 

flour  the  Meat,  put  it  into  the  stewpan,  keep  stirring 
it  with  a  wooden  spoon  ;  when  it  has  been  on  about 
ten  minutes,  dredge  it  with  flour,  and  keep  doing  so 
till  you  have  stirred  in  as  much  as  you  think  will 
thicken  it,  then  cover  it  with  boiling-  water,  (it  will 
take  about  a  gallon,)  adding  it  by  degrees  and  stirring 
it  together ;  skim  it  when  it  boils,  and  then  put  in 
one  drachm  of  ground  Black  Pepper,  two  of  Allspice, 
and  four  Bay  leaves  ;  set  the  pan  by  the  side  of  the 
tire,  or  at  a  distance  over  it,  and  let  it  stew  lery  alowly 
for  al)out  three  hours;  when  you  find  the  meat  suffi- 
ciently tender,  put  it  into  a  tureen,  and  it  is  ready 
for  table. 

It  is  customary  to  send  up  with  it  a  nice  Sala^  ; 
see  (No.  372  ) 

*«•  Tu  the  above  nminj  Cooks  add  Cn  am pi onions  ; 
hut  as  these  arc  almost  alicays  decai/cd,  and  ojten  of  dele- 
terious quality,  they  are  better  left  out,  —  and  indeed  the 
Bay  Lr, aves  det,erve  the  i>ame  jirohihition. 

Obs.  —  Here  is  a  savoury  and  substantial  meal, 
almost  as  cheap  as  the  Egg-Broth  of  the  Miser, — who 
fed  his  Valet  with  the  water  in  which  his  Egg  was 
boiled,  —  or  as  the  '*  Potage  a  la  I'ierre,  a  la  Soldat*,'* 
mentioned  by  Giles  Rose  in  the  4th  page  of  his  dedi- 
cation of  the  *'  TEllFECT  SCHOOL  OF  INSTRUCTION 
FOR   THE    OFFICERS    OF     THE     MOUTH,"  1 8mO.  LoudoU, 

1682.  "  Two  Soldiers  were  minded  to  have  a  Soup; 
the  first  of  them  coming  into  a  house,  and  asking  for 
all  tilings  necessary  for  the  making  of  one,  was  as  soon 
told  that  he  could  have  none  of  those  things  there, 
whereupon    he  went   away ;  —  the  other,    coming    in 


•  '"  C'lSf  la  Soupe,'  says  one  of  the  best  of  proverbs,  *  qui  fait  le  Soldat.' 
'  It  is  Iht  Soup  that  makes  the  SoUlier.'  I.xcellciU  as  om  troops  are  in  the 
titid,  iheie  cannot  be  a  more  unqiKhtionable  fact,  than  their  immense  infe- 
riority to  the  French  in  the  business  of  Cookeiy.  J  I.e  En^lith  soirlier  lay* 
his  piece  of  ration  beef  at  once  on  tiie  coals,  by  wliicli  means,  the  one  and 
the  belter  half  is  lost,  —  and  the  other  burnt  to  a  cinder.  Whereas  six 
French  troopers  fling  their  messes  into  the  same  pot,  and  extract  a  delicioiii 
Isoap,  ten  times  moie  nutritious  than  the  simple  l<bti  could  ever  be." — 
bLACKwoou's  Ldinbur^h  Magazine,  vol.  vii.  p.  66a. 


MADE  DISHES,  &C.  411 

with  a  Stone  in  his  knapsack,  asked  only  for  a  Pot  to 
boil  his  stone  in,  that  he  might  make  a  dish  of  broth 
of  it  for  his  Supper,  which  was  quickly  granted  him  ; 
when  the  Stone  had  boiled  a  little  while,  he  asked  for 
a  small  piece  of  Meat  or  Bacon,  and  a  few  Herbs  and 
Roots,  &c.  just  merely  to  give  it  a  bit  of  a  flavour;  till, 
by  little  and  little,  he  got  all  things  requisite,  and  so 
made  an  excellent  Pottage  of  his  Stone." — See  0b6.  to 
(No.  493.) 

s.  d. 
Onions,  Pepper,  Allspice,  and  Bay  leaves. . . .  0  3 
11  pounds  of  tiiick  flanlc  Beef 7    4 

Made  Seven  Quarts .....7    7 

i.  e.  Thirteen  Pence  per  Quart. 

To  Pot  Beef,  —  Veal,  —  Game,  or  Poultry,  &c. 
(No.  503.) 

Take  three  pounds  of  lean  Gravy  Beef,  rub  it  well 
with  an  ounce  of  Saltpetre,  and  then  a  handful  of 
common  Salt;  let  it  lie  in  Salt  about  three  days, 
rubbing  it  well  each  day,  then  put  it  into  an  earthen 
pan,  or  stone  jar  that  will  just  hold  it,  cover  it  with 
the  skin  and  fat  that  you  cut  off,  and  pour  in  half  a 
pint  of  water;  cover  it  close  with  paste,  and  set  it  in  a 
very  slow  oven  for  about  four  hours ;  —  or  prepare  it  as 
directed  in  (No.  496.) 

When  it  comes  from  the  Oven,  drain  the  gravy  from 
it  into  a  basin,  pick  out  the  gristles  and  the  skins, 
mince  it  fine,  moisten  it  with  a  little  of  the  Gravy  you 
poured  from  the  Meat,  which  is  a  very  strong  Cunsommt 
(but  rather  salt),  and  it  will  make  excellent  Pease 
Soup,  or  Browning,  see  (No.  322),  pound  the  meat 
patiently  and  thoroughly  in  a  mortar  with  some  fresh 
Butter*,  till  it  is  a  fine  paste,  (to  make  Potted  Meat 

•  Tlie  less  Gravy  or  Butter,  and  the  more  beating,  the  hetter  wiil  be 
your  Potted  Beef,  if  you  wish  it  to  keep  ;  —  if  for  immediate  eating,  you  may 
put  in  a  larger  proportion  of  gravy  or  butter,  as  the  meat  will  pound  easier, 
3ud  look  and  taste  more  mellow. 

t2 


412  MADE    DlSrtES,  &C. 

smooth  —  there  is  nothin<^  equal  to  plenty  of  Elbow 
grease)  —  seasoning  it  (by  degrees  as  you  are  beating 
it)  with  a  little  Black  Pepper  and  Allspice, — or  Cloves 
pounded, —  or  Mace,  —  or  grated  Nutmeg. 

Put  it  in  pots,  press  it  down  as  close  as  possible, 
and  cover  it  a  quarter  of  an  inch  thick  with  Clarified 
Butter;  to  prepare  which,  see  receipt  (No.  259.)  Keep 
it  in  a  dry  place. 

Ohs.  —  You  may  mince  a  little  Ham  or  Bacon,  —  or 
an  Anchovy,  —  Sweet  or  Savoury  Herbs,  —  or  a  Shal- 
lot, and  a  little  Tarra2:on, —  Chervil,  —  or  Burnet,  (!vc., 
and  pound  them  with  the  Meat,  with  a  glass  of  Wine, 
or  some  Mustard,  or  Torcemeat  (No.  37(),  or  378,  and 
399*,  &€.) ;  if  you  wish  to  have  it  Dcvi/ish  savoury, 
add  Ragout  Pomlcr  (No.  457),  C///T//  Ponder  (No.  455), 
or  Zest  (No.  255),  and  moisten  it  with  Mushroom 
Catsup  (No.  439),  or  Essence  of  Anclioxy  (No.  433),  or 
Tincture  of  Allspice  (No.  413),  or  Essence  of  Turtle 
(No.  343*") 

Or,  —  (No.  503*.) 

it  is  a  very  agreeable  and  economical  way  of  using 
the  remains  of  Game,  or  Poultry,  or  a  large  joint  of 
fjither  roasted  or  boiled  Beef,  Veal,  Ham,  or  Tongue, 
<l'c.  to  mince  it,  with  some  of  the  Fat,  (or  moisten  it 
with  a  little  Butter,  or  (No.  439),  &c.)  and  beat  it 
in  a  mortar  with  the  seasoning,  &c.,  as  in  the  former 
Receipt. 

When  either  the  Teeth  or  Stomach  are  extremely 
feeble,  especial  care  must  be  taken  to  keep  Meat  till  it 
is  tender  —  before  it  is  cooked  —  or  call  in  the  aid  of 
those  excellent  helps  to  bad  teeth  —  the  Pestle  and 
Mortar.— AnA  sec  (Nos.  10,  18,  87,  89,  175,  178; 
from  185  to  250,  502,  542  —  and  especially  503.) 
Or  dress  in  the  usual  w^ay  whatever  is  best  liked  — 
mince  it,  put  it  into  a  mortar,  and  pound  it  with  a  little 
Broth  or  melted  Butter, — Vegetable, —  Herb,  —  Spice, 


MADE   DISHES,  &C.  413 

—  Zest,  (No.  255),  &c.,  according  to  the  taste,  &c.  of 
the  Eater.  The  business  of  the  Stomach  is  thus  very 
materially  facilitated. 

"  Flesh  in  small  quantities,  bruised  to  a  pulp^  may 
be  very  advantageously  used  in  fevers  attended'  with 
debility."  —  Darwin's  Zoonomia,  vol.  ii.  p.  400. 

"  Mincing  or  Founding  Meat — saveth  the  grinding  of 
the  Teeth ;  and  therefore  (no  doubt)  is  more  nourishing, 
especially  in  Age,  —  or  to  them  that  have  weak  teeth  ; 
but  butter  is  not  proper  for  weak  bodies,  —  and  there- 
fore, moisten  it  in  pounding  with  a  little  Claret  wine, 
and  a  very  little  Cinnamon  or  Nutmeg." — Lord  Bacon  ; 
Natural  History,  Century  I.  54. 

Obs.  —  Meat  that  has  been  boiled  down  for  Gravies, 
&c.  see  (No.  185*),  and  (No.  252),  (which  has  here- 
tofore been  considered  the  perquisite  of  the  Cat),  and 
is  completely  drained  of  all  its  succulence,  beat  in  a 
mortar  with  Salt,  and  a  little  ground  Black  Pepper 
and  Allspice,  as  directed  in  the  foregoing  Receipt, 
and  it  will  make  as  good  Potted  Beef,  as  Meat  that 
has  been  baked  till  its  moisture  is  entirely  extracted, 
which  it  must  be,  or  it  will  not  keep  two  days. 

Mem.  —  Meat  that  has  not  been  previously  salted, 
will  not  keep  so  long  as  that  which  has. 

Sandwiches,  —  (No.  504.) 
Properly  prepared,  are  an  elegant  and  convenient 
Luncheon  or  Supper,  —  but  have  got  out  of  Fashion  — 
from  the  bad  manner  in  which  they  are  commonly 
made :  to  cut  the  Bread  neatly  with  a  sharp  knife, 
seems  to  be  considered  the  only  essential,  and  the 
lining  is  composed  of  any  ofFal  odds  and  ends  —  that 
cannot  be  sent  to  table  in  any  other  form. 

Whatever  is  used  must  be  carefully  trimmed  from 
every  bit  of  Skin,  Gristle,  &c. — and  nothing  introduced 
but  what  you  are  absolutely  certain  will  be  acceptable 
to  the  Mouth. 


414 


MADE   DISHES,  &C. 


Materials  for  making  Sandwichf.s. 


Cold  Meal,  or  PoaUry. 

Potted  diiio  (No.  503.) 

Savoury  ditto  (No.  496.) 

Ditto  Lobster  (No.  178),  or  Shrimp 

(No.  175.) 
Ditto  Cheese  ("No.  54C.) 
Ditto,  or  grated  Mam  (No.  500.) 
Ditto,  or  ;;raled   I  oiigue. 
Anchovy  (Ni^s.  434  and  435.) 


German  Sansafiie. 

Cold  Pork,  ditto  (No.  87.) 

llaid    Fi;s.s    p.-iindcd    with    a    lift!? 

Butter  and    C  hieoe 
Gratfd    n,«m.  or  lU.t. 
\arioiis  Forcemeats,  &c.  (No.  .373., 

&c. 
Curr>  Powder, Zest,  Mustard,  Pepper 

and  S.ili,  are  a<ldcd  occasioualiy. 


Meat  Cakes.  — {"So.  504*.) 

If  you  have  any  cold  Meat,  Game,  or  Poultry,  (if 
under-done  all  the  better),  mince  it  fine,  with  a  little 
fat  bacon  or  ham,  or  an  anchovy  ;  season  it  with  a 
little  popper  and  salt;  mix  well,  and  make  it  into  small 
cakes  three  inches  long-,  half  as  wide,  and  half  an  inch 
thick  :  fry  these  a  lip;lit  brown,  and  serve  them  with 
good  j^ravy ;  or  put  it  into  a  mould  and  boil  or  bake  it. 

N.B.  Bread  crumbs,  hard  yolks  of  F.ggs,  Onions, 
Sweet  herbs.  Savoury  Spices,  Zest,  or  Curry  Powder, 
or  any  of  the  Forcemeats,  see  (No.  373  to  382.) 

Fish  Cakes  for  Maigrc  Days,  may  be  made  in  like 
manner. 
Bubble  and  Squeak,  or  fried  Beef  and  Cabbage .—  (No.  505. 

"  When  'mid't  the  frying  Pan.  in  accents  savage. 
The  Beef  so  surly,  quarrels  with  the  Cabbage." 


D  V.   Minor. 


MADE   DISHES,  &C.  415 

For  this,  as  for  a  Hash,  select  those  parts  of  the 
Joint  that  have  been  least  done; — it  is  generalU'  made 
with  slices  of  cold  boiled  salted  Beef,  sprinkled  with  a 
little  Pepper,  and  just  lightly  browned  with  a  bit  of 
Butter  in  a  fryingpan  :  if  it  is  fried  too  imich  it  will  be 
hard. 

Boil  a  Cabbage,  squeeze  it  quite  dry,  and  chop  it 
small;  take  the  Beef  out  of  the  frying-pan,  and  lay  the 
Cabbage  in  it ;  sprinkle  a  little  pepper  and  salt  over 
it ;  keep  the  pan  moving  over  the  fire  for  a  few  minutes ; 
lay  the  Cabbage  in  the  middle  of  a  dish,  and  the  Meat 
round  it. 

For  Sauce,  see  (No.  356),  or  (No.  328.) 

Hashed  Beef  and  Roast  Beef  Bones  Broiled.  —  (No.  506.) 

To  hash  Beef,  see  Receipt  (Nos.  484,  5,  and  6), 
<Nos.  360,  484,  and  486.) 

The  best  part  to  hash  is  the  Fillet  or  Inside  of  the 
Sirloin,  and  the  good  housewife  will  always  endeavour 
to  preserve  it  entire  for  this  purpose.  See  Obs.  to 
(No.  19),  and  Mock  Hare  (No.  67*.) 

Roast  Beef  Bones  furnish  a  very  relishing  Luncheon, 
or  Supper,  prepared  in  the  following  manner,  with 
Poached  Eggs  (No.  546),  or  Fried  Eggs  (No.  545), 
or  Mashed  Potatoes  (No.  106),  as  accompaniments. 

Divide  the  Bones,  leaving  good  pickings  of  meat